blast from the past for 1920

blast from the past
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  Blast From The Past:
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annual hamite award

James Reese Europe
    James Reese Europe was an African-American ragtime and early jazz bandleader, arranger, and composer. He was well known back in his day as a leading figure on the black music scene in NYC. He was once referred to as the "Martin Luther King of music."

    Europe was born in Mobile, Alabama and would later move to New York. In 1910 Europe organized the Clef Club, a society for African Americans in the music industry. In 1912, the club made history when it played a concert at Carnegie Hall for the benefit of the Colored Music Settlement School. It was a crucial moment for jazz to have accomplished such a feat. The Clef Club's performances played music written solely by talented black composers.

    Europe's orchestra also included Will Marion Cook, who had not been in Carnegie Hall since his performance as solo violinist in 1896. The pair went on to gain rave reviews. Reese was a very outspoken man who said what he felt. He wanted things done his way and would rarely bend to musical conventions, particularly in his insistence on playing his style of music. Europe went on to comment:

    " My success had come ... from a realization of the advantages of sticking to the music of my people." And later, "We colored people have our music that is part of us. It's the product of our souls; it's been created by the sufferings and miseries of our race."

    His "Society Orchestra" became nationally famous in 1912, accompanying theater headliner dancers Vernon and Irene Castle. The Castles introduced and popularized the foxtrot—" America learned to dance from the waist down."

    Both the Clef Club Orchestra and the Society Orchestra were large symphonic bands to satisfy the tastes of a public that was used to performances by the likes of the John Phillip Sousa Band and similar organizations very popular at the time. The Clef Orchestra had 125 members alone.

    Europe would end up serving his country in the war. He saw combat as a lieutenant with the 369th Infantry Regiment (the "Harlem Hellfighters") and went on to direct the regimental band to great acclaim.

    After his return, Europe would team up with vocalist Noble Sissle and create a favorite, All Of No Man's Land Is Ours, (click here to listen)

    During the intermission at one of his shows, Europe went to have a talk with two of his drummers, who he criticized for their behavior (walking off stage during others' performances), one of the men became very agitated and threw his drumsticks down in a seemingly unwarranted outburst of anger and stabbed Europe in the neck. Europe told his band to finish the set, and he would see them the next morning. It would be the last time they saw him alive.

    W. C. Handy wrote: "The man who had just come through the baptism of war's fire and steel without a mark had been stabbed by one of his musicians ... The sun was in the sky. The new day promised peace. But all the suns had gone down for Jim Europe, and Harlem didn't seem the same." Europe was mourned by many and truly missed.

    James Reese Europe played a very important part in the journey of the American Negro. He lifted the spirits of many and proved that we could showcase our talent without dilution, and be proud in the process. You're not on the plantation any longer; you are free to create and explore your unique God-given abilities. You live in the greatest country to accomplish this, so DO IT! This is what he was saying to blacks back then by the way he lived his life. A genuinely prime example of American Negro motivation, and we award this great man with the 1920 Hamite Award because of it.

James Reese Europe
James Reese Europe sheet music cover for "Good Night Angeline"
photo #102-yr-1910

James Reese Europe the Hellfighters
James Reese Europe
Jazz Band and Leader Back with African American 15th New York. Lieutenant James Reese Europe
who for four years was New York Society's favorite orchestra (dance) leader formerly with
Vernon Castle returned with his regiment the 369th Infantry.

photo #106-yr-1920

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How were blacks feeling in 1920?
sad mood of blacks

What a year we were having in 1920! In baseball, the first game of Negro National League was played in Indianapolis, Indiana. The National Football League organizes 12 teams to join the American Football Association, football is now an unstoppable part of American life, white life I might add.

The Harlem Renaissance would begin and offered a new way of looking at African Americans away from the plantations. Our pride and intellect on display for the world to witness. This was also the beginning of prohibition in America, organized crime increases as violent gangs produce and transport black market alcohol that is sold in speakeasies similar to the drug dealers we have today, but the difference is the gangs back then were glamorized by the white community.

When we wanted entertainment, we would catch a show watching Bill "Bojangles" Robinson solo vaudeville act. Great people were born in this year, such as jazz singer Carmen McRae, extra fine brown sugar! And Marion Motley, an NFL running back who would later accomplish amazing things.

William Du Bois and Marcus Garvey are the black leaders of the day and even though they have different philosophies, each has quite a following. We wish they would get along. What are the fashions like in 1920 for blacks? Well, black men dressed in wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats and our women wear full hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress. Oh yes, what a wonderful year 1920 is!

If only the constant challenges of racism would stop, we might start to be truly happy here in our home of America.

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african american first

 For the year 1920:
  • Fritz Pollard and Bobby Marshall  were the first African-American NFL football players.

  • Robert Elijah Jones and Matthew Wesley Clair were the first African-American bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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former slaves liked to laugh

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blacks in football

 Rube Foster
Rube Foster
photo #115-yr-1920

     Sports in 1920
  • January 4, 1920 - The first Black baseball league, Negro National League begins.

  • May 2, 1920 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played in Indianapolis, Indiana.

  • April 17, 1920 - The American Professional Football Association forms the (NFL).

  • September 28, 1920 - 8 White Sox indicted for throwing 1919 World Series (Black Sox scandal)

  • 1920 - Rube Foster organized the Negro National League, the first long-lasting professional league for African-American ballplayers, which operated from 1920 to 1931. He is known as the "father of Black Baseball." Foster adopted his longtime nickname, "Rube", as his official middle name later in life.

