blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1897:
Marian Anderson
    Marian Anderson was born in 1897 and went on to become an African American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century. Marian's mother was a teacher, and her father sold ice and coal and later went in the liquor business, opening up a small store. Marian had two sisters, Alice and Ethel.

    Marian's family were very religious. Marian attended church on a regular basis and would perform in the choirs. Marian's aunt whose name was Aunt Mary was also involved with the choir and noticed what a beautiful voice her niece possessed and encouraged her to perform. She would be paid 4 or 5 cents per performance. As she grew so did her performance fee because soon she was making about $5.00 per performance. Marian always mentioned her Aunt Mary as the one who got her interested in music. Thanks Aunt Mary!

    Eventually, the directors of the People's Chorus pastor of her church, along with other leaders of the black community, raised the money she needed to get singing lessons. After high school, Anderson applied to an all-white music school, the Philadelphia Music Academy, but was turned away because she was black.

    Can you imagine all the American talent that was turned back because of the color of skin? Not only in music but in all fields. It's beyond comprehension how intelligent people could act in such a way. It reminds me of the regular everyday people in Germany during Hitler's day all following the crowd.

    In 1925 Marian got her first big break when she won first prize in a singing competition sponsored by the New York Philharmonic. As the winner, she got to perform in concert with the orchestra on August 26, 1925.

    She spent the early 1930s touring throughout Europe where she did not encounter the racial prejudices she had experienced in America. In the summer of 1930, she went to Scandinavia, where she met the Finnish pianist Kosti Vehanen who became her regular accompanist and her vocal coach for many years.

    In the late 1930s, Marian gave about 70 recitals a year in the United States. Although by then quite famous, her stature did not completely end the prejudice she confronted as a young black singer touring the United States. She was still denied rooms in particular American hotels and was not allowed to eat in certain American restaurants.

    Marian was born in 1897, and this is the year we chose to award her with the 1897 Hamite Award. A new star is born, a child that was a regular kid until her Aunt Mary noticed something special and encouraged her to share her great singing voice with the world, and we sure appreciate that. Good music allowed us to temporarily forget about our problems in this crazy white racist way of life in America. Marian performed in front of great leaders of the world, and made us very proud, yes she was a special daughter to the African American people.

    On January 7, 1955, Marian became the first African-American to perform with the Metropolitan Opera in New York. She retired from singing in 1965 but continued to appear publicly.

    Marian died of congestive heart failure on April 8, 1993, at age 96. She had suffered a stroke a month earlier. She died in Portland, Oregon, at the home of her nephew, conductor James DePreist. She is interred at Eden Cemetery, in Collingdale, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. Rest in Peace.

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson
photo #104-yr-1955

Marian Anderson
A contralto Marian Anderson
in 1920.

photo #107-yr-1897

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson, world's greatest contralto, entertains a group of overseas veterans
and WACs on [the] stage of the San Antonio Municipal Auditorium...", 04/11/1945

photo #108-yr-1897




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How were blacks feeling in 1897?
sad mood of blacks

When McKinley was running for office, we were hopeful of progress towards equality. McKinley had spoken out against lynching while governor, and most black people who could vote supported him in 1896. But after he got in office, looks like he's gonna be a no-show.

He appointed a few blacks to unimportant positions in government, and he thinks this is going to make us happy and keep us quiet. Most blacks would rather fight inequality rather than following Booker T. Washington's approach to being passive. We're tired of being passive.

The Spanish are acting up against America, and I think there is going to be a war soon. There are many Negroes who want to fight, to once again prove their allegiance to America just as they did in the Civil War, but do you think that will change these privileged white folks minds? I don't. They got it too good.

I think they are going to hold us down as long as they can. It seems the white race uses us as a measuring tool to gauge they're imagined greatness. They teach their kids, "see those Negroes over there, now you don't want to be anything like them, that's the way NOT to live your life." But they forget to teach their kids they are the ones who have us in this position of despair and hopelessness.

Well one day just as we waited so long for freedom from slavery, we will get freedom from inequality, just hope I live to see it.

