Year by Year Search
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1877:
Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. was born March 4, 1877 in Paris, Kentucky. Morgan's grandfather was popular Confederate Colonel John H. Morgan who disliked blacks very much, but not too much to have relations with the slave women. This was one of the added advantages for these white slaveowners to have any black woman they wanted when they wanted with impunity. It's a recurring story in history.
Young Garrett sought employment at an early age. He moved to Cincinnati and found work as a handyman. Garrett had to quit school to support himself, but later after moving to Cleveland, he recognized the valuable need for education and hired a tutor while continuing to work repairing sewing machines.
This is around the time he came up with his first invention, which was a belt fastener for sewing machines. Word of his skill at fixing things and experimenting spread quickly, and it opened doors for him.
In 1907, Morgan opened up his sewing machine shop and got involved with civil rights for blacks and met and married Mary Anne Hassek, and together they had three sons.
In 1909, he and his wife expanded their business ventures by opening a shop called Morgan's Cut Rate Ladies Clothing Store. The company had 32 employees and made coats, suits, dresses, and other clothing.
Later he would go on to invent different products that would make people's life easier like his safety hood invention that led him to nation-wide fame, hair care products, including a hair straightening cream, a hair dye, and a hair straightening comb.
He then went on to develop his traffic control signal. His invention was a hand-cranked mechanical sign system using signs that could be switched relatively quickly by a traffic control officer.
We would like to take this opportunity to thank Garrett Morgan for his significant American contributions. We are captivated by his incredible story. This man didn't let his race hold him back, and figured out a way to get around the little racist roadblocks he encountered in his life, and made the most out of what he had to set his vision on the skies above to soar like the eagles.
By his accomplishments he helped future generations in believing in themselves. What commendable confidence this man had! And of course intelligence too. We award you Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. with the 1877 Hamite Award which is given annually to people who inspire other people.
Morgan developed glaucoma in 1943 and was functionally blind and in poor health in his later life. He died on July 27, 1963.
Aw Snap! Sold Out To The Highest Bidder!
Our Leaders Aren't Smiling in 1877
|How were blacks feeling in 1877?
Summary of 1877 Compromise
Let me explain what happened in this year of 1877; I'll try to keep it simple as I can. Imagine former slaves in bondage for over 200 years and finally free with the emancipation. These former slaves were not independent like you and I. They worked from sunrise to sunset being told what to do, six days a week, and that's all they knew. They were ignorant of the world around them. During slavery, it was a felony for anyone caught teaching these slaves to read or write because white slavemasters didn't want them getting ideas about rebelling.
Most were uneducated and illiterate upon emancipation. Politicians made a pretense of helping (Reconstruction) them with education, housing, medical, etc., but sadly after only a few short years the government with horrible foresight unbelievably stopped the much-needed aid, and federal protection and with what result? America now had close to 4 million uneducated, illiterate free black people who were roaming nomads in a hostile and very racist white society, and had to make it the best way they could. Isn't that heartless and un-American to you? Their decision to stop aid was called the 1877 Compromise and was worked out secretly behind closed doors.
What chance did they have to succeed? They didn't even know how to read or write. They left out of the gate with anchor weights strapped to them. Although free now, the black person was restricted in every sense of the word. To add to that injustice, our white American brothers who lacked empathy instituted (separate but equal) laws that took effect all the way to the Civil Rights years of the 1960s. So in a sense, if you subtract 1965 from 1877, the Negro is 88 years behind his white counterpart, through no fault of his own. (read more in the political section about 1877 Compromise)
1877 will go down as one of the most important years for the Negro race. One doesn't have to be a visionary to guess what's going to happen. We're on the road to losing the small gains we've made since the emancipation. There are still too many of us who need help desperately. Our race never really got a fair chance, all those years in slavery and now finally getting a taste of American citizenship and getting snuffed out before leaving the gate. SHAMEFUL.
Democrats, which is another name for KKK will have their way with us, dominating us to a worse condition than when in slavery. There is nowhere to turn. There are many of us still learning and trying to make the most out of this situation, but there are much more who are discouraged, tired and beginning to show signs of defeat.