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african immigrants out-perform other ethnic groups

blacks and education
     Education in 1920
  • January 31, 1920 - Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity was incorporated in the district of Washington, D.C. And became known as Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Incorporated.

  • January 16, 1920 - Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, was incorporated, is founded on the campus of Howard University in Washington, D.C.

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America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.

Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man

I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.

My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)

Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.

 civil war

Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.

During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.

I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan

This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974


I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
Smedley Butler

I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.

I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.

I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.

Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering

I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt

I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.

I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.

It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.

The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.

I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.

Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.

There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.

In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.

Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.

greedy doctors
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!

Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)

John Adams

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blacks and politics

 Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
photo #116-yr-1920

 Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Goodbye Mr. Wilson, and please take your anti-American segregation policies with you.
photo #110-yr-1912

     Political Scene in 1920
  • Republican Warren G. Harding was elected the 29th President of the United States from 1921 to 1923. Analysis: Harding had a conscience about the Negro. But much more is needed if blacks are to make any headway into the complete enjoyment of our Civil Rights like other American citizens. How does he do? He advocated an anti-lynching bill to curb violence against African Americans, but it failed to pass Congress. He also endorsed African-American civil rights. It was rumored that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American, but he denied this. Harding was the first President to openly advocate black political, educational, and economic equality during the 20th century. In the "Birmingham speech," Harding wanted African Americans to have equal educational opportunities and greater voting rights in the South. The white section of the audience listened in silence while the black part of the segregated audience cheered. Blacks were very much interested in the political process by attending that speech. There were limits for Harding's love for blacks, though. He openly stated that he was not for black social equality regarding racial mixing or intermarriage. Harding also spoke on the Great Migration, that was going on at the time, believing that blacks are migrating to the North and West to find employment had harmed race relations between blacks and whites. It's becoming clear this issue is relevant only to the Negro. Our crying out in anguish falls upon closed ears. We are second class citizens at every turn, set up for failure. Presidents past and future will recognize that an injustice exist, but it's not worth it to them, to fight for us. They would lose everything politically in doing so. So every President chooses to let the situation get worse and worse for the next administration. A courageous and brave President is desperately needed for the Negro cause, the American cause, because since emancipation the Declaration of Independence and Constitution have been soiled and diluted by weak leaders, too afraid to stand up for real justice, which would have made America a shining star in the whole world, envious of all nations at how she treated all of her citizens. But as it stands now, the nations have to think of America as a great country, but a great fake country with all of her insincere talk of democracy for all. It would take blacks themselves to force a change of our government, in fact, that's a Constitutional right to force change if a government doesn't work legally. Harding probably wanted to help blacks, but he would face much opposition, so he didn't push the envelope. It's also interesting to note as illustrated by the table below that the Solid South is still sticking together with their voting patterns, even though slavery has been over since 1863. I guess they still want to keep the Negro in his place, because they vote against every bill that might aid in our advancement.

 presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, Blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

  • Democrat Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 and leader of the Progressive Movement. Analysis: This President, Woodrow Wilson was the only Democrat besides Grover Cleveland to be elected president since 1856. As a young person, his father defended slavery, owned slaves and set up a Sunday school for them. Both parents identified with the Confederacy and cared for wounded soldiers at their church. His upbringing would influence his decisions as President. He made promises he didn't keep. Believe it or not, many blacks supported him, but once in office, he forgot about promises he made. Wilson believed that slavery was wrong on economic labor grounds, rather than for moral reasons. He also idealized the slavery system in the South, viewing masters as patient with "indolent" slaves. Although he drafted hundreds of thousands of Negroes for the war, he believed in keeping the military segregated against the protest of black service members. Wilson scolded them "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you, gentlemen." He also instructed the segregation of the workplace in federal offices. In 1918, W. E. B. Du Bois—a leader of the NAACP who had campaigned for Wilson—was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve. I can't figure out why Dubois would throw his support to this President unless he knew something we don't. Years earlier, Wilson was against blacks enrolling at Princeton University while he was president there because he didn't want to upset the white students. He also believed the KKK had proper cause and reason for the terror they inflicted upon the Negro race. It's interesting to note that another apparently racist President went down in history as one of the greatest ten who had ever served in the United States. (what does that say about America?) It means a lousy U.S. President, but an excellent white President. This man resume speaks for itself. He served two terms so this meant another 8 years of despair and hopelessness for the lowly Negro citizen.

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Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of JIM CROW

Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.

Jim Crow laws
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.

    Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.

  • "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.

  • Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.

  • Unfair bank lending practices.

  • Job discrimination.

  • Discriminatory union practices for decades.

  • Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.

  • Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.

  • U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.

  • Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.

    Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965

    Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.

    Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    photo# library

    Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!

    Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws

    New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws

    South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:

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SOUTHERN HATE  if I said it once I must say it again, these people ain't normal!

The Civil War Is Over, Why Do You Still Hate Me So Much Man?

southern hate

There were over 179,000 black soldiers who fought in the Civil War for their freedom and the right to become American citizens. Many brave souls died. They thought once it was over things would be better for the colored people. But it wasn't and especially in the South.

What the HELL! Why do these southern whites hate blacks so much and fight against our pursuit of happiness at every turn? They ain't normal, and surely not American, because if they were they would believe all are created equal, which is what our country was founded on.

Southern whites had enjoyed a lifestyle much better than their ancestors before them. Before arriving in America, most white immigrants were destitute and severely oppressed by their governments. Many were uneducated peasants and serfs not much better off than a black slave. When they finally encountered blacks in America, they showed little empathy toward them.

