blast from the past

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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1912:
Buxton, Iowa
    This city of Buxton, is a real success story for the American Negro, and trust me we could finally use some good news for our race of people. Buxton was a classic company town; it was unincorporated, and the company was the sole landlord. The owner, Mr. Buxton looked upon the city as a growing child he loved to nurture.

    In 1908, the town covered approximately one square mile, with about 1000 houses, typically with 5 or 6 rooms each. Everything was owned by the coal company. Rental housing was only available to married couples, at a rate of $5.50 to $6.50 per month. Single men were not permitted, and families were having any disorder were evicted on five days' notice. The average wage in the mines was $3.63 per day in 1908 when the mines employed 1239 men. Monthly wages varied from $70.80 for day laborers, but about 100 men made over $140 per month. This left the workers with a little money in their pockets after paying rent.

    Black people held many leadership roles. The postmaster, superintendent of schools, most of the teachers, two justices of the peace, two constables and two deputy sheriffs were African American. The Bank of Buxton had only one cashier. Also African American and one of the civil engineers working for the mining company was African American. There were also barber shops, a newspaper, a black company surgeon, company store, tailor shop, a butcher shop, and a hotel, all run by African Americans.

    Noted educator Richard R. Wright wrote:
    "The relations of the white minority to the black majority are most cordial. No case of assault by a black man on a white woman has ever been heard of in Buxton. Both races go to school together; both work in the same mines, clerk in the same stores, and live side by side."

    In 1908, Booker T. Washington wrote of Buxton as "a colony of some four or five thousand Colored people ... to a large extent, a self-governing colony, but it is a success." He recommended a study of Buxton to a textile manufacturer interested in raising capital for a cotton mill employing black labor.

    The coal company gave the YMCA free use of a building, valued at $20,000. The YMCA had a reading room and library, gym, baths, kitchen, dining room, and a meeting hall available for the use of labor unions and lodges. The Buxton YMCA drew "the color line" and did "not allow white men in the membership," although they were "allowed to attend the entertainments, a privilege freely used." The Buxton YMCA offered a variety of adult education programs, including literacy and hygiene classes, as well as a variety of public lectures. The YMCA also controlled the Opera House, keeping out "objectionable and immoral shows."

    By not allowing whites into their membership, Does it seem these Negroes had racist attitudes themselves? It's almost like saying that discrimination and prejudice is OK to practice. When the Negro takes the high road in race issues, we leave the lost ones defenceless.

    Years later the center of mining activity had moved miles to the west of Buxton, and it made good sense to open new mining camps closer to the mines. By 1938, the Federal Writers Project Guide to Iowa reported that the site of Buxton was abandoned and that the locations of Buxton's former "stores, churches, and schoolhouses are marked only by stakes." Every September, hundreds of former Buxton residents met on the old town's site for a reunion.

    Buxton gave us a preview of how life could be a fair and just community with the black person and whites living together. We honor these residents for giving us a glimpse into a hopeful future, learning about their amazing story of success in the American way. We honor these pioneers with the 1912 Hamite Award which is given to those you have blazed a path of achievement and accomplishment for others to follow.

    In 1911-1912, blacks had begun leaving Buxton, with whites becoming the majority by 1915. It was very rare and refreshing to hear a positive story where Negroes were not getting lynched and murdered, and everyone was just getting along. Thanks, Buxton, and that also goes for our white American brothers who lived in the city.

annual hamite award
Buxton, Iowa
"Figure 56. Steel tipple, showing box car loader. Shaft No. 10, Consolidation Coal Company, Buxton.

photo#103-yr-1908



Searching For Buxton


Buxton, Iowa black people

A group of Buxton men in the YMCA
photo#104-yr-1908


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OH NO! THE UNSINKABLE TITANIC HAS SUNK unsinkable titanic
The RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early morning of April 15, 1912,
after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from the UK to New York City. The sinking resulted in the loss of
more than 1,500 passengers and crew, making it one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in modern history.



1912: The Maiden Voyage of the Titanic - 20th Century Almanac



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How were blacks feeling in 1912?
sad mood of blacks

The Negroes say in unison, THANK YOU, THANK YOU, THANK YOU so much Mr. Julius Rosenwald. We will make sure to teach our kids about the beautiful gestures you've made toward the lowly American black person. This is the year Mr. Rosenwald started a program of aiding education in the black community. Rosenwald contributed more than $4 million in matching funds to the construction of more than 5,000 schools, shops, and teachers' homes in the South, built and overseen by Tuskegee. Black communities raised more than $4.7 million to aid in construction. These schools became informally known as "Rosenwald Schools."
Julius Rosenwald
Julius Rosenwald
photo #109-yr-1912


Did this man get our community spirit pumped up! You better believe he did! This was a joyous time in our otherwise sad and disappointing existence.

Rosenwald's philanthropy was not restricted to the South, Rosenwald would go on to commission one of Chicago's largest nonprofit housing developments: the Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments was one of the first American housing developments to mix residential, commercial and social uses.