One good note is the depression is finally over, and people are going to work, and things are picking up again. I don't like depressions, they stink! They make white people meaner, if that's possible.



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black kids shooting marbles in the 1800s


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blacks in hockey
The Coloured Hockey League performed from 1895-1930
photo #119-yr-1910


blacks shooting marbles

Marshall Walter Major Taylor
Marshall Walter "Major" Taylor
photo #104-yr-1878

Octavius Catto
Octavius Valentine Catto
photo #121-yr-1863

Bud Fowler
John W. "Bud" Fowler
photo #105-yr-1913

Alonzo Lonnie Clayton
Alonzo "Lonnie" Clayton
photo #108-yr-1917

Moses Fleetwood Walker
Moses Fleetwood Walker
photo #102-yr-1884

     Sports in 1897
    Trivia:
  • Blacks were not accepted into the league baseball games, so they started their teams, becoming professional by the the 1870s. The first known baseball game between two black teams was held on November 15, 1859, in New York City. The Henson Base Ball Club of Jamaica, Queens, defeated the Unknowns of Weeksville, Brooklyn, 54 to 43.

    By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia, which had an African-American population of 22,000. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythian Base Ball Club. They played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it is hard to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, typically a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality.

    At the end of the 1867 season "the National Association of Baseball Players voted to exclude any club with a black player." In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. "Black teams earned the bulk of their income playing white independent 'semipro' clubs."


  • The mistreatment and segregation of Blacks didn't only happen in the South, but also the Northern cities like Philadelphia.



  • Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist in Philadelphia. As a man, he also became known as a top cricket and black baseball pioneer in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


  • The first known professional black baseball player was Bud Fowler, who appeared in a handful of games with a Chelsea, Massachusetts club in April 1878 and then pitched for the Lynn, Massachusetts team in the International Association.

  • Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother, Welday Wilberforce Walker, were the first two black players in the major leagues. They both played for the 1884 Toledo Blue Stockings in the American Association.

  • The few blacks on the white minor league teams were constantly dodging verbal and physical abuse from both competitors and fans. Then the Compromise of 1877 removed the remaining obstacles from the South's enacting the Jim Crow laws. To make matters worse, on July 14, 1887, Cap Anson's Chicago White Stockings marched his team onto the field, military style as was his custom, he demanded that the blacks not play, and later that same day, league owners voted to refuse future contracts to blacks, citing the "hazards" imposed by such athletes.

  • In 1888, the Middle States League was formed, and it admitted two all-black teams to its otherwise all-white league, the Cuban Giants and their arch-rivals, the New York Gorhams. They became traveling teams known as the Colored All-Americans. They would go to various cities playing games that were not authorized by the professional white league. They would play against any team that just wanted some real, fair competition and make a little money in the process. The New York Gorhams quit playing after awhile and by 1892 the Cuban Giants were the only black team in the East still in operation on a full-time basis.

  • At the Blue Ribbon Meet of the Bostonian Cycle Club hosted on May 19, 1897, Marshall Walter "Major" Taylor won first place in the 1 mile open professional on a Comet bicycle.

  • January 1, 1897 - - The first football game played between black colleges -Atlanta 10, Tuskegee 0.

  • Alonzo "Lonnie" Clayton was an American jockey in Thoroughbred horse racing described by author Edward Hotaling, as "one of the great riders of the New York circuit all through the 1890s" and who holds the record as the youngest jockey to ever win the Kentucky Derby.

  • 1895-1930 - Coloured Hockey League was an all-black ice hockey league founded in Nova Scotia in 1895, which featured teams from across Canada's Maritime Provinces. The Coloured League is credited by some as being the first league to allow the goaltender to leave his feet to cover a puck in 1900. This practice was not permitted elsewhere until the formation of the National Hockey League in 1917. Historians also claim that the first player to use the slapshot was Eddie Martin of the Halifax Eureka in 1906. Trivia: In the Revolutionary War, America and the British promised the black slaves freedom if they fought for their respective sides. Of course, we all know that America won the war but failed to keep its promise to the slaves and forced them back into slavery. President George Washington had to know about this and did nothing on the slave's behalf. On the other hand, the British kept their promise and transported these slaves who were also called black loyalist to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Africa to start a new life. The Coloured Hockey League players were from Nova Scotia and introduced exciting innovations to the game of hockey.