No longer on the bottom rung of the ladder of humanity, these white immigrants would also proclaim themselves superior and joined the higher class of whites in dominating blacks unmercifully for many years. Whites as a group was happy as a lark even the not so intelligent ones.

The North understood slavery to be a temporary situation, but in contrast Southern whites viewed it as a permanent institution that should be expanded into new territories that hadn't been admitted to the union yet. Stop the Slave Power at all cost was the North's goal. This reason the Civil War started, not because Abraham Lincoln had this burning desire to free the slaves.

Before the war, southern whites grew very comfortable with their lifestyle and after losing it blamed blacks for everything. Many were brilliant and proud people. Now can you imagine proud, intelligent white people who had dominated blacks for hundreds of years, and faced with the possibility of black equality and being governed by the same individuals they mistreated and spit on and looked upon as ignorant savage beast?

They viciously fought against equality for black people at every turn and opportunity. They considered themselves true Sons of the South, do or die.

They had to feel like the North was punishing and embarrassing them by giving blacks American citizenship and the right to vote. Southern whites would kill many blacks for what they perceived as upholding their honor. What did the North do? They made a show of attempting to help black people, but in the end, that's all it was a show. In reality, they used blacks as a pawn to teach the South a lesson in hopes that one day the southern faithful would reconcile their hearts to the Union of America as one big happy white American family.

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Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital
Many African American doctors practiced at segregated hospitals. In the year 1832, The Georgia Infirmary was the first black hospital in the United States.

     Healthcare in 1920
    It's hard to believe that as recent as the mid-1960s discrimination/segregation was tolerated in most major hospitals in the United States, especially in the South.

    Separate, but equal hospitals were different for sure but far from being equal. The black section of the hospital was usually in the worst location of the building such as cold and unheated attics and damp basements.

    Black women who entered the midwifery profession were critical, especially during the time we were denied equal access to quality hospital care. These wonderful women loved their job and often did so out of a spiritual calling. They were often referred to as “granny midwives.”

    A black doctor could only treat black patients. African American professionals were barred from the medical staffs of hospitals and the patients from beds and services, and students didn't fare much better because they were denied access to nurse and residency training programs.

    This all slowly began to change after 1963 with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund landmark case, Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital (1963), that challenged the federal government’s use of public funds to expand and maintain segregated hospital care. Simkins became the Brown v Board of Education decision for hospitals.

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Childish racism


Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.
photo #103-yr-1887

 W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois
photo #101-yr-1868

     Race in 1920
  • August 1, 1920 - Civil Rights leader Marcus Garvey's UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association ) which Garvey started claimed four million members. With delegates from all over the world attending, 25,000 people filled Madison Square Garden to hear Garvey speak. Garvey also established the business, the Negro Factories Corporation. He planned to develop the businesses to manufacture every marketable commodity in every big U.S. industrial center, as well as in Central America, the West Indies, and Africa.

  • 1920 - Civil Rights leader William Du Bois's The Crisis monthly magazine which aim was to set out "those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice, particularly as manifested today toward colored people was phenomenally successful, and its circulation would reach 100,000 in 1920.

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slang and memorable quotes
Cab Calloway
Cab Calloway, who wrote a Hepster's dictionary about the language of jive.
photo #100

     sLANG tALK in 1920
  • Jive talk - harlmese speech, slang talking

  • Bringer-Downer - a disappointment

  • Alligator - a devotee of jazz or swing music

  • Chops - refers to any musician's level of ability

  • Frail - a noun for any hepster woman

  • G-man - government man, especially one harasses people

  • Gage - marijuana, particularly associated with Louis Armstrong

  • Gate - any man, usually used as a greeting

  • Hep - in the know, hip

  • Hep cat - smart and knowledgeable person, also hipster

  • High - happy, content, mellow

  • Hoochie Coocher - hot woman who dances laying down

  • Hoochie coochie - sexy dance

  • Jeff - opposite of hep; unhip, uncool

  • Jitterbug - a dance created in the 1920s and 1930s

  • Light up - to light a stick of T or reefer

  • Lid - a Prince Albert tobacco can filled to the lid

  • Man! - commonly used as an interjection or for emphasis

  • Mighty Mezz - an expertly rolled joint

  • Mop - woman, often meaning another hepster's girlfriend

  • Ofay - police

  • Puff - to smoke weed

  • Stick of tea - joint, reefer, left-handed cigarette

  • Zoot suit - suits popular with dancers of the swing era

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The Homesteader
The Homesteader (1919) is a lost black-and-white silent race film by African American
author and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. This is a newspaper advert for the film.

photo #108-yr-1919

black Movies in America
Movies in America

Evelyn Preer
Actress Evelyn Preer
photo #104-yr-1896

Oscar Micheaux
American film director Oscar Micheaux
photo #107-yr-1919

Rose McClendon
Actress Rose McClendon
photo #101-yr-1884

     Movies in 1920
  • Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"

  • 1920 - Oscar Micheaux was an African-American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. The first of which was released in 1919 called The Homesteader which was met with critical and commercial success. Trivia: Image is everything and Oscar recognized that fact. Up unto the time, he began producing movies; the Negro was portrayed as lazy, low morals, thieves, dishonest savage people you couldn't trust. Well guess what? Oscar changed all of that with his movies. He put positive role models on the silver screen and finally the world was able to see the black person in their right light, as intelligent, well to do honest people, hard working, industrious human beings who loved their families. Oscar was a critical aspect of active Negro development in this country. Are we continuing to lift the image of our people in this country today?

