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    History Repeats Itself

    By: Kenneth Brown


    I truly believe history repeats itself and when it does, it repeats itself in a cycle, not a circle. Therefore, when it repeats itself it does so in a different form and on a different level. As a result of histories, repetitive nature Native Americans and African Americans have been the most lied about people in the American population.

    Since it's birth, in 1776, America has been considered, by some, as a world leader in freedom, liberty, and equality. America's freedom, liberty, and equality seem to be a direct result of its Christian influence that all men are created equal by God. If this is true, that all men are created equal by God, then why, when it comes to Native Americans and African Americans do freedom, liberty, and equality get set aside.

    When it came to Native Americans, their land has been taken and swindled from them. In 1804 Chief Black Hawk, of the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, had unknowingly signed away his village along with 50 million acres of tribal land. He was led to believe the Europeans only wanted to hunt on this land. However, it became clear the European settlers would claim this land as their own.

    After 1812 Black Hawk watched settlers take over large portions of Illinois. Every year, when Black Hawk returned from the winter hunt he found Indian housing burned to the ground, cornfields fenced in and in cemeteries plowed over. Black Hawk complained to his Indian Agents at Rock Island only to be told that his tribe should move across the Mississippi River. In early 1829, Black Hawk returned from a hunt and found a white family living on the very spot where he lived.

    In 1830 President Andrew Jackson ended the practice of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. Jackson wanted all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River moved to reservations in the Indian territory west of the Mississippi River, now Oklahoma, where their laws would not be subjected to state laws. At Jackson's request, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian removal bill and he signed it into law on May 30, 1830. The Indian removal act gave the federal government the power to relocate Native Americans, living in the east to the land west of the Mississippi River.

    The Aquinnah tribe, in Massachusetts, announced plans in 2013 to open a casino on their reservation. The state sued to prevent this tribe from opening the casino. The state argued that the tribe gave up some of his rights in the 1983 land settlement. This tribe was forced to live on a reservation and yet was unable to control the activities on that reservation due to a land agreement they were forced to sign.

    In 2017, the Standing Rock and Cheyenne River Sioux tribe challenged President Trumps decision to approve the construction of the last piece of the Dakota Access pipeline. However, US district judge James Walsenburg ruled the pipeline construction can continue. The tribe argued that President Trump's reversal of President Obama administration’s denying the pipeline construction to continue on the sacred tribal ground was unlawful because Trump had been an investor in the pipeline company and its CEO donated to his presidential campaign.

    When it comes to African-Americans, Americans and American institutions have found a new way to profit from their second class status. Convict leasing in the United States began during the Reconstruction Period from1865 to 1877 after the end of the Civil War. Farmers and businessmen needed workers to do their work to replace the labor force that slaves once held. Some southern legislatures passed “Black Codes” to restrict the free movement of blacks and force them into employment with whites. If convicted of vagrancy blacks could be imprisoned and they also receive sentences for a variety of petty offenses. Since freed slaves found it difficult to obtain proper identification, any ex-slave could have been arrested and charged with vagrancy. States began to lease convict labor to the plantations and other facilities seeking labor at little to no cost. This provided states with a new source of revenue during years when they were financially strapped and whites profited by the use of forced labor at below market rates.

    The constitutional basis for convict leasing is that the 1865 13th Amendment while abolishing slavery and involuntary servitude generally, permits it as a punishment for crime. Alabama began convict leasing in 1876 and the practice lasted until 1928. This lucrative practice created incentives for states and counties to convict African-Americans and as a result, the prison populations in the South became predominately African-Americans following the Civil War.

    Today the private prison system seems to have replaced convict leasing programs as a means to make a profit. The first modern private prison business started in 1984 when the Corrections Corporation of America was awarded a contract to take over prisoner housing in Hamilton County Tennessee. This marked the first time that any government in the country contracted out the complete operation of the jail to a private operator the following year the Correction Corporation gained further public attention when it unsuccessfully tried to take over the entire state prison system of Tennessee for $200 million. In the past 20 years, the Correction Corporation has seen its profits increase by more than 500% and the prison industry itself make $5 billion in revenue in 2011.