Rosenwald planned the development of 421 units to provide sound housing for African Americans and to relieve the tremendous overcrowding due to Chicago's pervasive racial segregation. The development also included 14 stores along the 47th Street side of the property, four of which were occupied by black-owned businesses and a nursery school.

This man is helping an American brother on his feet. We don't want any handouts, all we want is a chance, a fair chance, and level playing field and then we can show the world how smart we can be.

We realize there are still many of us that cannot read or write, but that only because as slaves it was illegal for us to learn, and anyone caught teaching us was punished with a felony, a serious crime. But we are free now and want to learn, not working in a field that we will never own, pick cotton all our lives. We want to assimilate into American culture for our piece of the pie.

But there are Jim Crow roadblocks at every turn, and it was just so wonderful when Mr. Rosenwald felt our pain and helped us the way he did, something our government refuses to do since emancipation. SHAMEFUL

We agree with the late President, Benjamin Harrison when he said:

"The colored people did not intrude themselves upon us; they were brought here in chains and held in communities where they are now chiefly bound by a cruel slave code... When and under what conditions is the black man to have a free ballot? When is he in fact to have those full civil rights which have so long been his in law? This generation should courageously face these important questions, and not leave them as a heritage of woe to the next. "

America is our home and belongs to us just as much as the next person. We have died for it before, and we will die for it again. This Negro problem is too big and is not just going to disappear but grows larger and larger. America didn't lay the proper foundation for Negro assimilation into American culture. They would rather pass this situation on to the next generation until they can't pass it any longer and forced to face it.

NOTE: This is indeed an unsuspected and greatly appreciated surprise with Mr. Rosenwald's gift of American brotherly love, but sadly wasn't enough to change the mood of blacks during this period in history. Because of the hate and restrictions by whites and our government against the black person, it would take monumental events to change it.



The incredible story of Julius Rosenwald, who never finished high school, but rose to become the President of Sears. Influenced by the writings of the educator Booker T. Washington, this Jewish philanthropist joined forces with African American communities during the Jim Crow South to build over 5,300 schools during the early part of the 20th century.



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african americans in sports 1912


Homestead Grays: Gone But Not Forgotten


      Sports in 1912
  • 1912 - The Homestead Grays (also known as Washington Grays or Washington Homestead Grays) were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro leagues in the United States. The team was formed in 1912 by Cumberland Posey, and would remain in continuous operation for 38 seasons.



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1912 New York Lincoln Giants
1912 New York Lincoln Giants, Top Row: L-R: Bill Francis, Pete Booker, John Henry Lloyd,
George Wright, Spot Poles. Bottom Row: L-R: Ashby Dunbar, Louis 'Santop' Loftin,
Smokey Joe Williams, mascot, Dick Redding, Bill Pettus, Charlie Bradford.

photo #108-yr-1912


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african immigrants out-perform other ethnic groups


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blacks and education


History of Education (1900-1950)
Black and Mexican kids were excluded


      Education in 1912
  • 1912 - The Rosenwald Schools began operations. Rosenwald Schools was the name informally applied to over five thousand schools, shops, and teachers' homes in the United States which were built primarily for the education of African-Americans in the early 20th century. Trivia: Well, I can't believe somebody really cares about the Negro. Every once in awhile in history a great human being appears on the scene and helps his fellow man. This particular man is Julius Rosenwald who was part owner of the famous Sears and Roebuck company. Rosenwald was very interested in social issues and described the NEGRO SITUATION AS THE MOST SERIOUS PROBLEM IN THE UNITED STATES. This is what we have been saying for years now, and finally, someone steps up to not only acknowledge that fact but to do something about it. Mr. Rosenwald would go on to build 5,000 schools, over 200 homes for teachers, and other school-related buildings. These schools would occupy in 883 counties in 15 states, from Maryland to Texas. The Rosenwald Fund used a system of matching grants. Black communities raised more than $4.7 million to aid in construction. Research has found that the Rosenwald program accounts for a sizable portion of the educational gains of rural Southern blacks. This research also found significant effects on school attendance, literacy, years of schooling, cognitive test scores, and Northern migration, with gains highest in the most disadvantaged counties. Words cannot describe our heartfelt gratitude for the countless black lives you touched and showed brotherly love is the way the black person felt about Mr. Rosenwald. Can you guess why he did it? He said he did it for "the well-being of mankind." After pumping 70 million dollars into the program, it funds were depleted, and they had to abandon the program because the state wouldn't match funds.

  • 1912 - Tennessee State University opened with a class of 247.

  • 1912 - Jarvis Christian College was founded, located near Hawkins, Texas.




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blacks and politics

William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
photo #105-yr-1909

 Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
photo #110-yr-1912


15-0706 Woodrow Wilson Racist


      Political Scene in 1912
  • November 5, 1912 - Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected as the 28th President of the United States.