We understand the depression the U.S. is going through also played a role in the troops removal, but come on now, to just to leave us in this vulnerable position is uncaring, and un-American. We're sure America could have done more to better this situation. I guess Hayes thought it would make blacks feel better by making Frederick Douglass the first African American U.S. Marshal. Nope, it didn't!
But I guess Hayes chose to deal with this issue later than sooner, or if even at all. I think the politicians are just trying to pass the "Negro Problem" to future generations. But the longer it goes, common sense says the worse it will be. Wouldn't America be stronger if blacks had equal access, especially to education? Access is separate, even in the North generally, with the whites always superior materials and ours lacking dearly.
We feel that an intelligent man is less likely to harm or steal from another person than a demoralized, ignorant and illiterate one, and one day without fail this is what's going to happen to America when we finally get our justice, and anyone can see that vision. Because one thing is for sure, things never stay the same.
One day we will get different politicians in office, and things will go in our favor again, and this "Negro Problem" the politicians are not addressing today, in still going to be there staring them right in the face, and we don't know how long that's going to take and in the meantime we hope the damage won't be irreversible, especially with our young black boys who are beginning to pick up bad habits.
Now if whites are killing whites, it must be bad. We'll be glad when this depression is over and didn't expect it to last this long. But this is our first one, so we don't have a reference point, but only fear to go on. We heard about the railroad strike where 100 souls died because of wage cuts. There ain't hardly any trains running; even the lumber companies are going bankrupt.
We always thought the white man was so intelligent that things like this couldn't happen, at least that's what they tried to convince us. Don't look like they know what they're doing to us. They have all control but are failing miserably. Maybe they're just human beings, and not super-human like they want us to believe.
But through it all, we still believe in America, and it's principles, and are just as patriotic as ever. It's just the fools at the helm who screws things up for us. We understand how it's difficult for different cultures to live together, our African ancestors had the same problems and all had the same skin color. All we want is equal and fair justice, not to come and live with white people, but just treated as a fellow American.
For the year 1877:
- Henry Ossian Flipper was the first African-American graduate of West Point and first African-American commissioned officer in the U.S. military.
- George Washington Henderson of the University of Vermont is the first African American elected to Phi Beta Kappy, the oldest humanities honor society in the U.S.
- President Rutherford B. Hayes appoints Frederick Douglass as the first African American U.S. Marshal covering the jurisdication of the District of Columbia.
Octavius Valentine Catto
| Sports in 1877 |
- Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.
By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, generally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.
At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."
- The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.
- Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- 1877 - Jockey William Walker rode Baden-Baden to victory in the 1877 Kentucky Derby.
Education of Slaves
| Education in 1877 |
- 1877 - Reconstruction era has ended. Blacks are left alone and abandoned. White school board members of cities didn't want to finance African American schools with property taxes, so they tapped into the state school funds which had been set aside for black schools and instead used it for their white schools.
- 1877 - School attendance still on the rise for African-Americans.
- In 1877 - Waco College aka Paul Quinn College held classes in a modest one-building trade school; freedmen were taught the skills of blacksmithing, carpentry, tanning, and saddle work, common occupations for the area, especially in the increasingly segregated state.
- In 1877 - Philander Smith College was officially founded in 1877 under the name of Walden Seminary as a means of providing education opportunities for freed slaves west of the Mississippi River.
- In 1877 - George Washington Henderson is the first African American elected to Phi Beta Kappy.
Compromise of 1877
A political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as a character Mephistopheles (the devil) while Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with the prize of the "Solid South" depicted as a woman.
The caption quotes Goethe: "Unto that Power he doth belong Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong." photo #101
John Mercer Langston
Rutherford B. Hayes
| Political Scene in 1877 |
Analysis: In the presidential election, Rutherford B. Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden , but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes. Reminds us of contender Al Gore who won the popular vote but lost out to George Bush with the electoral in modern times. We wonder if these two men secretly compromised on anything. The great compromise of 1877 was because of a hotly contested Presidential election results. The Negro was on the bargaining table and lost out to white Southerners who wanted to keep the black person in its place and would remain that way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. They didn't want to see anything close to Negro success. The Democrats and Republicans secretly made a deal or a compromise they would give Hayes the win in the election if Reconstruction aid for the black person was halted, and guess what? It was. Perhaps the Negro at this point is getting accustomed to these elected officials and their shenanigans. But this deal here was a horrible blow to blacks. It had to defeat and demoralize many.