  • African American Charles Sidney Gilpin became one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. In 1920 he was the first black American to receive the Drama League of New York's annual award, as one of the ten people who had done the most that year for American theater.

  • 1920s - Rose McClendon was a leading African-American Broadway actress of the 1920s. McClendon was a contemporary of Paul Robeson, Ethel Barrymore, Lynn Fontanne and Langston Hughes.

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 Fred Astaire

Fred Astaire's dancing was inspired by African American's Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and John "Bubbles" Sublett
who gave him dancing lessons. Astaire considered Sublett the finest tap dancer of his generation.

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famous african american birthdays

Charlie Parker
Charlie Parker
photo #103-yr-2002

Marion Motley
Marion Motley
American football fullback, on a 1950 Bowman football card
  photo #100

Charlie Shavers
Charlie Shavers
  photo #101-yr-1920

Good Times
Esther Rolle
- photo #110-yr-1920

William Caesar Warfield
Portrait of William Warfield by Carl Van Vechten
photo #111-yr-1920

James L. Farmer, Jr.
James L. Farmer, Jr.
photo #104- in year 1941

     Famous Birthdays in 1920
  • January 12, 1920 - James Farmer, was a civil rights activist and leader in the American Civil Rights Movement 'who pushed for nonviolent protest to dismantle segregation, and served alongside Martin Luther King Jr.'

  • January 22, 1920 - William Caesar Warfield was an American concert bass-baritone singer and actor.

  • April 8, 1920 - Carmen McRae, was an American jazz singer, composer, pianist, and actress. Considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th century, it was her behind-the-beat phrasing and her ironic interpretations of song lyrics that made her memorable.

  • June 5, 1920 - Marion Motley, was an American Football fullback and linebacker who played for the Cleveland Browns in the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) and National Football League (NFL).

  • July 12, 1920 -Beah Richards, was an American actress of stage, screen and television. She was a poet, playwright and author. During her career, Richards was nominated for a Tony and Academy Awards, and received two Primetime Emmy Awards for her performances on television.

  • August 3, 1920 - Charlie Shavers, was an American swing era jazz trumpet player who played at one time or another with Dizzy Gillespie, Roy Eldridge, Johnny Dodds, Jimmie Noone, Sidney Bechet, Midge Williams and Billie Holiday.

  • August 12, 1920 - Percy Mayfield, was an American songwriter famous for the songs "Hit the Road Jack" and "Please Send Me Someone to Love", as well as a successful rhythm and blues artist known for his smooth vocal style.

  • August 29, 1920 - Charlie "Bird" Parker, also known as "Yardbird" and "Bird", was an American jazz saxophonist and composer.

  • October 13, 1920 - Nipsey Russell, was an American comedian, best known today for his appearances as a guest panelist on game shows from the 1960s through the 1990s.

  • October 19, 1920 - LaWanda Page, was an American actress and comedienne best known for her role as Aunt Esther in the 1970s TV sitcom Sanford and Son. She later reprised the role in Sanford Arms and Sanford.

  • November 8, 1920 - Esther Rolle, was an African-American actress best known for her role as Florida Evans on the television show Good Times.

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famous african american deaths

     Famous Deaths in 1920
  • January 12, 1920 - Edward P. McCabe was an African-American settler, attorney, and land agent who became one of the first African Americans to hold a major political office in the American Old West.

  • September 8, 1920 - Gilford P. Hervey served in the 1st Tennessee Colored Infantry.

  • March 12, 1920 - Edwin P. McCabe was an African-American settler, attorney, and land agent who became one of the first African Americans to hold a major political office in the American Old West.

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famous african american weddings

Hugh Nathaniel Mulzac
Hugh Nathaniel Mulzac
photo #113-yr-1942

     Famous Weddings in 1920
  • September 29, 1920 - Hugh Nathaniel Mulzac and Marie Avis were married.

  • 1920 - Harry Haywood and Hazel Haywood were married.

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Howard Theatre
Howard Theatre at 620 T Street NW, with inset of manager, Andrew J. Thomas (ca. 1910-1919).
photo #110-yr-1915

George Walker
Vaudeville star George Walker
photo #114-yr-1908

Egbert  Austin Williams
Egbert "Bert" Austin Williams
photo #104-yr-1910

Howard Theatre interior
Howard Theatre interior
photo #111-yr-1915

     Entertainment in 1920
  • George Walker formed the The Frogs (club) Why did George Walker start a black club for actors when he could have just joined the American Actors Beneficial Association? Because like everything else in America, it was becoming commonplace for blacks and whites to be separated in everything. Doctors, Realtors, Lawyers, Unions, etc. and every other organization you can think of was segregated. It's almost like whites needed a race of people such as the lowly Negro to measure it's greatness. Blacks had no choice but to organize for their benefit. The Negro didn't want it this way, but like a famous rapper once said: "That's just the way it is" The American Actors Beneficial Association excluded blacks from it were memberships and didn't appreciate it when Walker formed the Frogs. His original start up group, The Colored Vaudeville Benevolent Association, received negative attitude from white producers. The concept of the colored man supporting himself through performance and no longer just “taking what they were given” posed a threat to the white vaudevillian and theatrical community. With this, Walker set forth to create The Frogs. On July 18, 1908, at Walker’s home at 52 West 153rd St in Harlem, eleven of the most prominent names in the industry formed together to create the African American theatrical organization. The Frogs, became known for their big event “The Frolic of the Frogs” or “The Frogs Frolic” every August at the Manhattan Casino (New York City) at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue. For 50 cents, people enjoyed a combination ball, party and vaudeville show where favors were given to the ladies and door prizes went to the three individuals wearing unique costumes symbolic of the frogs. With a large success in the early years of the event, “The Frolic of the Frogs” was able to tour their events in cities such as Philadelphia, Richmond, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Popularity in the frolic was found among both blacks and whites. We love happy stories like "The Frogs" had given the people of New York. Come on let's face it, 99% of the time because of racial oppression; it's was negative for the Negro. George Walker died in 1911, but his longtime friend Bert Williams would take over the company continuing it's amazing success well into the 1920s.