  • William Howard Taft was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices. Sidenote: Looks like another four years of frustration for the Negro with Taft at the helm. There was hardly any help with the Negroes problems in his administration, and whites are still stepping up their assault on the little progress the black people are etching out. Congress, who was voted in by white citizens passed a law that made it a requirement to pass a literacy test in the workplace, which had the support of all the white labor unions, but to his credit, Taft vetoed the bill. For those that don't know, most blacks were still illiterate at this point in history. They had endured over 200 years of slavery, forbidden to learn to read and write. In fact if anyone was caught teaching them, it was a severe crime, a felony. After emancipation, there were schools opened for the Negro to teach them to read and write but because of white displeasure and pressure, were shut done after a few short years. Slavery was outlawed, but whites still controlled the black person with certain requirements they knew they wouldn't be able to perform, like literacy test, which was already a must for those wishing to vote. This was an obvious and clear assault on the Negroes Civil Rights protected by the US Constitution. But not one single President wants to acknowledge this issue and much more for black citizens. Read a quote from his predecessor Theodore Roosevelt, and you tell me if these Presidents are in a fantasy world and out of touch with the black citizens.

    'the President has not just a right but a duty to do anything demanded by the needs of the nation unless such action is forbidden by the Constitution or federal law."

    Hey, Mr. Roosevelt, I believe we have many needs within our Constitutional rights you didn't even want to address. Amazing! I guess the Negro is invisible or doesn't exist to these Presidents, or they wish would disappear. But this is our home and us ain't going nowhere, is the way the black person felt. One day you're gonna have to be fair and deal with us, and then what are you going to do when you have a community full of uneducated angry blacks as your neighbors? Taft met with Booker T. Washington and publicly endorsed his program for the uplifting of black Americans, advising them to stay out of politics at the time and emphasize education and entrepreneurship. But nothing of substance came from the meeting. Instead of laying the foundation for a robust and united America, it was all a pretense.




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SOUTHERN HATE  if I said it once I must say it again, these people ain't normal!

The Civil War Is Over, Why Do You Still Hate Me So Much Man?


southern hate

There were over 179,000 black soldiers who fought in the Civil War for their freedom and the right to become American citizens. Many brave souls died. They thought once it was over things would be better for the colored people. But it wasn't and especially in the South.


What the HELL! Why do these southern whites hate blacks so much and fight against our pursuit of happiness at every turn? They ain't normal, and surely not American, because if they were they would believe all are created equal, which is what our country was founded on.


Southern whites had enjoyed a lifestyle much better than their ancestors before them. Before arriving in America, most white immigrants were destitute and severely oppressed by their governments. Many were uneducated peasants and serfs not much better off than a black slave. When they finally encountered blacks in America, they showed little empathy toward them.


No longer on the bottom rung of the ladder of humanity, these white immigrants would also proclaim themselves superior and joined the higher class of whites in dominating blacks unmercifully for many years. Whites as a group was happy as a lark even the not so intelligent ones.


The North understood slavery to be a temporary situation, but in contrast Southern whites viewed it as a permanent institution that should be expanded into new territories that hadn't been admitted to the union yet. Stop the Slave Power at all cost was the North's goal. This reason the Civil War started, not because Abraham Lincoln had this burning desire to free the slaves.


Before the war, southern whites grew very comfortable with their lifestyle and after losing it blamed blacks for everything. Many were brilliant and proud people. Now can you imagine proud, intelligent white people who had dominated blacks for hundreds of years, and faced with the possibility of black equality and being governed by the same individuals they mistreated and spit on and looked upon as ignorant savage beast?


They viciously fought against equality for black people at every turn and opportunity. They considered themselves true Sons of the South, do or die.


They had to feel like the North was punishing and embarrassing them by giving blacks American citizenship and the right to vote. Southern whites would kill many blacks for what they perceived as upholding their honor. What did the North do? They made a show of attempting to help black people, but in the end, that's all it was a show. In reality, they used blacks as a pawn to teach the South a lesson in hopes that one day the southern faithful would reconcile their hearts to the Union of America as one big happy white American family.



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Childish racism


racism

A man lynched from a tree
A man lynched from a tree. Face partially concealed by angle and headgear.
photo #109-yr-1906


The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States


      Race in 1912
  • 1912 - A total of sixty-one African-Americans are known to have been lynched in 1912.



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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Evelyn Preer
Actress Evelyn Preer
photo #104-yr-1896


Remembering Evelyn Preer


      Movies in 1912
  • Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"



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famous african american birthdays

 Gordon  Parks
Gordon Parks
photo #113-yr-1912

Henry Armstrong
Henry Armstrong
photo #107-yr-1938


Dorothy Irene Height
Dorothy Height
photo #108-yr-1957

      Famous Birthdays in 1912
  • March 24, 1912 - Dorothy Irene Height  administrator and educator, was a civil rights and women's rights activist.

  • June 13, 1912 - Nina Mae McKinney  was an American actress who worked internationally during the 1930s and in the postwar period in theatre, film and television, after getting her start on Broadway and in Hollywood. Dubbed "The Black Garbo" in Europe because of her striking beauty.