    More than 40% of prison inmates in the United States identifies as African-American despite making up only 13% of the United States population. A recent study by Christopher Petrella, a doctoral candidate at U.C. Berkeley, finds that the majority of these inmates are more likely to serve time in a private prison than their white counterparts. Why? Because private prisons seek the least expensive prisoner to generate the highest possible profit.

    Petrella explains why this is significant to black prisoners. “Based on historical sentencing patterns, if you are a prisoner today, and you are over 50 years old, there is a greater likelihood that you are white,” says Petrella. “If you are under 50 years old — particularly if you’re closer to 30 years old — you’re more likely to be a person of color.” He references a 2012 ACLU report which found that it costs $68,270 to support a prisoner age 50 or older compared with $34,135 per year to house a prisoner under 50 years of age.

    Essentially, the younger the prisoner, the cheaper they are to manage. Petrella explains that “up until the mid-1960s or so, two-thirds of the U.S. prison population was what the Census Bureau would consider non-Hispanic white.” White prisoners, therefore, account for much of today’s aging prison population and its increasing health care costs. Housing a medically expensive inmate hurts a private prisons’ return on investment. Private prisons account for this snag by including a clause in their contract that relieves them from housing costlier inmates. This clause allows them to avoid housing older white prisoners because they cost more. Therefore, private prisons can pick and choose the prisoners they want. In this case, they are more likely to chose African American and Latino prisoners.

    The shift in the incarceration rate among people of color has been well documented with overwhelming evidence suggesting the War on Drugs has had a negative impact on people of color. America’s drug policies have become an asset to private prison companies. With far more prisoners than prison cells, private prisons can count on large amounts of mostly black and Latino, to fill their beds. More prisoners equal more profits.

    Petrella looked at nine states and found that in four of them, California, Georgia, Oklahoma and Texas people of color are represented in private prisons at least ten percentage points greater than in state-run facilities. Because jailing individuals is a public cost, it is no surprise that U.S. and state governments have chosen to outsource as an answer to prison overcrowding. But this study brings up another point. Cutting costs and generating revenue at the expense of people of color is a tradition deeply woven into the fabric of American history. Like slavery and convict leasing.

    “One of the reasons I think the study’s important,” Petrella said, “is that it continues to show how laws and even contracts that seem to be race-neutral, continue to have a negative impact on communities of color.” In other words, the racism in our nation's drug policies maintains full-service systems of racism. And when laws allow this to continue they also permit injustice and inequality. Where does this leave us? Private prisons have been marketed as the necessary supplement to save taxpayer dollars. It is a system designed by the rich and for the rich.

    A system that clearly relies on the incarceration of African American and Latino people for its survival. Much like the slavery and convict leasing. Considering the way racism operates in everyday decisions and actions, it seems the only thing to do is to try to fix it; but when it comes to making money, nothing stands in the way of capitalism. According to the Wall street Journal, banks have noticed the profitability of private prisons and are now some of its biggest investors. Wells Fargo has invested over $100 million. Other major investors include Bank of America, Fidelity Investments, and General Electric, just to name a few. As a result of these investments, Correction Corporation’s stock went from one dollar a share in 2000 to $34.34 in 2013.

    Where will history repeat itself next?

    brown6207@bellsouth.net




    New Study Reveals What The American Dream Looks Like Today





    What exactly is the American Dream today? A recent study with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and IKEA shows that people are no longer focusing on material possessions, but rather looking for quality of life and the freedom to simply do as they please.

    It’s also interesting to note that in light of the social and income inequality issues facing the country that 63% of Americans believe being treated equally regardless of one’s background and the freedom to live as they choose will define the American dream for future generations.