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famous african american quotes      Famous African American Quotes
    Marshall Walter "Major" Taylor -   African American cyclist who won the world 1 mile track cycling championship and much more in the late 1800s

    "Life is too short for any man to hold bitterness in his heart."


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blacks and education
     Education in 1897
  • In 1897, Elizabeth Evelyn Wright and Jessie Dorsey founded Denmark Industrial School for African Americans. Located in a rural area and small town, it was modeled on Tuskegee Institute. It began in the upstairs of an old store. In 1902, Ralph Voorhees, a New Jersey philanthropist, gave the school a donation to purchase land and construct buildings. In 1904 the South Carolina General Assembly renamed the school and incorporated it as the Voorhees Industrial Institute for Colored Youths.



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former slaves liked to laugh


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HOW LONG WILL GOOD WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence


Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a fight between good and bad. The problem is that both good and bad forces claim to adore democracy. Someone is lying. You be the judge.


First, we need to define democracy and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.


Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."

"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


Now it's very clear from the many biased comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't the type that would have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views many years ago. But that's okay, at least he was honest. This site believes he would have changed his racist views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.


In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.


Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised citizenship after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory in the war, America didn't keep it promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising real Democracy.


Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. But all of America's founders didn't feel this way. A contemporary of Washington and future President John Adams hated slavery and was proud to boast he handled his business with paid workers. Did George Washington look at himself in the mirror and feel guilty about compromising (true) American Democracy? History says he didn't.


Washington created the blueprint for this distorted view of true Democracy


Blacks in the colonies had been treated poorly since their arrival from Africa, but this action by Washington made it official. This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also.


We must all be honest with ourselves in admitting this view of Democracy was not American because it denied certain humans liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. Therefore we must call for what it was, which is Anti-American.


So we had two different Presidents with various versions of Democracy, and this is the way it remains today. What made Lincoln a force for good and better President was he put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of true Democracy. This is what set these two men apart. Both were great men with different views about what it meant to be an American on the side of liberty and justice for all.


After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson, and he fought against the Civil Rights of blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained on the fence. Read for yourself.


There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?



Did religion made things worse?


Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state completely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's beleived they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God We Trust" were printed on money to describe a people who had snuffed out Democracy, They felt God was on their side and loved only them.


Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these Anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world with God on their side. Good white Americans had to know this was a farce because of the way it's black citizens were being treated and did nothing.


There were a relative few brave, good white Americans who spoke up during this period and got involved with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the threat of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


So, what now?


Because of the folly of racism and privilege by Anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out for true Democracy by good Americans, has our country morphed into another form of power? Something that is completely different than it started out as, perhaps like an insatiable, detestable and ugly monster, without a soul or conscience? You be the judge.


whites sitting on fence





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blacks/african americans and politics

William McKinley
William McKinley
photo #109-yr-1897


Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
photo #108

     Political Scene in 1897
  • March 4, 1897 - William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term. Analysis: Well what do you know, we have a new President. William McKinley is his name. Will he finally prove to be the President of justice we have been waiting and hoping? NOPE it ain't gonna happen. Black people were excited about McKinley in the beginning especially because he was against lynching when he served as Governor and wanted to abolish it, so the few blacks that were not disenfranchised voted for him but were quickly disappointed. McKinley's administration’s response to racial violence was minimal, causing him to lose black support. When black postmasters at Hogansville, Georgia in 1897, and at Lake City, South Carolina the following year, were assaulted, McKinley issued no statement of condemnation. Although black leaders criticized McKinley for inaction, supporters responded by saying there was little the president could do to intervene. Critics replied by saying that he could at least publicly condemn such events, as Harrison had done. Look like we have another loser in the morals department, McKinley will join the long list of Presidents who didn't comprehend the Constitution of the United States.

