Year by Year Search
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1879:
What are Exodusters? Exodusters were short for the biblical name Exodus and are a word taken from the Old Testament about the Jews’ flight from Egypt. Blacks during this period felt they were persecuted and would find relief in The Promised Land.
During this time in history, there were about forty thousand Exodusters that left the South to settle in Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado and other states. The number one cause of black migration out of the South at this time was to escape racial violence or "to bulldoze" by white supremacist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and the White League, who stunted black progress and operated with almost total impunity.
Although blacks greatly outnumbered Whites in Louisiana, black armed resistance was practically inconceivable because it was stated by William Murrell in testimony given to the United States Senate, that “the white people in Louisiana are better armed and equipped now than during the war.” The Louisiana White League in the mid-1870s “managed to seize a huge cache of arms from the arsenal in New Orleans…worth about $67,000-” stolen directly from the United States government.
With the traumatic political campaigns of 1878 in Louisiana, the plight of organized black resistance had reached a point of hopelessness, leading to the Exodus of 1879. The Exodusters received no monetary assistance from the United States government, even with evidence of violence in the South against black people. They ignored the problem.
Black leader Frederick Douglass didn't agree with the Exodus of 1879 but told blacks they should stay put. Many blacks disagreed with him and made the trip anyway.
How did the blacks fare once they arrived in the Promised Land?
The impact of the Exoduster migration on a subsequent white treatment of African Americans was mixed.
Generally speaking, many of the states didn't actively encourage the Exodusters, and upon arrival were overwhelmed. Some issues did come up, but blacks were treated better than in the south.
During the 1870s and the decade that followed, blacks bought more than 20,000 acres of land in Kansas, and several of the settlements established during this time still exist today.
It is at this time we would like to recognize our amazing people for their brave and historical travels across their new homeland of America. Slaves no longer, they could pack up and go where they chose. But they had to go light because they didn't receive any help whatsoever from their government.
They banded together with black power to accomplish the task at hand. We award these courageous people the 1879 Hamite Award in recognition of displaying black unity and perseverance in spite of difficulties, obstacles, and discouragement.
“Ho For Kansas!” |
Refugees on Levee 1897 - photo#103
|How were blacks feeling in 1879?
We hear about the blacks in the south having it hard down there. They can't seem to make any progress without the Democrats, KKK or the White League taking it away. To make matters worse. The President is not listening to our pleas for help.
America is a very hostile land for ones with black skin. We have identified right away because of it. When slaves first came to America, we can remember the many hassles we had with the poor Irish people. Poor against poor. These folks were treated almost as bad as us. But they had the advantage of white skin color and ended up blending with the rest of white America. Blacks can't do that.
Many blacks are fed up and are traveling to other lands for human rights and a place to raise their families. Kansas is at the tip of everyone's tongue. We hear how hard they fought to be a "free state" and take pride in that, and now many Negroes are going to put that to the test. Hope they welcome their brother with open arms.
We all knew the Compromise of 1877 was the beginning of the end for our folks in the south and sure enough, it's coming just to that. One good thing we notice happening is some of the farmers are getting afraid with all the black labor leaving. They are just a tad bit more accommodating. The long depression is finally over this year, and it surely lived up to its name. Maybe with a bit more prosperity in America, it will make people a little nicer.
On another note, we hear that a five &10 cent store opened in New York by Frank W Woolworth, and can't wait until they build a store in our area. We just know they are going to be a huge success. Oh hold on a minute, I forgot, I'm black I might not be able to get inside the store.
Authentic newspaper article for the year 1879
Get a feel for what was really happening in 1879
|| Yes, we had plenty black folks acting up back in the day. They had a hard time adjusting to their freedom, especially without much help from the one's in a position to help. Different newspapers report this fact.
The news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.), 04 March 1879. Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress
For the year 1879:
- Mary Eliza Mahoney of Boston, Massachusetts was the first African-American to graduate from a formal nursing school.