- 1877 - Rutherford B. Hayes was the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.
1877 - Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States (1869–77). As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. He implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson. Analysis: Ulysses S. Grant was a President that understood and enforced the U.S. Constitution. He lobbied for the 15th Amendment, giving blacks the right to vote. He was also a firm believer in Reconstruction Aid and Civil Rights to the black person, opposite of his predecessor, Andrew Johnson.
With the presidential election too close to call, a deal was struck between Republicans and Democrats that would affect African Americans for the next 87 years. It was called the Compromise of 1877.
Slavery had recently ended in the early 1860s. There was a Reconstruction program set up to transition these people into the American way of life. Slaves were not self-reliant people and depended on their masters for just about everything.
Former slaves couldn't read and write because it was illegal for anyone to teach them, in fact, it was a felony. So imagine after the Emancipation Proclamation, with over 4 million dependent, illiterate former slaves let loose into the American mainstream, it had to be very chaotic.
But with the Reconstruction program of helping blacks adjust to their new way of living with housing, medical, legal and educational needs, it made it a possible reality they would become successful.
Another critical advantage for blacks about Reconstruction was the President had ordered Federal troops to assure that Civil Rights were protected from the Democrats, KKK and other racist white southerners.
Blacks were very enthusiastic about learning, they wanted to find out what was in the books the white people were hiding all those years. School attendance was very high with students from seven to seventy learning in one of the many schools Freedmen's Bureau had established.
There were even black politicians elected by black citizens in a black areas. Blacks had to feel like they were finally on the road to the true American experience. YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT!!!
All of these things wouldn't have been possible if they didn't have Federal troops to protect their Civil Rights because there were many racist white people, mainly former Confederates who were still infuriated about losing the war and blamed blacks for it. But even with the Federal troops to protect them, many blacks were murdered in various riots and disputes.
So with the Compromise of 1877 you can probably imagine the anxiety, worry and fear many blacks had.
Would their recent successes in living the American experience be wiped out? With Rutherford B. Hayes removing all of the Federal troops, who was going to protect their Civil Rights?
The Democrats were real-life terrorist who achieved their goals with intimidation and murder with total impunity and didn't believe in the so-called civilized way of doing things.
Many blacks felt betrayed, like being thrown to the wolves.
1877 - John Mercer Langston appointed by President Hayes as U.S. Minister to Haiti, he also served as chargé d'affaires to the Dominican Republic.
The 45th Congress has three African American members.
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.
The Declaration in part states:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.
But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.
The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so
Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.
Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.
Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.
During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.
The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.
What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?
YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT
PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN'T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT'S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!
Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.
But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.
What was the result?
After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.
The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.
There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?
We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents would have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course it would.
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for.
Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution.
Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution.
| Employment for African Americans in 1877 |
What types of work did blacks do?
Can you imagine spending your entire life working from sunrise to sunset, six days a week, with no pay? That was the typical life of a slave, but these people weren't slaves any longer so they could do just about anything they wanted, that is if they could find the work.
Some blacks went to the plantation to work as sharecroppers. Blacks were rented small lots by former slaveholder's to work the fields and would be paid a small sum.
Many went into the cities looking for employment. Blacks were given the lowest paying jobs such as unskilled and service labor. Men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotels workers.
African American women were mostly confined to domestic work employed as cooks, maids, and child nurses. More worked in hotels and a large number became laundresses.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS |
SIT ON THE FENCE?
Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a battle between those in authority. The problem is that some of these authorities view democracy differently. According to the dictionary, the word truth can be described as fidelity to an original or standard. Of course, we know the popular standard for American democracy is "all men are created equal and entitled to liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. But these authorities have disagreed for centuries if blacks should truthfully have a part in these promises.
Who's right? You be the judge.
First, we need to define democracy, and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.
Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views. But that's okay; he lived in a different era than today. This site believes he would have changed his views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.
In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington evidently didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.
Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory in the war, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising Democracy. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth.
So in a sense, Washington created the blueprint for this distorted and false view of Democracy
This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also. Washington's inaction cannot be taken lightly because every single President after him would ignore the "Negro Problem" as they called it and continued with their lie by going against the lofty standard this country was founded. They actually became anti-Americans.
