Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1875:
Mary McLeod Bethune
"The First Lady of The Struggle” Mary McLeod Bethune was born in this year. Of course, she didn't know it at the time that she would go on to become one of the most widely respected African-American women of her day.
Bethune was born July 10, 1875, in a small log cabin near Mayesville, South Carolina, on a rice and cotton farm in Sumter County. She had sixteen brothers and sisters. Her parents were both former slaves.
At a very early age, Bethune had a strong desire to learn. There was a school set up by the Freedmen Bureau where she attended. She was the only one in her family to go to school, and every day upon returning home she would teach her family what she had learned.
In her teaching career, Bethune first worked briefly at her former elementary school in Sumter County. In 1896, she began teaching at Haines Normal and Industrial Institute in Augusta, Georgia. Bethune believed that for her race to prosper in this challenging and biased system, the black women should be trained specially. She once stated:
"I believe that the greatest hope for the development of my race lies in training our women thoroughly and practically."
Mary McLeod Bethune married Albertus Bethune in 1898 and later moved to Florida. Bethune became determined to start a school for girls. She rented a small house for $11.00 per month and made the desk from old crates, and writing pens from elderberry juice, and pencils from burned wood. She would also sell homemade dinners to earn money for the school. The school received donations of money, equipment, and labor from local black churches.
In was at this time when her school started growing, and she invited Booker T. Washington for a tour when he gave her valuable fundraising ideas. A donation of $62,000 by John D. Rockefeller helped, as did her friendship with the Roosevelts, beginning in the 1930s, which gave her entree to a progressive network.
In 1931, the Methodist Church helped the merger of her school with the boys' Cookman Institute, forming the Bethune-Cookman College, a coeducational junior college. Bethune became president.
Bethune had a close friend in the White House being Eleanor Roosevelt who many believe influenced her husband on positive Negro affairs in Bethune's behalf. At one dinner at the White House, Eleanor seated Bethune on the right-hand side of the President, which was symbolic as a place of honor.
Eleanor appreciated how this woman dedicated her life to the Negro cause through education. The Roosevelts would later appoint Bethune to prominent positions in the New Deal Cabinet that made the lives of blacks better. She had unprecedented access to the White House through her relationship with the First Lady.
Bethune also understood the importance of appearing weak in some cases. One fellow cabinet members made the following comment about her:
"She had the most marvelous gift of effecting feminine helplessness in order to attain her aims with masculine ruthlessness".
Wow, awesome Mary!
Bethune was a Republican who changed her party allegiance because of Franklin Roosevelt. She had a lot of clout in the black community and many trusted and followed her choice. Roosevelt was smart about starting a new "Black Cabinet" under the New Deal arrangement.
Bethune carried a walking cane, not because she needed it but because it gave her a certain swagger. She was a really remarkable person. Folks used to call her Mama Bethune, and everyone felt close to her. Don't let her find drunken blacks in public because she would surely chastise them. She wanted all to get the most out of our Country, not waste their lives away.
On May 18, 1955, Bethune died of a heart attack. What a void she had to leave. Gone but not forgotten Mama Bethune we award you with the 1875 Hamite Award, the year a new and inspirational leader was thrust onto the world scene. Thank you, Mary.
Mary McLeod Bethune at the White House. |
Mary McLeod Bethune with girls from the Literary and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls in Daytona.
The cabin where Mary McLeod Bethune was born and grew up in Mayesville, South Carolina.
Black History Month Tribute to Mary Mcleod Bethune. Learn about Mary Mcleod Bethune for kids!
Mary McLeod Bethune, "Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and others at the opening of|
Midway Hall, one of two residence halls built by the Public Buildings Administration of
FWA for Negro government girls. 1943
|How were blacks feeling in 1875?
Our country is still going through a depression, we all will be glad when it's over. Money is hard to come by, and most blacks are doing whatever it takes just to survive.
Jim Crow laws have always existed in the North against the free blacks and would vary from state to state, now Tennessee has enacted their Jim Crow laws this year. This is not gonna make it any easier for folks to find livelihood.
There is a scary feeling in the South with them taking control politically. We're so glad we still have Federal troops in the South to protect our 15th Amendment of the right to vote. The Democrats have successfully intimidated themselves into office. We don't know how long this situation will last, but we know it will end one day because of one simple fact, It ain't right. Right always wins in the end.
But we guess things are better here in American than other countries because many immigrants are arriving, so many in fact that these white people are getting scared. They just passed a law called the Page Act of 1875, also known as the Asian Exclusion Act, outlawing the importation of Asian contract laborers, any Asian woman who would engage in prostitution, and all people considered to be convicts in their countries.
On a lighter side, Jockey Oliver Lewis became the very first African-American to win the Kentucky Derby. He was always such a little fella; I'm glad he found success with that and goes to show you that good talent can come in all shapes, forms, and colors.