Octavius Valentine Catto
John W. "Bud" Fowler
| Sports in 1879 |
- Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.
By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, generally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.
At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."
- The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.
- Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
- The first known professional black baseball player was Bud Fowler, who appeared in a handful of games with a Chelsea, Massachusetts club in April 1878 and then pitched for the Lynn, Massachusetts team in the International Association.
| Education in 1879 |
- 1879 - School attendance on the rise for African-Americans.
- 1879 - Livingstone College along with Hood Theological Seminary began as Zion Wesley Institute in Concord, North Carolina in 1879.
- 1879 - Florida Memorial University, founded in 1879 is a private coeducational four-year university in Miami Gardens, Florida. A historically Black, Baptist-related institution which is ranked second in Florida and ninth in the United States for graduating African-American teachers.
- 1879 - Simmons College of Kentucky is a private, co-educational college located in Louisville, Kentucky. Founded in 1879, Simmons College is a historically black college.
- 1879 - The Kansas Freedman’s relief Association was founded and it's mission was to aid blacks, refugees and immigrant who were travelling from the South for a better life in the North. The Association provided medical and educational needs.
Compromise of 1877
A political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as a character Mephistopheles (the devil) while Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with the prize of the "Solid South" depicted as a woman.
The caption quotes Goethe: "Unto that Power he doth belong Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong." photo #101
Rutherford B. Hayes
| Political Scene in 1879 |
Analysis: In the presidential election, Rutherford B. Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden , but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes. Reminds us of contender Al Gore who won the popular vote but lost out to George Bush with the electoral in modern times. We wonder if these two men secretly compromised on anything. The great compromise of 1877 was because of a hotly contested Presidential election results. The black person was on the bargaining table and lost out to white Southerners who wanted to keep the Negro in its place and would remain that way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. They didn't want to see anything close to Negro success. The Democrats and Republicans secretly made a deal or a compromise they would give Hayes the win in the election if Reconstruction aid for the black person was halted, and guess what? It was. Perhaps the black person at this point is getting accustomed to these elected officials and their shenanigans. But this deal here was a horrible blow to blacks. It had to defeat and demoralize many.
- 1879 - Rutherford B. Hayes was the 19th President of the United States (1877–1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction, began the efforts that led to civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.
| Jobs for African Americans in 1879 |
What types of work did blacks do?
Can you imagine spending your entire life working from sunrise to sunset, six days a week, with no pay? That was the typical life of a slave, but these people weren't slaves any longer so they could do just about anything they wanted, that is if they could find the work.
Some blacks went to the plantation to work as sharecroppers. Blacks were rented small lots by former slaveholder's to work the fields and would be paid a small sum.
Many went into the cities looking for employment. Blacks were given the lowest paying jobs such as unskilled and service labor. Men worked as rail workers, rolling and lumber mills workers, and hotels workers.
African American women were mostly confined to domestic work employed as cooks, maids, and child nurses. Much more worked in hotels and a large number became laundresses.
Movies in America
Anna Madah Hyers dressed as 'Urlina' in the opera Urlina the African Princess (1879)
| Musicals / Movies in 1879 |
- The Hyers Sisters, Anna Madah and Emma Louise were singers and pioneers of black musical theater. With Joseph Bradford and Pauline Hopkins, the Hyers Sisters produced the "first full-fledged musical plays... in which African Americans themselves comment on the plight of the slaves and the relief of Emancipation without the disguises of minstrel comedy." Their first play was Out of Bondage (also known as Out of the Wilderness) which premiered in 1876.
The Hyers Sisters under the management of their proud father not only toured in America, but internationally. As small children the father had them classically trained by German professor Hugo Sank and later opera singer Josephine D'Ormy and they performed for private parties before making their professional stage debut. They were very well received everywhere they performed and blazed a path for other black entertainers to follow. They traveled until the mid-1880s with their own shows and continued to appear on stage into the 1890s. Wow, absolutely amazing!