Lincoln had faced the "Negro Problem" issue head on and was very brave in doing so by instituting the Emancipation Proclamation. So we had two great Presidents with different opinions of Democracy and what it meant to be on the side of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness for all. Abraham Lincoln chose to put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of Democracy. This is what set these two great men apart in character.
After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a wild downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson. He fought against Reconstruction aid for blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new illegal laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained neutral by sitting on the fence and not speaking up. Read for yourself.
There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by the government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries.|
Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use different sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients?
Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered black person couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the black people behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?
Religion made things worse
Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state entirely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's believed they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God, We Trust" were printed on money to describe people who had snuffed out Democracy by living a lie. They felt God was on their side and loved only them.
Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world. Good white Americans that were sitting on the fence had to know this was a farce because of the way its black citizens were being treated and did nothing.
But there was a relative few brave, justice loving white Americans who spoke up and got involved for democracy with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the prospect of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
So, what has America become?
Because of the folly of racism and privilege by anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out by good Americans, it appears this country has morphed into another form of power. Something that is completely different than it started out as, like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
Movies in America
Anna Madah Hyers dressed as 'Urlina' in the opera Urlina the African Princess (1879)
| Musicals / Movies in 1877 |
- The Hyers Sisters, Anna Madah and Emma Louise were singers and pioneers of black musical theater. With Joseph Bradford and Pauline Hopkins, the Hyers Sisters produced the "first full-fledged musical plays... in which African Americans themselves comment on the plight of the slaves and the relief of Emancipation without the disguises of minstrel comedy." Their first play was Out of Bondage (also known as Out of the Wilderness) which premiered in 1876.
The Hyers Sisters under the management of their proud father not only toured in America but internationally. As small children, the father had them classically trained by German professor Hugo Sank and later opera singer Josephine D'Ormy and they performed for private parties before making their professional stage debut. They were very well received everywhere they performed and blazed a path for other black entertainers to follow. They traveled until the mid-1880s with their own shows and continued to appear on stage into the 1890s. Wow, absolutely amazing!
"Harvard's best baseball player", William Clarence Matthews
(TOP: Jimmy Johnson (bass), Bolden (cornet), Willy Cornish (Valve Trombone), Willy Warner (Clarinet) BOTTOM: Brock Mumford (Guitar), Frank Lewis (Clarinet).
| Famous Birthdays in 1877 |
- January 7, 1877 – William Clarence Matthews was an early 20th-century African-American pioneer in athletics, politics and law.
- March 4, 1877 – Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. was an African-American inventor.
- July 11, 1877 – McCants Stewart was an American lawyer. Born to a prominent attorney in New York.
- September 6, 1877 – Charles Joseph "Buddy" Bolden was an African-American cornetist and is regarded by contemporaries as a key figure in the development of a New Orleans style of rag-time music, which later came to be known as jazz.
- 1877 – Carlotta Freeman was an American stage actress. She was one of the first African American women in the legitimate theatre.
| Famous Deaths in 1877 |
- 1877 – Benjamin T. Montgomery was an influential African-American inventor, landowner, and Freedman in Mississippi. He was taught to read and write and became manager of supply and shipping for Joseph Emory Davis at Hurricane Plantation at Davis Bend.
Trivia: Believe it or not Montgomery was highly regarded by the Jefferson family whose son Jefferson Davis would later become the Confederate president. Montgomery created a propeller that could cut into the water at different angles, thus allowing the boat to navigate more easily through shallow water and attempted to get a patent for it but was refused because he was a slave, so guess what happened next. Jefferson and his brother Joseph put the invention in their names and applied but were also turned down because slaveowners and slaves could not receive a patent. It's interesting to note that the main beliefs about Confederates were that the black person was incapable of intelligence but yet and still their future leader was working hand in hand with one in a business venture which required it. It goes to show how baseless their actual beliefs were, but more based on hate. It was either white supremacy or black supremacy in white people's eyes. American Brotherhood was never an option between the races.
American author, educator, and speaker
Anna J. Cooper
Josephine Leavell Allensworth
| Famous Weddings in 1877 |
- 1877 - American author, educator, and speaker Anna J. Cooper and George A. Christopher Cooper were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1877 - Allen Allensworth and Josephine Leavell Allensworth were wed in holy matrimony.