  • The Howard Theatre is a historic theater, located at 620 T Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. Opened in 1910; it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. In its heyday, the theater was known for catering to an African-American clientele, and had played host to many of the great black musical artists of the early and mid-twentieth century. The Howard Theatre was billed as the "Theater of the People", and supported two theatrical organizations, the Lafayette Players and the Howard University Players.

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pretty lady cooking
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.

We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.

sweet potatoes
Sweet Potatoes / Yams

Barbecue Ribs
Barbecue Ribs

Ham Hocks
Ham Hocks

Rice and Beans
Rice and Beans

Fish and Chips
Fish and Chips

Bean Soup
Bean Soup

Biscuits and Gravy
Biscuits and Gravy


Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken


Collard Greens
Collard Greens

Fried Liver
Fried Liver

Peach Preserves
Peach Preserves

Pinto Beans
Pinto Beans

Pound Cake
Pound Cake

Pork Chops
Pork Chops


black man hungry

(images -
Southern Cooking - Soul Food

    Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.

    This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;

    "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"

    This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.

    Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.

  • Maryland Beat Biscuit
  • Waffles
  • Cream Cake
  • Flannel Cakes
  • Sallie Lund
  • Egg Corn Bread
  • Plantation Corn Bread
  • Light Bread

  • Broiled Meats
  • Beefsteak
  • Lamb or Mutton Chops
  • Pork Steak or Chops
  • Venison

  • Croquettes
  • Lamb
  • Chicken
  • Crab
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Fish

  • Cakes Etc.
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Almond
  • Feather
  • Sponge
  • Fruit
  • Jelly
  • Carolas
  • Ginger Cookies
  • Sweet Wafers

  • Pickels, Sauces Etc.
  • Sweet Cucumber Pickles
  • Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
  • Chow Chow
  • Creole Chow Chow
  • Cherry Chutney
  • Game Sauce
  • Compound Tomato
  • Napoleon
  • Sweet Pickle Peaches
  • Sweet Pickle Prunes
  • Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
  • Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
  • Milanese Sauce
  • Sauce for Suet Pudding

  • Pies, Etc.
  • Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
  • Preparing the Fruit for Pies
  • Rhubarb
  • Apple
  • Peach
  • Lemon Pies
  • Cocoanut
  • Cream Apple
  • Sweet Potato
  • Gooseberry and Cherry
  • Light Bread
  • Mince
  • Blackberry Roll
  • Oyster

  • Puddings
  • Snow
  • Plum
  • Corn
  • Corn Fritters
  • Batter
  • Rice
  • Yorkshire
  • Cheese
  • Suet

  • Preserves, Spices, ETC.
  • Brandy Peaches
  • Quince Preserves
  • Syrups for Preserves
  • Preserved Peaches
  • Preserved Pears
  • Currant Jelly
  • Cranberry Jelly
  • Strawberry Jam
  • Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
  • Marmalade Peach
  • Crab Apple Jelly
  • Blackberry Brandy
  • Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
  • Preserved Apricots
  • Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
  • Charlotte Eusse
  • Spiced Currants
  • Preserved Cherries

  • Roast Meats
  • Venison
  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Pig
  • Veal
  • Turkey
  • Chicken
  • Birds
  • Quail
  • Domestic Duck
  • Wild Duck

  • Salads
  • Chicken
  • Veal
  • Lamb
  • Shrimp
  • Crab
  • Meat

  • Sherbets
  • Orange
  • Lemon
  • Pineapple

  • Soups, Chowders, Etc.
  • Beef
  • Ox-TaH
  • Calf 's Head
  • Mock Turtle
  • Green Turtle
  • Oyster Gumbo
  • Ochra Gumbo
  • Old Fashioned Turnip
  • Chicken
  • Corn and Tomato
  • Creole
  • Fish Chowder
  • Chicken Gumbo

  • Miscellaneous
  • Fricassed Chicken
  • Fried Chicken
  • Chicken fried Steak
  • Meat Stews or Entrees
  • Ice Cream
  • Boiled Turkey
  • Beef a la Mode
  • Neckbones
  • Spiced Round
  • Hog Maws
  • Stuffed Ham
  • Lima Beans
  • Jumberlie a Creole Dish
  • Baked Fish
  • Ribs, Beef or Pork
  • Boiled Corn
  • Peach Cobbler
  • Egg Plant Stuffed
  • Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
  • Corned Beef Hash
  • Ladies' Custard
  • Tonic Bitters
  • Terrapin Stew
  • Leaven Biscuit
  • Pap for infant Diet
  • Sorghum Syrup
  • Cracklins
  • Meringue for Pudding
  • Circuit Hash

  • What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
    Paperback – March, 1995
    by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)


Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)

    Butter: 1 pound
    Sugar: 3 cups
    Eggs: 6
    Milk: 3/4 cup
    Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
    Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
    Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
    Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon

    For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
    Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
    Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
    Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
    Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
    Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
    Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.