Frederick Madison Roberts
Andrew "Rube" Foster
Golfer, John Matthew Shippen
| Famous Birthdays in 1879 |
- February 3, 1879 - Charles W. Follis, a.k.a. "The Black Cyclone," was the first black professional football player.
- September 14, 1879 - Frederick Madison Roberts was an American newspaper owner and editor, educator and business owner; he became a politician, the first known man of African American descent elected to the California State Assembly.
- September 17, 1879 - Andrew "Rube" Foster was an American baseball player, manager, and pioneer executive in the Negro leagues. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1981.
- December 2, 1879 - John Matthew Shippen, Jr. was an African American/Native American golfer who competed in the several early U.S. Opens.
- December 6, 1879 - Jesse B. Blayton, Sr., a pioneer African American radio station entrepreneur.
- 1879 - Chris Smith, wrote songs that pointed to black folk styles. One of his biggest hits, was 'Good Morning, Carrie'.
Emancipation Memorial, Lincoln Park,
| Famous Deaths in 1879 |
- July 5, 1879 - Joshua Bowen Smith was a noted abolitionist, and state senator.
- December 8, 1879 - Archer Alexander who was born into slavery has his likeness immortalized in association to all former slaves who were set free with the emancipation. The bronze monument is in Lincoln Park in Washington, D. C.
- 1879 - Peter Anderson California political activist.
George Henry White
| Famous Weddings in 1879 |
- 1879 - Politician George Henry White and Fannie B. Randolph were wed in holy matrimony.
- October 22, 1879 - Author, Victoria Earle Matthews and William E. Matthews were wed in holy matrimony.
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?|
It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up
For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.
The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.
These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.
Why, what happened?
Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.
Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?
This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.
We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.
In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.
What were the downfalls?
Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.
Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.
Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”
Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.
Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.
But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.
Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.
So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.
After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?
Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.
After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.
Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.
These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.
One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.
They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?
Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.
They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Plantation scenarios were common in black minstrelsy, as shown here in this poster for Callender's Colored Minstrels.
During the Civil War, Thomas Wentworth Higginson served as colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first federally authorized black regiment, from 1862–1864. Following the war, Higginson devoted much of the rest of his life to fighting for the rights of freed slaves, women and other disfranchised peoples.
John Brown Song
James Monroe Trotter
| Music in 1879 |
Musical Happenings in 1879:
- The 1870s was a decade where the only way to obtain music was on sheet music sold in stores. People would sit at the piano and sing.
- James Monroe Trotter a multi-talented man wrote a book entitled Music and Some Highly Musical People, published in 1878. It is the first comprehensive study of music ever written in the United States. It is still used by students of music history and those interested in tracing the origins of music in the United States, especially African-American music.
- One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late 1860s and 1870s. The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels, who played the Northeast around 1865. Sam Hague's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in 1866. In the 1870s, white entrepreneurs bought most of the successful black companies. Charles Callender obtained Sam Hague's troupe in 1872 and renamed it Callender's Georgia Minstrels. They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.
Thomas Wentworth Higginson:
- Thomas Wentworth Higginson leads the First South Carolina Colored Volunteers, the first group of authorized African American soldiers. Higginson is a notable author who helps popularize many aspects of African American music. He contributed to the preservation of Negro spirituals by copying dialect verses and music he heard sung around the regiment's campfires.
John Brown's Song:
- is a United States marching song about the abolitionist John Brown. The song was popular in the Union during the American Civil War.
"Juba Juba", a popular song about the Juba:
Juba dis and Juba dat,
and Juba killed da yellow cat,
You sift the meal and ya gimme the husk,
you bake the bread and ya gimme the crust,
you eat the meat and ya gimme the skin,
and that's the way,
my mama's troubles begin
A song about the hambone from Step it Down (v.s.):
Hambone Hambone pat him on the shoulder
If you get a pretty girl, I'll show you how to hold her.