    One writer wrote:

    “McKinley lacked the vision to transcend the biases of his day and to point toward a better future for all Americans.”

    I must say that we agree.


  • 1897 - Democrat Grover Cleveland inaugurated as the 24th President of the United States. This was his second term. Bad news for African Americans. Trivia:  Cleveland, like a growing number of Northerners (and nearly all white Southerners), saw Reconstruction as a failed experiment, and was reluctant to use federal power to enforce the 15th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guaranteed voting rights to African Americans. Though Cleveland appointed no black Americans to patronage jobs, he allowed Frederick Douglass to continue in his post as recorder of deeds in Washington, D.C. and appointed another black man to replace Douglass upon his resignation. OH THANK YOU SO MUCH, MR. President FOR APPOINTING ONE BLACK TO OFFICE and no help whatsoever to recently freed slaves, politicians give these poor people a few years of help after centuries of abuse and think they have done something honorable, what a bunch of baloney. Your kindness and concern for black American citizens will never be forgotten. History shows up the malfeasance of all these so-called great men.  SMH



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presidents rating guide
filler presidents rating guide
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.

The Declaration in part states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.

But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.


The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.

filler greedy green monster
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so

 Presidential Ratings

Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.

Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.

Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.

During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.

What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?

YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN'T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT'S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!

Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.

But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.

What was the result?

After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.

The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.

There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?

We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents would have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course it would.


abe lincoln Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for. happy former slave
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution. sad former slave
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution. happy former slave
Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes was an opportunist and sold out the Negro big time with the 1877 Compromise. He didn't understand what his country stood for. sad former slave
James A Garfield James A Garfield was a strong defender of Civil Rights, and wanted the Negro to progress through education. Sadly he didn't get a chance to fufill his intentions because he was assassinated, but we give him the benefit of the doubt. We believe he understood the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Chester Arthur Chester Arthur wasn't really ever concerned with the negro issue. but he didn't make this humongous Negro problems his priority but chose to ignore it and pass it on to the next admin. He did not understand the principles of the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland actually sided with the white terrorist in the Chinese race riots and felt it was the Chinese fault. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, he only believed in it as far as it would benefit him, just like typical America. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans' civil rights. Nice words he had for blacks but in all honesty, we need something more concrete to hold on too. But we believe that this president understood the principles of the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland second term wasn't any better than the first. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, and was a no-show for the American Negro. sad former slave


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equal rights for black people



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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Hyers Sisters
Anna Madah Hyers dressed as 'Urlina' in the opera Urlina the African Princess (1879)
photo #100-yr-1879

Sam Lucas
Sam Lucas
photo #109-yr-1915

Sam Lucas
Cover of Musical Gems, a book of songs by Sam T. Jack's Creole Burlesque Co.
photo #111-yr-1890

     Musicals / Burlesque in 1897
    Musicals:
  • The Hyers Sisters, Anna Madah and Emma Louise were singers and pioneers of black musical theater. With Joseph Bradford and Pauline Hopkins, the Hyers Sisters produced the "first full-fledged musical plays... in which African Americans themselves comment on the plight of the slaves and the relief of Emancipation without the disguises of minstrel comedy." Their first play was Out of Bondage (also known as Out of the Wilderness) which premiered in 1876. The Hyers Sisters under the management of their proud father not only toured in America but internationally. As small children, the father had them classically trained by German professor Hugo Sank and later opera singer Josephine D'Ormy, and they performed for private parties before making their professional stage debut. They were very well received everywhere they played and blazed a path for other black entertainers to follow. They traveled until the mid-1880s with their shows and continued to appear on stage into the 1890s. Wow, absolutely amazing!


  • Sam Lucas convinced Sam T. Jack, a burlesque impresario to feature beautiful Creole women in a risqué burlesque show. It was the first to present beautiful black women as chorus girls in place of the traditional all-male chorus. It has been called the first black burlesque show. It included original songs, sketches and comedy numbers by black artists. The Creole Show opened in Haverhill, Massachusetts, on August 4, 1890 and toured across the United States, and would stay on the circuit until 1897.