  • August 12, 1912 - Thelma Johnson Streat   was an African American artist, dancer, and educator, who gained prominence in the 1940s for her art, performance and work to foster inter-cultural understanding and appreciation.

  • November 30, 1912 - Gordon Parks  photographer, musician, writer and film director.

  • December 8, 1912 - Bill Bailey  was an African-American tap dancer. Bill was the first person to be recorded doing the Moonwalk, although he referred to it as the "Backslide", in the film Cabin In the Sky. He was the brother of Pearl Bailey.

  • December 12, 1912 - Henry Armstrong  was an American professional boxer and a world boxing champion. He is regarded as one of the greatest fighters of all time by many boxing critics and fellow professionals.



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famous african american deaths

 Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor
photo #104-yr-1899


Samuel Coleridge-Taylor - Romance in G for violin and orchestra


     Famous Deaths in 1912
  • February 7, 1912 - Edward Wilmot Blyden   the father of pan-Africanism; was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician.

  • August 29, 1912 - Robert Reed Church  was an African-American entrepreneur, businessman and landowner in Memphis, Tennessee who began his rise during the American Civil War.

  • September 1, 1912 - Samuel Coleridge-Taylor  composer of Creole descent who achieved such success that he was once called the "African Mahler.

  • September 3, 1912 - Josephine Silone Yates   trained in chemistry, was one of the first black teachers hired at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri, and, upon her promotion, the first black woman to head a college science department.



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why do many dislike white people


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


How did it begin?

Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.

The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.

good white americans
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.

Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.

Why so?

Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.

Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?

Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.

Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.

good black americans

Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.

why do many dislike white people
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races."  (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015


The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:

Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".

Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.

Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.

Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.

Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.

When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.

Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.

The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.


O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.

The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.

But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically every single race in America's colleges.

That's interesting, but what does it prove?

It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.

Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.

What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.

good whites Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese died during this time.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.

Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.

Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.

Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.

There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.

Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.

Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.

Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America. So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.

It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.

aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy, adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable, inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind, unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.

More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.

Frank Sinatra
photo#101-yr-1915

One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.

"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."


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famous african american weddings

Jack Johnson marries
Jack Johnson
photo #107-yr-1912

     Famous Weddings in 1912
  • September 25, 1912 - Florence Beatrice Smith Price  and  Thomas Jewell Price are wed in holy matrimony.

  • 1912 - Jack Johnson and  Lucille Cameron are wed in holy matrimony.



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famous african american divorces

Madam Walker
Madam Walker
photo #101-yr-1919


Madam CJ Walker - Early Life


     Famous Divorces in 1912
  • 1912 - Hair Queen, Madam C. J. Walker  and Charles Walker  were divorced.



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Howard Theatre
Howard Theatre at 620 T Street NW, with inset of manager, Andrew J. Thomas (ca. 1910-1919).
photo #110-yr-1915

George Walker
Vaudeville star George Walker
photo #114-yr-1908

Egbert  Austin Williams
Egbert "Bert" Austin Williams
photo #104-yr-1910

Howard Theatre interior
Howard Theatre interior
photo #111-yr-1915

     Entertainment in 1912
  • George Walker formed the The Frogs (club) Why did George Walker start a black club for actors when he could have just joined the American Actors Beneficial Association? Because like everything else in America, it was becoming commonplace for blacks and whites to be separated in everything. Doctors, Realtors, Lawyers, Unions, etc. and every other organization you can think of was segregated. It's almost like whites needed a race of people such as the lowly black person to measure its greatness against. Blacks had no choice but to organize for their benefit. The Negro didn't want it this way, but like a famous rapper once said: "That's just the way it is" The American Actors Beneficial Association excluded blacks from its memberships and didn't appreciate it when Walker formed the Frogs. His original start up group, The Colored Vaudeville Benevolent Association, received negative attitude from white producers. The concept of the colored man supporting himself through performance and no longer just “taking what they were given” posed a threat to the white vaudevillian and theatrical community. With this, Walker set forth to create The Frogs. On July 18, 1908, at Walker’s home at 52 West 153rd St in Harlem, eleven of the most prominent names in the industry formed together to create the African American theatrical organization. The Frogs became known for their big event “The Frolic of the Frogs” or “The Frogs Frolic” every August at the Manhattan Casino (New York City) at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue. For 50 cents, people enjoyed a combination ball, party, and vaudeville show where favors were given to the ladies and door prizes went to the three individuals wearing unique costumes symbolic of the frogs. With a large success in the early years of the event, “The Frolic of the Frogs” was able to tour their event in cities such as Philadelphia, Richmond, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Popularity in the frolic was found among both blacks and whites. We love happy stories like "The Frogs" had given the people of New York. Come on let's face it, 99% of the time because of racial oppression; it's was negative for the Negro. George Walker died in 1911, but his longtime friend Bert Williams would take over the company continuing its incredible success well into the 1920s.