Plantation scenarios were common in black minstrelsy, as shown here in this poster for Callender's Colored Minstrels.
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 1862–1864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
John Brown Song
| Music in 1877 |
Musical Happenings in 1877:
- The 1870s was a decade where the only way to obtain music was on sheet music sold in stores. People would sit at the piano and sing.
- One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late 1860s and 1870s. The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels, who played the Northeast around 1865. Sam Hague's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in 1866. In the 1870s, white entrepreneurs bought most of the successful black companies. Charles Callender obtained Sam Hague's troupe in 1872 and renamed it Callender's Georgia Minstrels. They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
- Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.
John Brown's Song:
- is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.
"Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:
Juba dis and Juba dat,
and Juba killed da yellow cat,
You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
and that's the way,
my mama's troubles begin
A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):
Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
All 'round the world and back again.
Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
I got a train and I fairly flew.
Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
(falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
First come in was Mister Snake,
He crawled all over that wedding cake.
Next walked in was Mister Tick,
He ate so much it made him sick.
Next walked in was Mister Coon,
We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.
- Virginia Essence
- Buck & Wing
- Tap Dancing
- Soft Shoe
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy,
adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable,
inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind,
unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
Fashions for young African American women
Fashions for young African American women
Stylish clothes for African American men
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's.
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
The Black Victorians (Victorian Era 1800s-1900s)
| Fashions in 1877 |
- For women by 1870, fullness in the skirt had moved to the rear, where elaborately draped overskirts were held in place by tapes and supported by a bustle. This fashion required an underskirt, which was heavily trimmed with pleats, flounces, rouching, and frills.
- Innovations in men's fashion of the 1870s included the acceptance of patterned or figured fabrics for shirts and the general replacement of neckties tied in bow knots with the four-in-hand and later the Ascot tie.
- Infants continued to be dressed in flowing gowns, a style that continued into the early twentieth century. Gender dress changes often did not occur until a child was five or six. As the girls got older, they wore longer skirts. A four-year-old would wear her skirt at knee length; ten to twelve at mid-calf; and by sixteen, the girls dress would be ankle length. Boys often dressed similar to adult males, as they too wore blazers and Norfolk jackets.
Pullman porters, who were mainly black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
An all Black Town Nicodemus settled by former slaves fleeing the south in 1877
after the Reconstruction Period in the Northwest corner of Kansas.
Henry Ossian Flipper
| Our Community in 1877 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- African American soldier and former slave Henry Ossian Flipper was the first to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1877, earning a commission as a 2nd lieutenant in the US Army.
- April 18, 1877 - a group of seven Kansans, six of whom were black, established the Nicodemus Town Company in the state of Kansas. Most of the group consisted of former slaves from Kentucky in search of a new livelihood. The goal was to establish the first all-black settlement on the Great Plains.
- Fredrick Douglass accepted an appointment as United States Marshal for the District of Columbia, which helped assure his family's financial security.
#100 - Public Domain image - [Three-quarter-length portrait of an unidentified woman standing behind a chair]
1 photographic print on carte de visite mount : albumen ; 10 x 6 cm. Contributor: Plecker, A. H. (Adam H.) - Plecker, A. H. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1877
#101 - Public Domain image -By Joseph Keppler [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image -
By US GOVT (http://www.usma.edu/Bicentennial/FlipperDinner.asp) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#103 - Public Domain image - By Photograph by George K. Warren (d. 1884). [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - Public Domain image - By James U. Stead (National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#105 - Public Domain image -
By Randall Studio (National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution) [Public domain],
via Wikimedia Commons
#106 - Public Domain image - By Artist: H. Seymour Squyer, 1848 - 18 Dec 1905 (National Portrait Gallery) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#107 - Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#108 - Public Domain image -
By National Park Service Digital Image Archives [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#109 - Public Domain image -
This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923. See this page for further explanation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bolden_band.gif
#110 - Public Domain image -
See page for author [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#111 - Public Domain image -
This image is a work of a United States Department of Transportation employee, taken or made as part of that person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Garrett_Morgan.gif
#112 - Public Domain image - By President_Rutherford_Hayes_1870_-_1880.jpg: Mathew Bradyderivative work: UpstateNYer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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