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pretty lady cooking
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.

We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.



sweet potatoes
Sweet Potatoes / Yams


Barbecue Ribs
Barbecue Ribs


Ham Hocks
Ham Hocks


Rice and Beans
Rice and Beans


Fish and Chips
Fish and Chips


Bean Soup
Bean Soup


Biscuits and Gravy
Biscuits and Gravy


Waffles
Waffles


Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken


Cornbread
Cornbread


Collard Greens
Collard Greens


Fried Liver
Fried Liver


Peach Preserves
Peach Preserves


Pinto Beans
Pinto Beans


Pound Cake
Pound Cake


Pork Chops
Pork Chops


Watermelon
Watermelon


black man hungry


(images - https://pixabay.com/)
Southern Cooking - Soul Food

    Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.

    This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;

    "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"

    This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.

    Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.

    Breakfast
  • Maryland Beat Biscuit
  • Waffles
  • Cream Cake
  • Flannel Cakes
  • Sallie Lund
  • Egg Corn Bread
  • Plantation Corn Bread
  • Light Bread


  • Broiled Meats
  • Beefsteak
  • Lamb or Mutton Chops
  • Pork Steak or Chops
  • Venison


  • Croquettes
  • Lamb
  • Chicken
  • Crab
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Fish


  • Cakes Etc.
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Almond
  • Feather
  • Sponge
  • Fruit
  • Jelly
  • Carolas
  • Ginger Cookies
  • Sweet Wafers


  • Pickels, Sauces Etc.
  • Sweet Cucumber Pickles
  • Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
  • Chow Chow
  • Creole Chow Chow
  • Cherry Chutney
  • Game Sauce
  • Compound Tomato
  • Napoleon
  • Sweet Pickle Peaches
  • Sweet Pickle Prunes
  • Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
  • Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
  • Milanese Sauce
  • Sauce for Suet Pudding


  • Pies, Etc.
  • Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
  • Preparing the Fruit for Pies
  • Rhubarb
  • Apple
  • Peach
  • Lemon Pies
  • Cocoanut
  • Cream Apple
  • Sweet Potato
  • Gooseberry and Cherry
  • Light Bread
  • Mince
  • Blackberry Roll
  • Oyster


  • Puddings
  • Snow
  • Plum
  • Corn
  • Corn Fritters
  • Batter
  • Rice
  • Yorkshire
  • Cheese
  • Suet


  • Preserves, Spices, ETC.
  • Brandy Peaches
  • Quince Preserves
  • Syrups for Preserves
  • Preserved Peaches
  • Preserved Pears
  • Currant Jelly
  • Cranberry Jelly
  • Strawberry Jam
  • Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
  • Marmalade Peach
  • Crab Apple Jelly
  • Blackberry Brandy
  • Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
  • Preserved Apricots
  • Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
  • Charlotte Eusse
  • Spiced Currants
  • Preserved Cherries


  • Roast Meats
  • Venison
  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Pig
  • Veal
  • Turkey
  • Chicken
  • Birds
  • Quail
  • Domestic Duck
  • Wild Duck


  • Salads
  • Chicken
  • Veal
  • Lamb
  • Shrimp
  • Crab
  • Meat


  • Sherbets
  • Orange
  • Lemon
  • Pineapple


  • Soups, Chowders, Etc.
  • Beef
  • Ox-TaH
  • Calf 's Head
  • Mock Turtle
  • Green Turtle
  • Oyster Gumbo
  • Ochra Gumbo
  • Old Fashioned Turnip
  • Chicken
  • Corn and Tomato
  • Creole
  • Fish Chowder
  • Chicken Gumbo


