blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1921:
Allen Allensworth
    Allen Allensworth was born into slavery, escaped and became a Union soldier; later he became a Baptist minister and educator and was appointed as a chaplain in the United States Army. He was the first African-American to reach the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He planted numerous churches, and in 1908 founded Allensworth, California, the only town in the state to be founded, financed and governed by African-Americans.

    Allen's mother was a slave to A.P. and Bett Starbird. The Starbirds had a young son who taught young Allen to read, which was illegal during slavery days. When the Starbirds discovered that Allen was learning to read they separated him from their son and placed him with another family, the Talbots who were a Quakers. The Talbots were kind to Allen and continued to teach him to read and write; she also took him to a Sunday school for slave children.

    I guess the Starbirds were still responsible for Allen and would face legal action if discovered he could read so after they found Mrs. Talbot was also teaching the boy they sent the boy to a plantation down the Mississippi River in Henderson, to put an end to his learning. On the steamboat, the boy was placed in the care of a slave steward rather than being chained with other slaves below deck, who were being taken for sale to downriver markets.

    Eventually, Allen was sold again in Memphis, Tennessee and shipped to New Orleans. There he was bought by Fred Scruggs, who taught him to work as an exercise boy and jockey, he assigned him to race his best horse. Many people don't realize that most riders at this time were black and would remain this way until Jim Crow laws stopped it. Oliver Lewis who was a black man won the first ever Kentucky Derby.

    After his escape from slavery, Allen served in the Union army and upon release became involved with religion, becoming a Baptist minister. He and his family eventually settled in Los Angeles. He was inspired by the idea of establishing a self-sufficient, all-black California community where African Americans could live free of the racial discrimination that pervaded post-Reconstruction America. His dream was to build a community where black people might live and create "sentiment favorable to intellectual and industrial liberty.

    Allensworth is the only California community to be founded, financed and governed by African-Americans. The founders were dedicated to improving the economic and social status of African Americans. Uncontrollable circumstances, including a drop in the area's water table, resulted in the town's decline.

    This man had a strong desire to learn and better himself, and once he accomplished his goals he wanted to help others. He started off as a lowly slave but ended up an icon who was the founder of a city. He had big dreams of starting a black community and succeeded in doing just that.

    Just think about that for a moment. Blacks could walk around freely without the hateful glares from whites and could achieve as far as their desires would take them. This town had to be like utopia to many. We award Allen Allensworth with the 1921 Hamite Award for giving the Negro a glimpse into a future America, and teaching us the importance of being self-reliant.

Allen Allensworth
Allen Allensworth
photo #106-yr-1914





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How were blacks feeling in 1921?
sad mood of blacks

We had terrible riots in Tulsa, Oklahoma this year. The community of Greenwood was burned down to the ground by the white racist terrorist. What started it was so petty, it's unbelievable. A young black boy had to use the elevator, and upon entering stepped on the toe of a young white operator who proceeded to slap him in the face and he returned the favor. They arrested him, and the newspapers got hold of the story and instigated the riots with false reporting. I think they should be responsible more than anybody.

Greenwood was the most thriving black community in the nation. I think a lot of jealousy was involved. The way blacks can make something out of nothing is amazing. The city refused to re-issue permits for them to re-build and also put other stumbling blocks in their path, so that never happened. What a shame. President Harding didn't even make a statement about the matter. It was only blacks that were arrested, and all whites went clear and free of all the looting and murders they committed, empowering them to do the same thing whenever they desire. Our Constitutional rights have been trampled on and ignored for so long, we're just used to it and always expect the worse.



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african american first

 For the year 1921:
  • Bessie Coleman was the first African-American woman to become an aviation pilot, first American to hold an international pilot license.

  • Fritz Pollard, co-head coach, while continuing to play running back was the first African-American NFL football coach.

  • Sadie Tanner Mossell, Ph.D. in Economics was the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in the U.S.



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annual bbq



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blacks in hockey
The Coloured Hockey League performed from 1895-1930
photo #119-yr-1910


blacks in sports in 1921

 Rube Foster
Rube Foster
photo #115-yr-1920

      Sports in 1921
  • 1921 - Rube Foster organized the Negro National League, the first long-lasting professional league for African-American ballplayers, which operated from 1920 to 1931. He is known as the "father of Black Baseball." Foster adopted his longtime nickname, "Rube", as his official middle name later in life.