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juke joints, party for black people

     It's a Party in 1920
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.

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soul music orgin

Mamie Smith
Mamie Smith
photo #106-yr-1883

  Bill Bojangles Robinson
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
photo #103-yr-1920

Maceo Pinkard
Maceo Pinkard
photo #106-yr-1920

William Manuel "Bill" Johnson
photo #108-yr-1872

Thomas "Fats" Waller
photo #117-yr-1920

     Music in 1920

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • Charleston

  • The Breakaway

  • The Foxtrot

  • The Hully Gully is a type of unstructured line dance often considered to have originated in the sixties, but is also mentioned some forty years earlier as a dance common in the black juke joints in the first part of the twentieth century.

  Musical Happenings in 1920:
  • William Manuel "Bill" Johnson assembled King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, considered perhaps the best of the early ensemble style jazz bands. He taught younger Chicago musicians (including Milt Hinton) his "slap" style of string bass playing.

  • Vaudevillean Mamie Smith records "Crazy Blues" for Okeh Records, the first blues song commercially recorded by an African-American singer, the first blues song recorded at all by an African-American woman, and the first vocal blues recording of any kind.

  • Throughout the early 1920s, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson continued his career on the road as a solo vaudeville act, touring throughout the country and most frequently visiting Chicago, where Marty Forkins, his manager, lived.

  • Composer Maceo Pinkard went on to write music for the shows Bon Bon Buddy, Jr. (1922), Liza (1922), and Broadway Rastus (1925 edition). He also composed several blues songs as well as the hits "Gimme a Little Kiss, Will Ya, Huh?." In 1926 he became one of the first black composers to join the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP).

  • 1920 - A paper shortage contributes to a cost increase and a downturn in the sheet music publishing industry.

  • 1920 - The Oklahoma City Blue Devils was the premier Southwest territory jazz band in the 1920s. Originally called Billy King's Road Show, it disbanded in Oklahoma City in 1925 where Walter Page renamed it. The name Blue Devils came from the name of a gang of fence cutters operating during the early days of the American West.

  • 1920s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.

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famous african american quotes      Famous African American Quotes
    Bill "Bojangles" Robinson  -  best known and most highly paid African American entertainer in the first half of the twentieth century

    In a restaurant a customer objected to his presence. When the manager suggested that it might be better if Robinson leave, he smiled and asked,

    "Have you got a ten dollar bill?" Politely asking to borrow the manager's note for a moment, Robinson added six $10 bills from his own wallet and mixed them up, then extended the seven bills together, adding, "Here, let's see you pick out the colored one".

    The restaurant manager served Robinson without further delay.

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Claude McKay
Claude McKay
photo #102-yr-1889

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s

black men's fashion in 1920s
Men's fashion in 1920s

     Fashions in 1920

  Popular Fashions:

  • Overview:
    During the 1920s, the notion of keeping up with fashion trends and expressing oneself through material goods seized middle-class Americans as never before. Purchasing new clothes, new appliances, new automobiles, new anything indicated one's level of prosperity. Being considered old-fashioned, out-of-date, or—worse yet—unable to afford stylish new products was a fate many Americans went to great lengths to avoid.

  • During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. African-Americans wore clothing that was far from somber. Women were dressed in wide hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress, possibly with a ribbon at the hip. Though the 1920s cloche, a close-fitting number usually made of felt or wool, was extremely popular for casual wear and was worn gaily pulled down over the eyes. Popular by the 1930s was the trendy beret hat with stand-up or egret feather. Men wore zoot suits which were wide-legged, high-waisted, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide padded shoulders and lapels. They also wore wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. African Americans also expressed respect for their heritage through a style of leopard-skin coats indicating the great power of the infamous African animal.

  • Trivia:
    A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell".

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Dang it! We're so Tired of all the Hate

We can't wait to leave this wicked South,
and make the big bucks in the North!
Will our white American brothers love us there?

What type of employment awaits the Negro in the 1900s?

african americans working the farms
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia Postmarked 1912
photo #119-yr-1900

90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s. King Cotton was still a big source of income for blacks. These workers were hired as temporary help. Many were tenant farmers, renting a piece of land and some of their tools and supplies, and paying the rent at the end of the growing season with a portion of their harvest. White and black farm laborers were paid comparable wages, and rental rates. Blacks didn't exclusively work in the cotton fields, for example some blacks worked in the Turpentine industry.

african americans working the farms
"Dipping and scraping pine trees. Turpentine industry in Florida." Postmarked 1912

Whites were much more likely to own land as opposed to blacks. Black children were unlikely to be in school because they helped the parents in the fields to support the family and also because of a lack of good quality schools. Funds that were intended for black schools went to white schools instead in the form of raising teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while reducing class size. Black schools suffered at this expense. Separate but Equal was a big lie, because it was anything but equal. The government didn't have a special watchdog organization to enforce these racist laws, and the requirement of equality was not enforced. Black children never really had a fair chance.

Boll weevil ruins Cotton Crops in the 1920s

Of course hindsight is 20-20. But wouldn't it have been nice if during slavery someone would have thought to travel to Mexico and bring back the Cotton boll weevil to transplant them into Southern cotton crops?
 boll weevil
Cotton boll weevil
Where were you when we really
needed you, pre-1863?


A little integration of the boll weevil and Mr. King Cotton would have been a good thing for the Negro. We wonder what kind of effect that would have had on chattel slavery?