For the year 1875:
- Jockey Oliver Lewis was the very first African-American to win the Kentucky Derby.
- Bishop James Augustine Healy, of Portland, Maine was the first African-American Roman Catholic bishop.
Grown ass men shooting marbles at the beer hut
Octavius Valentine Catto
Oliver Lewis, winner of the first Kentucky Derby
| Sports in 1875 |
- Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.
By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, typically a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.
At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."
- The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.
- 1875 - Jockey Oliver Lewis rode in the very first Kentucky Derby on the winning horse Aristides. Lewis and Aristides took second place in the Belmont Stakes which is now the third race of the Triple Crown. 13 of the 15 riders in that first Kentucky Derby were African-Americans.
- Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Dr. William H. Councill, founder of Alabama A&M.
Provided courtesy of the Alabama A&M University Library photo #103-yr-1875
Education of Slaves
Knoxville College photo #104-yr-1875
| Education in 1875 |
- 1875 - In the Reconstruction era, with carpetbaggers, mission societies, along with The Freedmen’s Bureau opened 1,000 schools across the South for black children. Schooling was a high priority for the Freedmen, and the enrollments were high and enthusiastic.
- 1875 - School attendance on the rise for African-Americans.
- 1875 - William Hooper Councill became founder of Alabama A&M University, a public, historically black, land-grant university located in Normal, Alabama, United States.
- Knoxville College is a historically black liberal arts college in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States. Founded in 1875 by the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
"The Third-Term Panic", by Thomas Nast
originally published in Harper's Magazine 7 November 1874.
Blanche Kelso Bruce
| Political Scene in 1875 |
- 1875 - Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States (1869–77). As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. He implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson. Analysis: Ulysses S. Grant was a President that understood and enforced the U.S. Constitution. He lobbied for the 15th Amendment, giving blacks the right to vote. He was also a strong believer in Reconstruction Aid and Civil Rights to the black person, opposite of his predecessor, Andrew Johnson.
- March 1, 1875 - Congress enacts the Civil Rights Act of 1875 guaranteeing equal rights to African Americans in public accommodations and jury duty.
- 1875 The 44th Congress has eight black members.
- Blanche Kelso Bruce was a U.S. politician who represented Mississippi as a Republican in the U.S. Senate from1875 to 1881; of mixed race, he was the first elected black senator to serve a full term. Trivia: It appears that many of the masters during slavery days slept with the enemy sort of speak. Many would publicly show disgust for the black person, but behind closed doors, it was a different story in raping the slave women. Some white masters provided for their mixed children, and we would guess that most did not. Blanche Bruce was one of the lucky ones.
|African Americans in Office 1870–1876|
|State ||State Legislator ||U.S. Senators ||U.S. Congressmen|
|Alabama ||69 ||0 ||4|
|Arkansas ||8 ||0 ||0|
|Florida ||30 ||0 ||1|
|Georgia ||41 ||0 ||1|
|Louisiana ||87 ||0 ||1*|
|Mississippi ||112 ||2 ||1|
|North Carolina ||30 ||0 ||1|
|South Carolina ||190 ||0 ||6|
|Tennessee ||1 ||0 ||6|
|Texas ||19 ||0 ||0|
|Virginia ||46 ||0 ||0|
|Total ||633 ||2 ||15|
Clinton remembers 1875 race riots
| Race in 1875 |
- January 5, 1875 - President Grant sends federal troops to Vicksburg, Miss are sent to Vicksburg, Mississippi in January to protect African Americans attempting to vote and to allow the safe return of the African American sheriff who had been forced to flee the city.
- February 23, 1875 - Jim Crow laws are enacted in Tennessee. The North already had similar laws enacted, even before the Civil War.
- July 4, 1875 - White Democrats kill several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
| Employment for African Americans in 1875 |
What types of work did blacks do?
Can you imagine spending your entire life working from sunrise to sunset six days a week with no pay? That was the typical life of a slave, but after slavery blacks had been free to do just about anything they wanted, that is if they could find the work which was controlled by whites.
Some blacks went to the plantation to work as sharecroppers. Blacks were rented small lots by former slaveholder's to work the fields and would be paid a small sum.
Many went into the cities looking for employment. Blacks were given the lowest paying jobs such as unskilled and service labor. Men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotels workers.
African American women were mostly confined to domestic work employed as cooks, maids, and child nurses. Much more worked in hotels and a large number became laundresses.
Mary McLeod Bethune
| Famous Birthdays in 1875 |
- July 10, 1875 - Mary Jane McLeod Bethune, educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida.
- July 19, 1875 - Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar Nelson, American poet, journalist and political activist.
- August 15, 1875 - Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, was an English composer of Creole descent.
- November 3, 1875 - James E. Shepard was a pharmacist, civil servant and educator, the founder of what became the North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina.
- December 19, 1875 - Carter Godwin Woodson, was an African-American historian, author, journalist and the founder of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.