  • 1895-1930 - Coloured Hockey League was an all-black ice hockey league founded in Nova Scotia in 1895, which featured teams from across Canada's Maritime Provinces. The Coloured League is credited by some as being the first league to allow the goaltender to leave his feet to cover a puck in 1900. This practice was not permitted elsewhere until the formation of the National Hockey League in 1917. Historians also claim that the first player to use the slapshot was Eddie Martin of the Halifax Eureka in 1906. Trivia: In the Revolutionary War, America and the British promised the black slaves freedom if they fought for their respective sides. Of course, we all know that America won the war but failed to keep its promise to the slaves and forced them back into slavery. President George Washington had to know about this and did nothing on the slave's behalf. On the other hand, the British kept their promise and transported these slaves who were also called black loyalist to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Africa to start a new life. The Coloured Hockey League players were from Nova Scotia and introduced exciting innovations to the game of hockey.




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African rulers sold out its people



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Delta Sigma Theta
22 Founders of Delta Sigma Theta taken in 1913
photo #108-yr-1913

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HOW LONG WILL GOOD WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence


Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a fight between good and bad. The problem is that both good and bad forces claim to adore democracy. Someone is lying. You be the judge.


First, we need to define democracy and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.


Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."

"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


Now it's very clear from the many biased comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't the type that would have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views many years ago. But that's okay, at least he was honest. This site believes he would have changed his racist views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.


In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.


Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised citizenship after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory in the war, America didn't keep it promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising real Democracy.


Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. But all of America's founders didn't feel this way. A contemporary of Washington and future President John Adams hated slavery and was proud to boast he handled his business with paid workers. Did George Washington look at himself in the mirror and feel guilty about compromising (true) American Democracy? History says he didn't.


Washington created the blueprint for this distorted view of true Democracy


Blacks in the colonies had been treated poorly since their arrival from Africa, but this action by Washington made it official. This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also.


We must all be honest with ourselves in admitting this view of Democracy was not American because it denied certain humans liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. Therefore we must call for what it was, which is Anti-American.


So we had two different Presidents with various versions of Democracy, and this is the way it remains today. What made Lincoln a force for good and better President was he put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of true Democracy. This is what set these two men apart. Both were great men with different views about what it meant to be an American on the side of liberty and justice for all.


After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson, and he fought against the Civil Rights of blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained on the fence. Read for yourself.


There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?



Did religion made things worse?


Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state completely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's beleived they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God We Trust" were printed on money to describe a people who had snuffed out Democracy, They felt God was on their side and loved only them.


Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these Anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world with God on their side. Good white Americans had to know this was a farce because of the way it's black citizens were being treated and did nothing.


There were a relative few brave, good white Americans who spoke up during this period and got involved with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the threat of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


So, what now?


Because of the folly of racism and privilege by Anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out for true Democracy by good Americans, has our country morphed into another form of power? Something that is completely different than it started out as, perhaps like an insatiable, detestable and ugly monster, without a soul or conscience? You be the judge.


whites sitting on fence





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blacks and education
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority
Delta Sigma Theta expansion. Members at 1921 national convention, hosted by Gamma Chapter (l to r): front, Virginia Margaret Alexander, Julia Mae Polk, Sadie Tanner Mossell; row 2, Anna R. Johnson, Nellie Rathbone Bright, Pauline Alice Young
photo #110-yr-1921

     Education in 1921
  • February 1921 - Delta Sigma Theta became the first black Greek-letter organization established on the Pacific Coast.

  • June 1921 - Eva B. Dykes, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander, and Georgiana R. Simpson become the first African American women to earn Ph.D. degrees.



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blacks and politics

 Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
photo #116-yr-1920

     Political Scene in 1921
  • Republican Warren G. Harding was elected the 29th President of the United States from 1921 to 1923. Analysis: Harding had a conscience about the Negro. But much more is needed if blacks are to make any headway into the complete enjoyment of our Civil Rights like other American citizens. How does he do? He advocated an anti-lynching bill to curb violence against African Americans, but it failed to pass Congress. He also endorsed African-American civil rights. It was rumored that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American, but he denied this. Harding was the first President to openly advocate black political, educational, and economic equality during the 20th century. In the "Birmingham speech," Harding wanted African Americans to have equal educational opportunities and greater voting rights in the South. The white section of the audience listened in silence while the black part of the segregated audience cheered. Blacks were very much interested in the political process by attending that speech. There were limits for Harding's love for blacks, though. He openly stated that he was not for black social equality regarding racial mixing or intermarriage. Harding also spoke on the Great Migration, that was going on at the time, believing that blacks are migrating to the North and West to find employment had harmed race relations between blacks and whites. It's becoming clear this issue is relevant only to the Negro. Our crying out in anguish falls upon closed ears. We are second class citizens at every turn, set up for failure. Presidents past and future will recognize that an injustice exist, but it's not worth it to them, to fight for us. They would lose everything politically in doing so. So every President chooses to let the situation get worse and worse for the next administration. A courageous and brave President is desperately needed for the Negro cause, the American cause, because since emancipation the Declaration of Independence and Constitution have been soiled and diluted by weak leaders, too afraid to stand up for real justice, which would have made America a shining star in the whole world, envious of all nations at how she treated all of her citizens. But as it stands now, the nations have to think of America as a great country, but a great fake country with all of her insincere talk of democracy for all. It would take blacks themselves to force a change on our government, in fact, that's a Constitutional right to legally force change if government doesn't work. Harding probably wanted to help blacks, but he would face much opposition, so he didn't push the envelope. It's also interesting to note as illustrated by the table below that the Solid South is still sticking together with their voting patterns, even though slavery has been over since 1863. I guess they still want to keep the Negro in his place, because they vote against every bill that might aid in our advancement.