  • Miscellaneous
  • Fricassed Chicken
  • Fried Chicken
  • Chicken fried Steak
  • Meat Stews or Entrees
  • Ice Cream
  • Boiled Turkey
  • Beef a la Mode
  • Neckbones
  • Spiced Round
  • Hog Maws
  • Stuffed Ham
  • Lima Beans
  • Jumberlie a Creole Dish
  • Baked Fish
  • Ribs, Beef or Pork
  • Boiled Corn
  • Peach Cobbler
  • Egg Plant Stuffed
  • Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
  • Corned Beef Hash
  • Ladies' Custard
  • Tonic Bitters
  • Terrapin Stew
  • Leaven Biscuit
  • Pap for infant Diet
  • Sorghum Syrup
  • Cracklins
  • Meringue for Pudding
  • Circuit Hash


  • What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
    Paperback – March, 1995
    by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)

    http://www.amazon.com/Fisher-Knows-About-Southern-Cooking/dp/1557094039

 

Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)

    Butter: 1 pound
    Sugar: 3 cups
    Eggs: 6
    Milk: 3/4 cup
    Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
    Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
    Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
    Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon

    Directions:
    For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
    Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
    Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
    Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
    Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
    Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
    Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.



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famous african american birthdays

Dink Mothell
Carroll Ray "Dink" Mothell
photo #102-yr-1897

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson
photo #104-yr-1955

Blind Willie Johnson
Blind Willie Johnson
photo #107-yr-1927

Henry Lincoln Johnson
Sergeant Henry Lincoln Johnson, 369th Infantry ("Harlem Hellfighters"), who single-handedly fought off a german raiding party to save his comrade, Private Needham Roberts, 1918.
photo#102-yr-1932


     Famous Birthdays in 1897
  • January 7, 1897 - Rayford Whittingham Logan  was an African-American historian and Pan-African activist. He was best known for his study of post-Reconstruction America, a period he termed "the nadir of American race relations".

  • January 10, 1897 - Amy Ashwood Garvey  was a Jamaican Pan-Africanist activist and the first wife of Marcus Garvey.

  • January 22, 1897 - "Blind" Willie Johnson  was a gospel blues singer and guitarist. While the lyrics of his songs were usually religious, his music drew from both sacred and blues traditions.

  • February 27, 1897 - Marian Anderson,  was an African-American contralto.

  • May 9, 1897 - Rudolph Fisher was an African-American physician, radiologist, novelist, short story writer, dramatist, musician, and orator. His parents were John Wesley Fisher, a clergyman, and Glendora Williamson. Fisher had three children.

  • August 16, 1897 - "Dink" Mothell  was a catcher and utility player who played for 15 years in the Negro Leagues. Known for his versatility, Mothell played every position. It was said you could use him "most any place, any time.

  • October 7, 1897 - Elijah Muhammad,  was an African-American religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975.

  • December 18, 1897 - James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson, Jr.   was an American pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music.

  • 1897 - Maceo Pinkard,  composer was born in Bluefield, West Virginia.

  • 1897 - Henry Lincoln Johnson  was a United States Army soldier who was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and the Purple Heart. He was also the first American soldier in World War I to receive the French Croix de guerre with star and bronze palm.



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famous african american deaths

John Mercer Langston
John Mercer Langston
photo #103-yr-1897

Harriet Ann Jacobs
Harriet Ann Jacobs
photo #104-yr-1897

     Famous Deaths in 1897
  • March 7, 1897 - Harriet Ann Jacobs was an African-American writer who escaped from slavery and was later freed. She became an abolitionist speaker and reformer.

  • November 15, 1897 - John Mercer Langston was an American abolitionist, attorney, educator, activist and politician. He was the first dean of the law school at Howard University and helped create the department. He was the first president of what is now Virginia State University, a historically black college.



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famous african american weddings

Sutton Elbert Griggs
Sutton Elbert Griggs
photo #107-yr-1933

     Famous Weddings in 1897
  • 1897 - Author Sutton Elbert Griggs and teacher Emma Williams were wed in holy matrimony.



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juke joints, party for black people


     It's a Party in 1897
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.




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soul music orgin


black music in the 1800s

Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
African American composers
photo #108-yr-1881

Sissieretta Jones
Sissieretta Jones
photo #103-yr-1883

Sissieretta Jones
Sissieretta Jones
Black Patti Troubadours

photo #106-yr-1896

Storyville, New Orleans
Storyville, New Orleans

     Music in 1897

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • Cakewalk Dance was a strutting dance popular at the end of the 19th century, developed from a black-American contest in graceful walking that had a cake as a prize.