  • The Howard Theatre is a historic theater, located at 620 T Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. Opened in 1910, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In its heyday, the theater was known for catering to an African-American clientele, and had played host to many of the great black musical artists of the early and mid-twentieth century. The Howard Theatre was billed as the "Theater of the People", and supported two theatrical organizations, the Lafayette Players and the Howard University Players.



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

It's a Party in 1912

    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.




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inkwell beach

Fun At The Beach?

The Negro has historically been excluded from every aspect of American life and success, but what about the public beaches, was he made to feel unwelcome there also?

In a word. HELL YEAH. I'm sorry, that's two words.

If a Negro and his family attempted to visit a public beach, he would be met with sure violence from whites. It wasn't until after the Civil Rights protest in the 60s that the fight for equal access to public accommodations made it illegal to exclude the Negro.

One popular beach that blacks congregated was in Southern California. It was called "Ink Well" for obvious reasons. It served the black community very well.

You're not going to believe how blacks acquired another little piece of paradise in the same area called Bruce's Beach. A wonderful white American brother named George H. Peck who was a wealthy developer and the founder of Manhattan Beach, "bucked" the practice of racial exclusion and set aside two city blocks of the beachfront area and made them available for purchase by African Americans.

Jumping on this incredible opportunity, Willa and Charles Bruce purchased property in the Strand area and built a bathhouse, and dining area that catered to blacks. Peck would also go on to develop "Peck's Pier," the only pier in the area open to African Americans. In time because of increased racial tension and the value of beachfront property rising, the city pushed the blacks out claiming the eminent domain law. This type of exclusion was typical all across America for the Negro.



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soul music orgin


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Sissieretta Jones
Sissieretta Jones
photo #103-yr-1883

Sissieretta Jones
Sissieretta Jones
Black Patti Troubadours

photo #106-yr-1896

Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
African American composers
photo #108-yr-1881

James Reese Europe
James Reese Europe sheet music cover for "Good Night Angeline"
photo #102-yr-1910

W. C. Handy
W. C. Handy
photo #106-yr-1928

Storyville, New Orleans
Storyville, New Orleans


SISSIERETTA JONES &BLACK OPERA SINGERS,BILL DOGGETT LECTURE UC IRVINE



A visit to Storyville, New Orleans' most famous red light district


     Music in 1912

  Popular Soul Dances
  • The Texas Tommy

  • Turkey Trot



  Musical Happenings in 1912:
  • 1912 - The "Father of the Blues W.C. Handy published "Memphis Blues" sheet music in Memphis, Tennessee.


  • A series of concerts begin to be held in New York, sponsored by the Clef Club and the Music School Settlement for Colored; these attract large, mixed-race audiences, and inspire other similar concerts in cities around the country.


  • Sissieretta Jones formed the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers. Jones sang passionately and pursued her career choice of opera and varied repertory regardless to her lack of audience attendance. For more than two decades, Jones remained the star of the Famous Troubadours, while they graciously toured every season and established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States. The Black Patti Troubadours reveled in vernacular music and dance. Jones retired from performing in 1915.


  • John Rosamund Johnson was one of the more prominent figures in black music in the first part of the 20th century, usually in partnership with Bob Cole or with his brother James Weldon Johnson. While he is chiefly remembered today as the composer of the Black National Anthem, "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing," he had a varied career as a pianist, songwriter, producer, soldier, singer, and actor.


  • James Reese Europe, the first black bandleader in the country, presents the first Concert of Negro Music at Carnegie Hall, the first "organized attempt" to showcase African American music for mainstream audiences in New York.


  • Eubie Blake said of James Reese Europe, "He was our benefactor and inspiration. Even more, he was the Martin Luther King of music." Europe earned this praise by being an unflagging innovator not only in his compositions and orchestrations but his organizational ability and leadership. One of America's greatest musicians, he progressed from strength to strength but was pointlessly cut down at what seemed like the pinnacle of his career. Trivia: On the night of May 9, 1919, Europe performed for the last time. He had been feeling extremely ill all day but wanted to continue with the concert. During the intermission Europe went to have a talk with two of his drummers, Steve and Herbert Wright criticizing some of their behavior (walking off stage during others' performances), Herbert Wright became very agitated and threw his drumsticks down in a seemingly unwarranted outburst of anger. He claimed Europe did not treat him well and that he was tired of getting blamed for others' mistakes. He lunged for Europe with a pen knife and was able to stab Europe in the neck. Europe told his band to finish the set, and he would see them the next morning. It would be the last time they saw him alive.


  • Charles "Luckeyth" Roberts (1893-1968) was an accomplished pianist and composer. Along with James P. Johnson,, he is considered one of the founders of the Harlem stride piano "school." Roberts has been called "one of the hardest pounding colored players of any weight." One of his early compositions, "Ripples of the Nile" (1912), was restyled "Moonlight Cocktail" and became the theme of the Glen Miller Band. Roberts recorded two unissued solo piano sides for Columbia in 1916. These were his compositions "Shoo Fly" and "Shy and Sly." Although he accompanied other artists in late-1920s recordings, he did not record again under his name until 1946. Roberts performed as a vaudevillian singer, dancer, and pianist in the United States and Europe. He also organized and conducted his ensembles, ran a music studio and played background piano for radio.