- 1875 - David Fagen was an African-American soldier who defected during the Philippine-American War. He acquired the rank of Captain in the Philippine Army.
| Famous Weddings in 1875 |
1875 - Thomas Nelson Johnson and Lucy Taylor were married.
Plantation scenarios were common in black minstrelsy, as shown here in this poster for Callender's Colored Minstrels.
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 1862–1864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
John Brown Song
Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield
Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels Top # 8 Facts
John Brown's Song
| Music in 1875 |
Musical Happenings in 1875:
- The 1870s was a decade where the only way to obtain music was on sheet music sold in stores. People would sit at the piano and sing.
- One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late 1860s and 1870s. The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels who played the Northeast around 1865. Sam Hague's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in 1866. In the 1870s, white entrepreneurs bought most of the successful black companies. Charles Callender obtained Sam Hague's troupe in 1872 and renamed it Callender's Georgia Minstrels. They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.
- Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield dubbed "The Black Swan", was an African-American singer considered the best-known black concert artist of her time. She was noted by James M. Trotter for her "remarkably sweet tones and wide vocal compass". She toured and conducted a Philadelphia music studio. Among her voice pupils was Thomas Bowers, who became known as "The Colored Mario" and "The American Mario" for the similarity of his voice to Italian opera tenor Giovanni Mario.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
- Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.
John Brown's Song:
- is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.
"Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:
Juba dis and Juba dat,
and Juba killed da yellow cat,
You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
and that's the way,
my mama's troubles begin
A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):
Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
All 'round the world and back again.
Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
I got a train and I fairly flew.
Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
(falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
First come in was Mister Snake,
He crawled all over that wedding cake.
Next walked in was Mister Tick,
He ate so much it made him sick.
Next walked in was Mister Coon,
We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.
- Virginia Essence
- Buck & Wing
- Tap Dancing
- Soft Shoe
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
Fashions for young African American women
Fashions for young African American women
Stylish clothes for African American men
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's.
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
| Fashions in 1875 |
- For women by 1870, fullness in the skirt had moved to the rear, where elaborately draped overskirts were held in place by tapes and supported by a bustle. This fashion required an underskirt, which was heavily trimmed with pleats, flounces, rouching, and frills.
- Innovations in men's fashion of the 1870s included the acceptance of patterned or figured fabrics for shirts and the general replacement of neckties tied in bow knots with the four-in-hand and later the Ascot tie.
- Infants continued to be dressed in flowing gowns, a style that continued into the early twentieth century. Gender dress changes often did not occur until a child was five or six. As the girls got older, they wore longer skirts. A four-year-old would wear her skirt at knee length; ten to twelve at mid-calf; and by sixteen, the girls dress would be ankle length. Boys often dressed similar to adult males, as they too wore blazers and Norfolk jackets.
Pullman porters, who were mainly black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
My Life as a Pullman Porter
Bass Reeves - first African-American US Deputy Marshal
Bass Reeves: The Real Lone Ranger
| Our Community in 1875 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- June 22, 1875 - James Augustine Healey became the first Black Catholic Bishop in the United States.
- 1875 - Bass Reeves is sworn in at Fort Smith, Arkansas as the first black United States Deputy Marshal.
| Typical Local News & Advertisements in the Black Community for 1875|
- January 14, 1875 - Freaks of a Drunken Negro - A colored man in Baltimore, while under the influence of liquor a few days since, climbed out upon his roof , and amused himself by jumping thence to the roof of the adjoining house and thence to the next until his antics had attracted quite a crowd of persons in the streets below. He became wedged in a chimney, and the owner of the house set fire is where he died.
The Stark County Democrat. (Canton, Ohio), 14 Jan. 1875.
- July 13, 1875 - The Clay Street and other Negro Schools Turned Over To Negro Principles and Teachers - Last night the educational solons of the city sat in solemn conclave to consider the election of negro teachers for Clay Street and other Negro schools devoted to the education of black children.
Public ledger. (Memphis, Tenn.), 13 July 1875.
- September 17, 1875 - Barclay Bros. Wholesale and Retail Druggist and paint and Oil Dealers - Jobbers and retailers of Pure Drugs. Patent medicine, Toilet Articles, Druggist fancy Goods, Collier Whitelead, Wax Flower Material
The Cairo bulletin. (Cairo, Ill.), 17 Sept. 1875
- April 16, 1875 - It's Social and Political Condition from a Northerners View - We saw legislatures in session in which the colored population was a large element. Many of these were elecetd without any regard to qualifications, and in some cases be the connivance and aid of those who wished to make it as ridiculous as possible. The colored race are confiding and proverbial for fun and mirthfulness. These unscrupulous democrats lay hold of these peculiarities of the negro. The colored population are generally quiet and law abiding, but there are bad negroes as well as whites.
The state journal. (Jefferson City, Mo.), 16 April 1875.
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