  • 74% of people believe the American Dream itself is as diverse as the people in America

  • 76% of Americans believe it’s a journey, not an end goal

  • 57% said the American Dream is more about quality of life rather than material possessions

  • Respondents said the American Dream today is most about having the freedom to live life on their own terms

  • 80% of Americans still believe they have the same or a better chance of fulfilling the dream than other Americans.


  • http://www.digitalnewsagency.com/stories/10307-americans-transition-from-the-white-picket-fence-and-say-the-new-american-dream-is-having-the-freedom-to-live-life-on-your-own-terms


    ooOoo


    Disclaimer:
    The articles on this website are provided as a community service for information purposes only. BlackRefer.com does not accept any responsibility or liability for the use or misuse of the above article content. Use this information with caution and at your own risk.

    No Implied Endorsement:
    BlackRefer.com does not endorse or recommend any article on this site or any product, service or information found within said articles. The views and opinions of the authors who have submitted articles to BlackRefer.com belong to them alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of BlackRefer.com. Resources/links that may be included in said articles are only suggested as sources for the reader to explore but we can't confirm or take responsibility for it's accurateness, timeliness, or completeness.






    Change


    Hello Sir/Ma'am,

    My name is Cameron DeAngelo Stevens, I am a 28 year old Black Male. I am a proud United States Naval Veteran and a current graphic and web design student at the Art Institute of Tampa.

    I am writing this letter, because I am very hurt, angered, and confused about the current state of humanity in the United States of America. Over the past few days, I have watched on the news as not only Black men have been murdered ON CAMERA, but many others of non African decent have been murdered by "officers of the law". Officers that were hired to protect, no not hired, but, officers who swore an oath to protect the very people who's lives they have taken.

    The intent of this letter is not to recount the countless saddening events of the past week, or even the past year, but to reach out a hand ask for help from those around me that may share in my grief. I do not have children of my own, but I cannot imagine what it must feel like to lose someone so dear to your heart. Though I do not have children, I do have a sister (14) who today, I had to call and speak to as if she were an adult. I should not have to tell my sister that she has to make adult decisions when her biggest worry should be passing a math test, I should not have to tell my sister that she has to stay calm while an officer of the law may be freaking out because of her skin color (something she did not have the privilege to choose), I SHOULD NOT have to tell my sister that SHE, a 14 year old little girl, because of a choice she herself could not make, MAY NOT MAKE IT HOME TONIGHT if she comes in contact with someone who is SUPPOSED to protect her life at all cost chooses instead to take the very life that they have sworn to protect, simply because of her color.

    My request is simply this: I would like to start a not for profit organization geared towards a simple thing, CHANGE.....

    It takes only one voice to change and apparently, my own voice has more power than I originally thought. Over the past few days, I have been consistently using Social Media to post information that I hoped would open others eyes to injustice not only in the black community, but in other race communities as well. This is not appreciated by many and on a consistent basis, my post are being deleted or taken down by these social media outlets. My posts are not talk of violence, because I believe that vengeance and violence WILL ONLY BRING MORE VIOLENCE. I am calling for unity among all, not just blacks, but again, there are some who would like to silence a call to cease the senseless violence. I would like to use my voice while I have the attention of an audience who wants for the exact same thing I would like to strive for. Before the violence becomes any worse, I would like to gather others to build an initiative for change.

    As I said before, I am a college student and do not have the financial capability to accomplish my goal, I would ask that if possible, you would help by donating toward changing the today and the future of how American people simply see and act toward other people. Not all black people are bad and not all cops are corrupt.

    If this request sounds naïve then I would like to apologize, but I must do something......

    Very Respectfully,
    Cameron D. Stevens
    c.stevens@supasola.com


    ooOoo


    Disclaimer:
    The articles on this website are provided as a community service for information purposes only. BlackRefer.com does not accept any responsibility or liability for the use or misuse of the above article content. Use this information with caution and at your own risk.