  • William H. Tyers was a prominent musician among the new generation of black musicians and performers who burst upon the New York City scene after 1898. Panama is a jazz standard, started by William H. Tyers, originally entitled "Panama, (which were familiar with black bands) a Characteristic Novelty," published in 1912. He arranged the songs for The Policy Players, Bert Williams, and George Walker's other New York City musical.


  • The first piano-roll recordings of African American performers are made by the QRS company, a subsidiary of the Melville Clark Piano Company.


  • Storyville was the red-light district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 to 1917. It was established by municipal ordinance under the New Orleans City Council, to regulate prostitution and drugs. The ordinance did not legalize prostitution but rather designated a sixteen block area as the part of the city in which it was not illegal. The area was originally referred to as "The District," but its nickname, "Storyville," soon caught on. It became a centralized attraction in the heart of New Orleans. Only a few of its remnants are now visible. Establishments in Storyville ranged from cheap "cribs" to more expensive houses, up to a row of elegant mansions along Basin Street for well-heeled customers. New Orleans' cribs were 50-cent joints, whereas the most expensive establishments could cost up to $10. Black and white brothels coexisted in Storyville; but black men were barred from legally purchasing services in either black or white brothel.   Trivia:  It's interesting to note that Jim Crow even restricted the Negro male from legally purchasing the services of a prostitute. Amazing! In the early 1900s, a Blue Book could be purchased for 25 cents. Blue Books were created for tourists and those unfamiliar with this area of New Orleans and contained, in alphabetical order, the names of all the prostitutes of Storyville, and separated them based on race.
    Jazz did not originate in Storyville, but it flourished there as in the rest of the city. Many out-of-town visitors first heard this style of music there before the music spread north. Some outsiders continue to associate Storyville with the origins of jazz. It was the tradition in the better Storyville establishments to hire a piano player and sometimes small bands. Famous musicians who got their start in Storyville include Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, and Pops Foster.
    At the start of World War I, Secretary of War Newton Baker did not want troops to have distractions while deploying. The Navy had troops located in New Orleans, and the city was pressed to close Storyville. Prostitution was made illegal in 1917 and Storyville was used for the purpose of entertainment. Most of its buildings were later destroyed.



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black fashion in 1900
George Walker and Bert Williams in the early 1900s
photo#117-yr-1900

black fashion in 1900
Fashionable Bert Williams in the 1900s
photo#103-yr-1910

black womens fashion in 1910s
Women's fashion in 1910s
photo#111-yr-1910

black womens fashion in 1910s
Women's fashion in 1910s
photo#112-yr-1910

black mens fashion in 1910s
Men's fashion in 1910s
photo#113-yr-1910


Stock Footage - 1910's Fashion


      Fashions in 1912

  Popular Fashions:

    Popular entertainers of the 1990s, George Walker and Bert Williams in the fancy clothes they wore back in the early 1900s. Sharp as a tack!

    Overview:
    Fashion in the years 1910–1919 is characterized by a rich and exotic opulence in the first half of the decade in contrast with the somber practicality of garments worn during the Great War. Men's trousers were worn cuffed to ankle-length and creased. Skirts rose from floor length to well above the ankle, women began to bob their hair, and the stage was set for the radical new fashions associated with the Jazz Age of the 1920s.

    Women:
    During the early years of the 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid and soft than in the 1900s. Waistlines were loose and softly defined. They gradually dropped to near the natural waist by mid-decade, where they were to remain through the war years. Tunics became longer and underskirts fuller and shorter. By 1916 women were wearing calf-length dresses. Changes dress during World War I were dictated more by necessity than fashion. As more and more women were forced to work, they demanded clothes that were better suited to their new activities; these derived from the shirtwaists and tailored suits. Social events were postponed in favor of more pressing engagements and the need to mourn the increasing numbers of dead, visits to the wounded, and the general gravity of the time meant that darker colors and simpler cuts became the norm. Costume jewelry was introduced. Expensive necklaces were replaced with glass or crystal beads.

    Men:
    In general, styles were unchanged from the previous decade. The sack coat or lounge coat continued to replace the frock coat for most informal and semi-formal occasions. The gap between the shorter trousers and the shoes was filled with short gaiters or spats. The most formal evening dress remained a dark tail coat and trousers with a dark or light waistcoat. Evening wear was worn with a white bow tie and a shirt with a winged collar. Gentlemen of all classes, especially the middle and working class often wore the newsboy cap and flat cap.



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Dang it! We're so Tired of all the Hate

We can't wait to leave this wicked South,
and make the big bucks in the North!
Will our white American brothers love us there?