  • Buck Dances

  • Chalkline-Walk

  • Walk-Around

  Musical Happenings in 1897:
  • Sissieretta Jones formed the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers. Jones sang passionately and pursued her career choice of opera and various repertory regardless to her lack of audience attendance. For more than two decades, Jones remained the star of the Famous Troubadours, while they graciously toured every season and established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States. The Black Patti Troubadours reveled in vernacular music and dance. Jones retired from performing in 1915.


  • By 1881, Billy Johnson was performing in minstrel shows. In 1886 he joined Lew Johnson's Minstrels and the following year moved to Hicks and Sawyer's minstrels, where he stayed for six seasons. He began writing songs and eventually landed a job with Bob Cole as songwriter and stage producer for the more upscale Black Patti Troubadours. Cole and Johnson produced a musical sketch for Black Patti, then left that company to create their musical, A Trip to Coontown (1898), the first full-length black-produced musical on an American stage.


  • Will Accooe was an important songwriter during the birth of the black musical. By 1896, Accord was working as musical director for John Isham's Octoroons, a fruitful and popular quasi-minstrel troupe.

    Storyville was the red-light district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 to 1917. It was established by municipal ordinance under the New Orleans City Council, to regulate prostitution and drugs. The ordinance did not legalize prostitution but rather designated a sixteen block area as the part of the city in which it was not illegal. The area was originally referred to as "The District," but its nickname, "Storyville," soon caught on. It became a centralized attraction in the heart of New Orleans. Only a few of its remnants are now visible. Establishments in Storyville ranged from cheap "cribs" to more expensive houses, up to a row of elegant mansions along Basin Street for well-heeled customers. New Orleans' cribs were 50-cent joints, whereas the more expensive establishments could cost up to $10. Black and white brothels coexisted in Storyville; but black men were barred from legally purchasing services in either black or white brothel.   Trivia:  It's interesting to note that Jim Crow even restricted the Negro male from legally purchasing the services of a prostitute. Amazing! In the early 1900s, a Blue Book could be purchased for 25 cents. Blue Books were created for tourists and those unfamiliar with this area of New Orleans and contained, in alphabetical order, the names of all the prostitutes of Storyville, and separated them based on race.
    Jazz did not originate in Storyville, but it flourished there as in the rest of the city. Many out-of-town visitors first heard this style of music there before the music spread north. Some outsiders continue to associate Storyville with the origins of jazz. It was the tradition in the better Storyville establishments to hire a piano player and sometimes small bands. Famous musicians who got their start in Storyville include Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, and Pops Foster.
    At the start of World War I, Secretary of War Newton Baker did not want troops to have distractions while deploying. The Navy had troops located in New Orleans, and the city was pressed to close Storyville. Prostitution was made illegal in 1917 and Storyville was used for the purpose of entertainment. Most of its buildings were later destroyed.



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why do many dislike white people


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


How did it begin?

Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.

The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.

good white americans
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.

Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.

Why so?

Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.

Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?

Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.

Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.

good black americans

Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.

why do many dislike white people
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races."  (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015


The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:

Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".

Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.

Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.

When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.

Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.

The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.


O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.

The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.

But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically every single race in America's colleges.

That's interesting, but what does it prove?

It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.

Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.

What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

good whites Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.

Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.

Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.

Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.

There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.

Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.

Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.

Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America. So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.

It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.

aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy, adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable, inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind, unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.

More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.

Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915

One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


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William C. Billy McClain
William C. ("Billy") McClain
photo #101-yr-1895

Lady fashion in 1890
The illustration represents a corsage by Charvet. It is a blouse of pink cambric finely plaited, and with a white cascade frill, also of cambric, down the center. The scarf is of white cambric and the waistband of pink cambric.
photo #101-yr-1890

Men fashion in 1890
Early 1890s fashion includes gray coat with covered buttons and matching waistcoat, dark trousers, short turnover shirt collar, and floppy bow tie. The short hair and pointed beard are typical.
photo #101-yr-1890

work fashions in 1890s
Work fashions in the 1890s (housekeeper)
photo #103-yr-1890

hair styles in 1890s
Dapper young African-American woman with Afro-textured hair wearing a hat.
photo #112-yr-1890



The Black Victorians (Victorian Era 1800s-1900s)


     Fashions and Styles in 1897

  Popular Hairstyles:

  • After the American Civil War and emancipation, many blacks migrated to towns or cities, where they were influenced by new styles. Many straightened their hair to conform to white beauty ideals. They wanted to succeed, and to avoid mistreatment and legal and social discrimination. Some women, and a smaller number of men, lightened their hair with household bleach. They used creams and lotions, combined with hot irons, to straighten hair. The black hair care industry was initially dominated by white-owned businesses. In the late 19th century, African-American entrepreneurs such as Annie Turbo Malone, Madam C. J. Walker, Madam Gold S.M. Young, Sara Spencer Washington and Garrett Augustus Morgan revolutionized hair care by inventing and marketing chemical (and heat-based) applications to alter the natural tightly curled texture. Men began using pomades, and other products, to achieve the standard aesthetic look.



  Popular Fashions:

  • Men:
    By the 1890s, the sack coat was fast replacing the frock coat for most informal and semi-formal occasions. Three-piece suits ("ditto suits") consisting of a sack coat with matching vest and trousers were worn, as were matching coat and waistcoat with contrasting trousers. Shirt collars were turned over or pressed into "wings", and became taller through the decade. The usual necktie was a four-in-hand or an Ascot tie, made up as a neckband with wide wings attached and worn with a stickpin, but the 1890s also saw the return of the bow tie for day dress.

  • Women:
    Early 1890s dresses consisted of a tight bodice with the skirt gathered at the waist and falling more naturally over the hips and undergarments than in previous years. Corsets in the 1890s helped define the hourglass figure. Afternoon dresses typical of the time period had high necks, wasp waists, puffed sleeves and bell-shaped skirts. Evening gowns had a squared decolletage, a wasp-waist cut and skirts with long trains.

  • Portrait of the stylish African-American impresario William C. ("Billy") McClain in late 1800s.



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George Jordan
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1890s

Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
photo #107-yr-1872

depression of 1893
Drawing of frenzied stockbrokers in the 1893 depression. The panic of '93 was the worst economic depression the United States had ever experienced at the time. The U.S. economy began to recover in 1897
photo #103-yr-1894

Our Community in 1897

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:


  • Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller who was well known for his contributions into Alzheimer's disease research, graduated with an MD in 1897 from Boston University School of Medicine, which as a homeopathic institution was open to both African-American and women students. He pursued further research at the psychiatric clinic of the University of Munich, Germany studying under Emil Kraepelin and Alois Alzheimer.


  • March 5, 1897 - The American Negro Academy (ANA) was an intellectual organization that supported African-American scholarship. It was organized in Washington DC, in 1897. The organization was the first in the United States dedicated to African-American scholars, and it operated from 1897 to 1928.


  • 1897 - William Purvis receives a patent for the electric railway switch.


  • The United States Population is 62,947,714 with a total of 7,488,676 being African Americans.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - Lulu: I loves yer, Lulu, words and music by Will Accooe. African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congress.

#101 -   Public Domain image - George Walker] detail from "When the moon shines" (New York: Attucks Music Co., 1904). Historic American Sheet Music, 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congress.

#102 -   Public Domain image -By 1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg: J.E. Mille[r], K.C.derivative work: Delaywaves talk • contribs (1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Mathew Brady [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   By JamesReyes at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons


#106 -  [Public domain] images

Pearl Mae Bailey
photo#100-yr-1918

Dinah Washington
photo #101-yr-1948

Jonah Jones
photo #100-yr-1960

Ornette Coleman
photo #104-yr-1960


#107 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#108 -   By Unknown or not provided (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#109 -   By Courtney Art Studio [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#110 -   By No machine-readable author provided. Infrogmation assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL or CC BY 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons



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