Well what the heck is a boll weevil?

The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south.

Southern blacks were tied to the cotton fields in the early 1900s, but after 1914, many were fed up and wanted to try something new and different. By then they were open for a change because of restrictive Jim Crow laws and the boll weevil destroyed many crops, putting them out of work. They decided to take the plunge, a new and exciting life for them. Their move was called the Great Migration. News had spread to these poor black Southerners about better opportunities in the North, so many of them packed up their belongings and bid farewell to the South, never looking back.

During World War I, blacks were very much desired in the workplace. The United States had a quota for Colored soldiers to enlist for service. Blacks filled the quota very quickly, and many had to be turned back. With white men fighting in the war, this left openings in industry for blacks to fill. How did they do? Employers loved them and wanted more. They proved themselves to be excellent workers. This is probably one of the main reasons for so many riots when the white soldiers returned to America because blacks had taken their jobs. So by the early 1900s, we have proven ourselves to be excellent and courageous soldiers and dependable workers at home.

In other cases, some Negroes were recruited to travel North by agents of the businesses who would pay their fare. In some cases, these poor blacks were tricked into traveling a great distance for jobs only to discover they would be hired as strikebreakers, which was a very dangerous undertaking. Money was better for the Negro in the North, but in many cases, racism persisted with many riots happening. Many unions in the North had explicit rules barring membership by black workers.

Blacks had various successes at different job locations, for example when the auto industry took off, Ford Motor Co. hired many blacks to work in its automobile plant, but other auto plants often excluded them. Jobs were not a certainty for the Negro; he had to stay alerted and knock on many doors. But blacks were making a little advancement, by 1940 there were more than 200,000 African Americans in the CIO, many of them officers of union locals.

 boll weevil
A. Philip Randolph

When the war broke out a very special man by the name of A. Philip Randolph petitioned President Roosevelt for jobs in the Defense plants which previously had been reserved for whites. Randolph had a special card up his sleeve in the form of 100,000 peaceful marchers on Washington to protest if Roosevelt declined.

Roosevelt half-heartedly gave in and created a new program for blacks called the Fair Employment Practice Committee which was designed to monitor the hiring practices of companies. The Committee did accomplish many blacks being hired into the Defense departments at very nice wages but closed down later because of a lack of funding from the U.S. Government.

After World War II, The G.I. Bill which was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation was a big boon for whites and was a major factor in the creation of the white American middle class.

But sadly because of racial inequality, many of the benefits of the G.I. bill were not granted to black soldiers. This is because "at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare—insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status—most black Americans were left behind or left out." It seems like we can get off the ground with these people, but we never give up. Also the black middle class failed to keep pace with the white middle class because blacks had fewer opportunities to earn college degrees.

G.I. Bill

In time, it became critical to have a college degree, for better pay wages which many whites were now working toward with the help of the G.I. Bill, but blacks were left behind in dying trades or just making it the best way they could because of racial discrimination and National leaders doing absolutely nothing to help.

Once they returned home after the war, blacks faced not only discrimination but also poverty, which confronted most blacks during the 1940s and 1950s and represented another barrier to harnessing the benefits of the G.I. Bill, as poverty made seeking an education problematic to while labor and income were needed at home. Banks and mortgage agencies routinely refused loans to blacks, making the G.I. Bill even less effective for blacks.

In addition to the other obstacles, gaining admission to universities was no easy task for blacks on the G.I. Bill. Most universities had segregationist principles underlying their admissions policies, utilizing either official or unofficial quotas. Those blacks that were prepared for college level work and gained access to predominantly white universities still experienced racism on campus.

During the 70s and 80s, the number of employed blacks increased. The civil rights movement played a huge role in this development. There were heavy gains in blue-collar jobs, such as steel, automobile production, electrical and non-electrical machinery, appliances, food and tobacco manufacturing, and textiles, and also white-collar occupations, where the four major subcategories-professional and technical, managerial and administrative, sales, and clerical increased very sharply.

Black professionals

The black labor force by the late 1990s, approximately sixty percent of these were white-collar sales and clerical personnel; many in this group were non-union workers with limited benefits and wages. However, another twenty percent of the black labor force, nearly three million workers, was classified as professional and technical employees and administrators. The percentage of the black labor force in the blue-collar field declined.

So what type of work did blacks do in the 1900s?

There were black doctors, dentist, newspaper editors, plumbers, mailman, teachers, singers, scientist, athletes, Pullman porters, laborers, politicians, judges, lawyers, mill workers, welders, domestic help, authors, factory workers, customer service, business owners, policemen, firemen, and every other profession you could think of. Sadly, their numbers and presence weren't as high as white Americans because of entrenched discrimination against the black race. It's in the history books, read it for yourself.

Black lady welder

Blacks have historically had a harder time than other races being employed in America, ever since emancipation, and for the most part it has to do with racism. We're not fooled into believing any different. But we don't let this stop us and continue to push on. Our amazing journey has had many barriers and roadbloocks every step of the way.

The Fair Employment Practice Committee of the 40s and the Civil Rights movement helped a bit, but after slavery and the following Jim Crow years, racism had become deeply entrenched in the American workforce. It's not out in the open as it was during Jim Crow days but today more subtle and hidden, but just as hurtful, degrading and discouraging. But to our credit, blacks seem always to find a way. Truly remarkable American people, and if it were possible, would make our battered ancestors who sailed deep seas, shout for joy in their graves.