What type of employment awaits the Negro in the 1900s?



african americans working the farms
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia Postmarked 1912
photo #119-yr-1900

90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s. King Cotton was still a big source of income for blacks. These workers were hired as temporary help. Many were tenant farmers, renting a piece of land and some of their tools and supplies, and paying the rent at the end of the growing season with a portion of their harvest. White and black farm laborers were paid comparable wages, and rental rates. Blacks didn't exclusively work in the cotton fields, for example some blacks worked in the Turpentine industry.


african americans working the farms
"Dipping and scraping pine trees. Turpentine industry in Florida." Postmarked 1912
photo#126-yr-1900


Whites were much more likely to own land as opposed to blacks. Black children were unlikely to be in school because they helped the parents in the fields to support the family and also because of a lack of good quality schools. Funds that were intended for black schools went to white schools instead in the form of raising teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while reducing class size. Black schools suffered at this expense. Separate but Equal was a big lie, because it was anything but equal. The government didn't have a special watchdog organization to enforce these racist laws, and the requirement of equality was not enforced. Black children never really had a fair chance.


Boll weevil ruins Cotton Crops in the 1920s

Of course hindsight is 20-20. But wouldn't it have been nice if during slavery someone would have thought to travel to Mexico and bring back the Cotton boll weevil to transplant them into Southern cotton crops?
 boll weevil
Cotton boll weevil
Where were you when we really
needed you, pre-1863?

photo#127-yr-1900

A little integration of the boll weevil and Mr. King Cotton would have been a good thing for the Negro. We wonder what kind of effect that would have had on chattel slavery?

Well what the heck is a boll weevil?

The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south.

Southern blacks were tied to the cotton fields in the early 1900s, but after 1914, many were fed up and wanted to try something new and different. By then they were open for a change because of restrictive Jim Crow laws and the boll weevil destroyed many crops, putting them out of work. They decided to take the plunge, a new and exciting life for them. Their move was called the Great Migration. News had spread to these poor black Southerners about better opportunities in the North, so many of them packed up their belongings and bid farewell to the South, never looking back.

During World War I, blacks were very much desired in the workplace. The United States had a quota for Colored soldiers to enlist for service. Blacks filled the quota very quickly, and many had to be turned back. With white men fighting in the war, this left openings in industry for blacks to fill. How did they do? Employers loved them and wanted more. They proved themselves to be excellent workers. This is probably one of the main reasons for so many riots when the white soldiers returned to America because blacks had taken their jobs. So by the early 1900s, we have proven ourselves to be excellent and courageous soldiers and dependable workers at home.

In other cases, some Negroes were recruited to travel North by agents of the businesses who would pay their fare. In some cases, these poor blacks were tricked into traveling a great distance for jobs only to discover they would be hired as strikebreakers, which was a very dangerous undertaking. Money was better for the Negro in the North, but in many cases, racism persisted with many riots happening. Many unions in the North had explicit rules barring membership by black workers.

Blacks had various successes at different job locations, for example when the auto industry took off, Ford Motor Co. hired many blacks to work in its automobile plant, but other auto plants often excluded them. Jobs were not a certainty for the Negro; he had to stay alerted and knock on many doors. But blacks were making a little advancement, by 1940 there were more than 200,000 African Americans in the CIO, many of them officers of union locals.

 boll weevil
A. Philip Randolph
photo#128-yr-1900

When the war broke out a very special man by the name of A. Philip Randolph petitioned President Roosevelt for jobs in the Defense plants which previously had been reserved for whites. Randolph had a special card up his sleeve in the form of 100,000 peaceful marchers on Washington to protest if Roosevelt declined.

Roosevelt half-heartedly gave in and created a new program for blacks called the Fair Employment Practice Committee which was designed to monitor the hiring practices of companies. The Committee did accomplish many blacks being hired into the Defense departments at very nice wages but closed down later because of a lack of funding from the U.S. Government.

After World War II, The G.I. Bill which was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation was a big boon for whites and was a major factor in the creation of the white American middle class.

But sadly because of racial inequality, many of the benefits of the G.I. bill were not granted to black soldiers. This is because "at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare—insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status—most black Americans were left behind or left out." It seems like we can get off the ground with these people, but we never give up. Also the black middle class failed to keep pace with the white middle class because blacks had fewer opportunities to earn college degrees.

G.I. Bill

In time, it became critical to have a college degree, for better pay wages which many whites were now working toward with the help of the G.I. Bill, but blacks were left behind in dying trades or just making it the best way they could because of racial discrimination and National leaders doing absolutely nothing to help.

Once they returned home after the war, blacks faced not only discrimination but also poverty, which confronted most blacks during the 1940s and 1950s and represented another barrier to harnessing the benefits of the G.I. Bill, as poverty made seeking an education problematic to while labor and income were needed at home. Banks and mortgage agencies routinely refused loans to blacks, making the G.I. Bill even less effective for blacks.

In addition to the other obstacles, gaining admission to universities was no easy task for blacks on the G.I. Bill. Most universities had segregationist principles underlying their admissions policies, utilizing either official or unofficial quotas. Those blacks that were prepared for college level work and gained access to predominantly white universities still experienced racism on campus.