Hambone, Hambone, where have you been?
All 'round the world and back again.
Hambone, Hambone, what did you do?
I got a train and I fairly flew.
Hambone, Hambone where did you go?
I hopped up to Miss Lucy's door.
I asked Miss Lucy would she marry me.
(falsetto)"Well I don't care if Papa don't care!"
First come in was Mister Snake,
He crawled all over that wedding cake.
Next walked in was Mister Tick,
He ate so much it made him sick.
Next walked in was Mister Coon,
We asked him to sing us a wedding tune,
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Juba or Hambone dance was originally from West Africa. It became an African-American plantation dance that was performed by slaves during their gatherings when no rhythm instruments were allowed due to fear of secret codes hidden in the drumming.
- Virginia Essence
- Buck & Wing
- Tap Dancing
- Soft Shoe
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
Fashions for young African American women
Fashions for young African American women
Stylish clothes for African American men
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly The person who drew this Illustration was kind to black people. Usually during that time period they would portray the Negro with wild hair and humongous noses with exaggerated lips. They made us look normal. Thank you Harper's.
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
Couples attending the Negro Labor Convention
Illustration from Harper's Weekly
The Black Victorians (Victorian Era 1800s-1900s)
| Fashions in 1879 |
- For women by 1870, fullness in the skirt had moved to the rear, where elaborately draped overskirts were held in place by tapes and supported by a bustle. This fashion required an underskirt, which was heavily trimmed with pleats, flounces, rouching, and frills.
- Innovations in men's fashion of the 1870s included the acceptance of patterned or figured fabrics for shirts and the general replacement of neckties tied in bow knots with the four-in-hand and later the Ascot tie.
- Infants continued to be dressed in flowing gowns, a style that continued into the early twentieth century. Gender dress changes often did not occur until a child was five or six. As the girls got older, they wore longer skirts. A four-year-old would wear her skirt at knee length; ten to twelve at mid-calf; and by sixteen, the girls dress would be ankle length. Boys often dressed similar to adult males, as they too wore blazers and Norfolk jackets.
Pullman porters, who were primarily black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
Battle of Isandhlwana (1879) Natal, South Africa
|Our Community in 1879 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- January 22, 1879 - The Battle of Isandlwana was the first major encounter in the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa.
- February 22, 1879 - 1st 5 &10 cent store opened by Frank W Woolworth in Utica NY.
- June 18, 1879 - Black inventor William H. Richardson patents the children's carriage.
- Exodusters was a name given to African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century, as part of the Exoduster Movement or Exodus of 1879. It was the first general migration of blacks following the Civil War. As many as forty thousand Exodusters left the South to settle in Kansas, Oklahoma and Colorado.
- 1879 - With U.S. paper money which were known popularly as "greenbacks" in their heyday, a name inherited from the Demand Notes that they replaced in 1862.
#100 - Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#101 - Public Domain image - Charles Edwin Fripp [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image -
By US Government [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#103 - Public Domain image - This image is in the public domain in the United States. In most cases, this means that it was first published prior to January 1, 1923 (see the template documentation for more cases). Other jurisdictions may have other rules, and this image might not be in the public domain outside the United States. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Exodusters.jpeg
#104 - Public Domain image - This image is in the public domain in the United States. In most cases, this means that it was first published prior to January 1, 1923 (see the template documentation for more cases). Other jurisdictions may have other rules, and this image might not be in the public domain outside the United States. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Exoduster_handbill.jpeg
#105 - Public Domain image -
By By Delilah Leontium Beasley, Bancroft Library (The Negro Trail Blazers of California: 1919) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#106 - Public Domain image -
By 1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg: J.E. Mille[r], K.C.derivative work: Delaywaves talk • contribs (1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#107 - Public Domain image -
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