    No Implied Endorsement:
    BlackRefer.com does not endorse or recommend any article on this site or any product, service or information found within said articles. The views and opinions of the authors who have submitted articles to BlackRefer.com belong to them alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of BlackRefer.com. Resources/links that may be included in said articles are only suggested as sources for the reader to explore but we can't confirm or take responsibility for it's accurateness, timeliness, or completeness.






    American Dream Still Alive, But...



    CREDIT: WGBH/Meredith Nierman


    A majority of U.S. residents believe the American middle class is just a vestige of the past, according to an Exclusive Point Taken-Marist Poll, commissioned by WGBH Boston for its new late-night, multi-platform PBS debate series Point Taken. But, despite a pessimistic view about the viability of the American middle class, most adults nationally think the American Dream is attainable for themselves, 69%. Although fewer, many think it is in reach for other Americans, 58%, as well.

    This is the first national survey being conducted by The Marist Poll in advance of every week’s Point Taken episode. The series, hosted by Carlos Watson, Emmy Award winning journalist and OZY Media co-founder and CEO, premieres April 5, 2016 11pm ET (check local listings) and streams live on pbs.org/pointtaken.

    When thinking back to their childhood, nearly three in four Americans, 72%, say they are better off than their parents. Still, a notable 20% report they are not doing as well as their elders.

    Americans are slightly less optimistic about their children’s future. While 58% think their children will be better off than they are now, about one-third, 33%, say their children will be in a worse position. The picture becomes bleaker when the focus shifts to the future of America’s youth, in general. Nearly half of residents, 48%, believe most children in the United States will grow up to be worse off than their parents while 43% say children, overall, will be better off.

    Racial differences exist. Non-white Americans are more likely to think the American Dream is alive and that, when thinking about their childhood, they are better off than their parents. People of color are also more likely than white Americans to report that, both, their children and most of the nation’s children, in general, will be better off in the future. Here, the differences are marked. 72% of non-white residents, compared with 49% of whites, say their children will be in a better situation than they are currently. Looking at America’s youth, 54% of nonwhites say children, in general, will be better off, compared with 35% of white residents who have this opinion.

    “This national poll highlights the squeeze of the middle class,” says Dr. Lee M. Miringoff, Director of The Marist College Institute for Public Opinion. “But, you can’t focus on Americans’ views about the status of the American Dream without talking about racial differences.”

    “These results create a framework for Point Taken’s digital dialogue and televised debate – and we hope audiences will explore more online and join the conversation,” says Denise Dilanni, series creator and Senior Executive-in-Charge.

    As alluded to earlier, a majority of Americans, 53%, believe the middle class is dead. There are now only those who are struggling and those who are not. 44% disagree and believe a strong middle class remains in the United States. Racial differences are seen here, as well. When it comes to the state of the nation’s middle class, a majority of non-whites, 52%, think the middle class is still strong while only 40% of whites agree.

    But, do Americans perceive their economic situation to be a struggle? While more than six in ten residents nationally report they or their families do not struggle to get a good job or raise in pay, 61%, or to meet their monthly bills and expenses, 64%, more than one in three says they have trouble earning a living wage, 38%, or making ends meet, 34%. 51% say they rarely, if ever, have concern about meeting their monthly expenses while 49% worry, at least, part of the time.

    Who worries more about family finances? Residents who earn less than $50,000, Democrats, women, or those without a college education are more likely to express concern than their counterparts.

    Education matters here. College graduates, 74%, are more likely than non-college graduates, 59%, to report that they do not struggle to meet their monthly expenses. College graduates, 71%, are also more likely than those who have not graduated from college, 56%, to say they do not struggle to find a good paying job. Not surprisingly, then, college graduates, 62%, express little to no worry about meeting their monthly expenses while, in contrast, a majority of those without a college degree, 54%, are concerned about making ends meet at least some of the time.

    Looking at the jobs picture in the United States, 57% of Americans say it is difficult to find a job that supports a family. 39% have the opposite view and report the problem is not the lack of jobs but the lack of work ethic. When it comes to the availability of jobs for America’s young people, 50% of residents think entry level jobs exist, but young people don’t want to work their way up. 45% believe good entry level jobs are just not available for America’s youth.