During the 70s and 80s, the number of employed blacks increased. The civil rights movement played a huge role in this development. There were heavy gains in blue-collar jobs, such as steel, automobile production, electrical and non-electrical machinery, appliances, food and tobacco manufacturing, and textiles, and also white-collar occupations, where the four major subcategories-professional and technical, managerial and administrative, sales, and clerical increased very sharply.

Black professionals

The black labor force by the late 1990s, approximately sixty percent of these were white-collar sales and clerical personnel; many in this group were non-union workers with limited benefits and wages. However, another twenty percent of the black labor force, nearly three million workers, was classified as professional and technical employees and administrators. The percentage of the black labor force in the blue-collar field declined.

So what type of work did blacks do in the 1900s?

There were black doctors, dentist, newspaper editors, plumbers, mailman, teachers, singers, scientist, athletes, Pullman porters, laborers, politicians, judges, lawyers, mill workers, welders, domestic help, authors, factory workers, customer service, business owners, policemen, firemen, and every other profession you could think of. Sadly, their numbers and presence weren't as high as white Americans because of entrenched discrimination against the black race. It's in the history books, read it for yourself.

Black lady welder

Blacks have historically had a harder time than other races being employed in America, ever since emancipation, and for the most part it has to do with racism. We're not fooled into believing any different. But we don't let this stop us and continue to push on. Our amazing journey has had many barriers and roadbloocks every step of the way.

The Fair Employment Practice Committee of the 40s and the Civil Rights movement helped a bit, but after slavery and the following Jim Crow years, racism had become deeply entrenched in the American workforce. It's not out in the open as it was during Jim Crow days but today more subtle and hidden, but just as hurtful, degrading and discouraging. But to our credit, blacks seem always to find a way. Truly remarkable American people, and if it were possible, would make our battered ancestors who sailed deep seas, shout for joy in their graves.


Sources:
African Americans in the Twentieth Century
African Americans and the G.I. Bill
Blacks in the 1970's
Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s
What The Negro Achieved in Industry



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Idlewild, Michigan
Idlewild, Michigan Community Tabernacle. The "Black Eden"
photo #111-yr-1912

United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1910s


The Mann Act Newspaper clip. "Wanted 60,000 girls to take the place of 60,000 white slaves who will die this year"
photo #106

Jack Johnson marries
Jack Johnson
photo #107-yr-1912

Matthew Alexander Henson
Matthew Alexander Henson
photo #107-yr-1955


Rare Jack Johnson Documentary


Our Community in 1912

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:


  • In January 1912, Odessa Warren Grey was crowned “Queen Odessa” at the New Star Casino during a Mardi Gras celebration.

  • October 1912 - Jack Johnson was arrested under the Mann Act which was a federal law, that made it a felony to engage in interstate or foreign commerce transport of "any woman or girl for the purpose of prostitution or debauchery, or for any other immoral purpose" It is generally acknowledged that the arrest was racially motivated, and that the "prostitute" in question was actually his girlfriend, whom he later married.

  • 1912 - Artic explorer, Matthew Alexander Henson published his memoir, A Negro Explorer at the North Pole (1912), which included a foreword and praise by explorer Robert Peary.

  • 1912 - Called the "Black Eden," from 1912 through the mid-1960s, Idlewild was an active year-round community and was visited by well-known entertainers and professionals from throughout the country. At its peak it was the most popular resort in the Midwest and as many as 25,000 would come to Idlewild, Michigan in the height of the summer season to enjoy camping, swimming, boating, fishing, hunting, horseback riding, roller skating, and night-time entertainment. Trivia: This was the hot-spot for the well to do African Americans. I'm talking about big names such as surgeon Daniel Hale, W.E.B. Du Bois, cosmetic entrepreneur Madam C.J. Walker, Fisk University President Lemuel L. Foster, Albert B. Cleage Sr. of Detroit, Fannie Emanuel of Chicago, novelist Charles Waddell Chesnutt, and tons more. This was a place to either visit or buy property. No worries about racism, just fish all day if you wanted. But when the 1960s Civil Rights movement came, many other white resorts were now open to blacks, and they took advantage of that causing the population of Idlewild dwindles down.

  • The United States Population is 93,402,151 with a total of 9,827,763 being African Americans. It looks like the Negroes are having second thoughts about bringing children into this racist and lawless society because their population increased by only 1 million from the last 10 years, where as the whites almost 17 million.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#106 -   Public Domain image - By Bell, Ernest Albert [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   Public Domain image - By http://www-tc.pbs.org/unforgivableblackness/knockout/images/photo_lucille.jpg [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   Public Domain image - By Unknown (National Photo Company) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -  By Pach Brothers, New York [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -  See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -  By Noirish at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#113 -  By Ayapota at en.wikipedia (Transferred from en.wikipedia) [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#114 -  This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

#115 -  By passenger of the Carpathia, the ship that received the Titanic's distress signal and came to rescue the survivors [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#116 -  This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: The author died in 1931, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Titanic


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