African Americans in the Twentieth Century
African Americans and the G.I. Bill
Blacks in the 1970's
Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s
What The Negro Achieved in Industry

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african americans and religion

How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?

 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.

Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.

Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.

The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:

Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.

The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.

A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.

Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.

Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.

Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.

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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1920s

Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune
photo #105-yr-1875

illegal alcohol prohibition
A police raid confiscating illegal alcohol
photo #102

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

Black Star Line
Photo of Yarmouth, first ship in the Black Star Liner Fleet
photo #112-yr-1919

Our Community in 1920

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • January 16, 1920 - Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated, is founded on the campus of Howard University in Washington, D.C.

  • January 16, 1920 - The 18th Amendment to the Constitution which outlawed the production and consumption of alcohol was started in 1920.

  • January 31, 1920 - Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity at Howard University, incorporates in 1920.

  • Aug 2, 1920 - Marcus Garvey presents his "Back To Africa" program in New York City.

  • Aug 18, 1920 - United States ratifies the 19th Amendment to the constitution bringing in women's suffrage.

  • 1920 - The Al Capone gangster era begins.

  • 1920 - The Black Star Line having a maximum capitalization of $500,000, BSL stocks were sold at UNIA conventions at five dollars each. It stood as a major symbol for Marcus Garvey's followers and African Americans in search of a way to get back to their homeland.

  • 1920 - In the 1920s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.

  • The first radio station to receive a commercial license is WBZ.

  • The Southeastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs elected Mary McLeod Bethune as president after its first conference in 1920 at the Tuskegee Institute.

  • 1920 - The 1920s is the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance, which showcased African American talent away from the plantation. Authors, professionals, poets, and artists etc showed America what creative black Americans were all about.

  • The United States Population is 105,710,620 with a total of 10,463,131 being African Americans.

typical black news
Typical Local News & Advertisements in the Black Community for 1920

  • August 05, 1920 - White Women Far OutNumber Negroes - The headquarters of the National Women's Party in Washington gave out an interesting statement that was intended to quiet the apprehensions of Southern white people in regard to the effect which the enfranchisement of women would have on the race problem. For these reasons it is cited that there is no danger that the granting of suffrage to women would give the Negroes predominating power.
    (The Mt. Sterling advocate., August 05, 1920, Mt. Sterling, Ky.)

  • 1920 - DO YOU NEED WORK? - Let the Community Service Urban League Help You. Free Employment. Clifton 1479 18th and Vine.
    (The Kansas City sun. (Kansas City, Mo.) 1908-1924)

  • 1920 - A $45.00 Complete Course for $10.00 - Including $6.00 worth of the Famous Improved Hair, Scalp and Skin Treatments. Enough goods to earn your $10.00 back. CLASS LIMITED - Be a hairdresser scalp and skin specialist. We teach you how by mail or person. We give diplomas. Write us today for new terms. W.T. McKISSICK AND COMPANY. P.O. Box 102 Wilmington Delaware (The Kansas City sun. (Kansas City, Mo.) 1908-1924)

  • 1920 - What The Negro Achieved in Industry - The Negro as a factor in industry are established. During the war as a substitute or military necessity, the Negro was initiated into manufactories. Naturally he was received with suspicion. Imagine a race jumping from agriculture to manufactories in the course of a few hours. Has he made good? Is he a lazy, worthless good for nothing liability as he has very often been pictured to be? Does he work two days in seven, and then stop to spend what he has earned? These questions are answered nationally, as employers are happy to express themselves about the Negro. True many have failed miserably but the average Negro or to be more presise, over 95% has succeeded admirably.
    (Cayton's weekly. (Seattle, Wash.), 21 Aug. 1920)

  • March 12, 1920 - Housing Issues - Baltimore MD. Justice Rohleder of the Northeastern police court of this city recently told a delegation of white women that he could do nothing to prevent a Negro family from moving into their neighborhood, as the higher courts had ruled against segregation.
    (The Tulsa star. (Tulsa, Okla.) 1913-1921)

  • September 19, 1920 - Crap Game Alleged to Have Occasioned Hold Up By Negro - Nathan Jordan colored was arrested Saturday morning by the police on the charge that he had held up Gust Finger, also colored and robbed him of $2.00.
    (Great Falls daily tribune. (Great Falls, Mont.), 19 Sept. 1920)

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#100 -   By Bowman(Life time: None.) Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   William P. Gottlieb Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   By C.H.J Snider fonds Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - By New York Sunday News (page) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -  See page for author [Public domain], By The Library of Congress [see page for license], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public domain, Photo of Marcus Garvey, National Hero of Jamaica, full-length, seated at desk.

#106 -   Public domain, By Underwood &Underwood, Photographer (NARA record: 1123804) (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   Public Domain image - By Mills Artists; photographer: James Kriegsmann, New York (eBay item photo) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   By Bain News Service [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#113 -   By Bain News Service; cropped by Beyond My Ken (talk) 07:14, 4 October 2010 (UTC) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#114 -  See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#115 -  By 1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg: J.E. Mille[r], K.C.derivative work: Delaywaves talk • contribs (1924_Negro_League_World_Series.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#116 -  By Harris & Ewing [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#117 -  See page for author [Public domain], This work is from the New York World-Telegram and Sun collection at the Library of Congress. According to the library, there are no known copyright restrictions on the use of this work.

#118 -  See page for author [Public domain], This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 and although there may or may not have been a copyright notice, the copyright was not renewed.,_Fred_-_Never_Get_Rich.jpg ---- --,_Fred_-_Daddy.jpg ----

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