    For more on Point Taken:
    pbs.org/pointtaken
    #pointtakenPBS

    For more on The Marist Poll:
    Maristpoll.marist.edu
    #MaristPoll

    About The Marist Poll
    Founded in 1978, The Marist College Institute for Public Opinion (MIPO) is a survey research center at Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York. The Marist Poll has conducted independent research on public priorities, elections, and a wide variety of social issues. Through the regular public release of surveys, MIPO has built a legacy of independence, reliability, and accuracy. Its results are featured in print and electronic media throughout the world.

    About WGBH Boston
    WGBH Boston is America’s preeminent public broadcaster and the largest producer of PBS content for TV and the Web, including Frontline, Nova, American Experience, Masterpiece, Antiques Roadshow, Arthur, Curious George and more than a dozen other primetime, lifestyle, and children’s series. WGBH also is a major supplier of programming for public radio, and oversees Public Radio International (PRI). As a leader in educational multimedia for the classroom, WGBH supplies content to PBS LearningMedia, a national broadband service for teachers and students. WGBH also is a pioneer in technologies and services that make media accessible to those with hearing or visual impairments. WGBH has been recognized with hundreds of honors. More info at www.wgbh.org.


    ooOoo


    Disclaimer:
    The articles on this website are provided as a community service for information purposes only. BlackRefer.com does not accept any responsibility or liability for the use or misuse of the above article content. Use this information with caution and at your own risk.

    No Implied Endorsement:
    BlackRefer.com does not endorse or recommend any article on this site or any product, service or information found within said articles. The views and opinions of the authors who have submitted articles to BlackRefer.com belong to them alone and do not necessarily reflect the views of BlackRefer.com. Resources/links that may be included in said articles are only suggested as sources for the reader to explore but we can't confirm or take responsibility for it's accurateness, timeliness, or completeness.




AMERICAN
   

  1. American Tradition of Multiculturalism...
    People talk a lot about “multiculturalism,” whether to praise it or condemn it. But standing alone, the concept is too vague to be supported or opposed.

  2. America's Tipping Point...
    While the U.S. Census estimates America's whites will become a minority in 2043 - making the country majority-minority - a group says that future is already here.

  3. A Multicultural Society - Boundless...
    In the United States, continuous mass immigration has been a feature of economy and society since the first half of the 19th century.

  4. The 17 Most American Things You Can Buy At Walmart...
    The rich celebs boycotting the store are “too enlightened to let their poor neighbors pay low prices.” But the real question remains: What are these “poor neighbors” buying at Walmart, anyway? Is it good for them? Is it good for America?

  5. 4th Of July Special...
    4th Of July Special: Here are the 76 Most American Things Ever

  6. Great Things About America - Fortune...
    It’s time for a breather, America. Fire up the grill, ice down the drinks, and pop open that patio umbrella. Health care, the oil spill, Afghanistan, China, Elena Kagan and financial reform will all be waiting.

  7. American Stuff...
    Welcome to American Stuff. We sell unique American gift bags, boxes & tins for all occasions including Birthdays, Valentines, Easter, Graduation, Mothers day, Fathers day, Halloween, thank you & Christmas. We also offer wedding favours & corporate gifts at a budget to suit you.

  8. Great American Things - Esquire...
    Knives, shirts, oysters, and thirty-nine more uniquely American products (and other things). Go to our store at madecollection.com/esquire to buy (most of) them right now.

  9. 'Doing some American stuff...
    Citizens provide armed security at recruiting station.

  10. The Celebration of American STUFF...
    Thanksgiving is an American tradition that is especially meaningful for the Christian because it gives us an opportunity to change our focus from our prosperity to God.

  11. 21 Very American Things You'll Be Surprised You Didn't Know...
    If you’re an American, you definitely need to learn these things. Even if you’re not, they’re pretty cool.













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