  • September 1921 - black leaders unsuccessfully sought to have 61 black soldiers given clemency for the harsh prison terms they received in the Houston race riots four years earlier by meeting with President Warren Harding.
 presidential election
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, Blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.




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presidents rating guide
filler presidents rating guide
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.

The Declaration in part states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.

But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.


The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.

filler greedy green monster
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so

 Presidential Ratings

Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.

Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.

Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.

During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.

What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?

YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN'T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT'S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!

Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.

But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.

What was the result?

After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.

The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.

There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?

We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents to act or not to act could have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course they would.

abe lincoln Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for. happy former slave
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution. sad former slave
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution. happy former slave
Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes was an opportunist and sold out the Negro big time with the 1877 Compromise. He didn't understand what his country stood for. sad former slave
James A Garfield James A Garfield was a strong defender of Civil Rights, and wanted the Negro to progress through education. Sadly he didn't get a chance to fufill his intentions because he was assassinated, but we give him the benefit of the doubt. We believe he understood the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Chester Arthur Chester Arthur wasn't really ever concerned with the negro issue. but he didn't make this humongous Negro problems his priority but chose to ignore it and pass it on to the next admin. He did not understand the principles of the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland actually sided with the white terrorist in the Chinese race riots and felt it was the Chinese fault. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, he only believed in it as far as it would benefit him, just like typical America. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans' civil rights. Nice words he had for blacks but in all honesty, we need something more concrete to hold on too. But we believe that this president understood the principles of the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland second term wasn't any better than the first. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, and was a no-show for the American Negro. sad former slave
William McKinley William McKinley didn't care much for the Civil Rights of Negroes. he failed to enforce the Constitution, because there were many abuses nationwide and he didn't act. He didn't understand or just didn't care. sad former slave
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt glazed over the Negroes problems with beautiful speeches, but no action. I was pulling for this president to be fair, mainly because he was loved by many in his day, blacks included, but history shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. Sorry Teddy. sad former slave
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft wasn't in touch with the humongous Negro problem that was left festering since the emancipation. History shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson was a typical no-show as president for the Negro poplualtion. He instigated segregation in U.S. If you're claiming to the world as being a great democracy and not living up to that boast at home is a falsehood. sad former slave


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SOUTHERN HATE  if I said it once I must say it again, these people ain't normal!

The Civil War Is Over, Why Do You Still Hate Me So Much Man?


southern hate

There were over 179,000 black soldiers who fought in the Civil War for their freedom and the right to become American citizens. Many brave souls died. They thought once it was over things would be better for the colored people. But it wasn't and especially in the South.


What the HELL! Why do these southern whites hate blacks so much and fight against our pursuit of happiness at every turn? They ain't normal, and surely not American, because if they were they would believe all are created equal, which is what our country was founded on.


Southern whites had enjoyed a lifestyle much better than their ancestors before them. Before arriving in America, most white immigrants were destitute and severely oppressed by their governments. Many were uneducated peasants and serfs not much better off than a black slave. When they finally encountered blacks in America, they showed little empathy toward them.


No longer on the bottom rung of the ladder of humanity, these white immigrants would also proclaim themselves superior and joined the higher class of whites in dominating blacks unmercifully for many years. Whites as a group was happy as a lark even the not so intelligent ones.


The North understood slavery to be a temporary situation, but in contrast Southern whites viewed it as a permanent institution that should be expanded into new territories that hadn't been admitted to the union yet. Stop the Slave Power at all cost was the North's goal. This reason the Civil War started, not because Abraham Lincoln had this burning desire to free the slaves.


Before the war, southern whites grew very comfortable with their lifestyle and after losing it blamed blacks for everything. Many were brilliant and proud people. Now can you imagine proud, intelligent white people who had dominated blacks for hundreds of years, and faced with the possibility of black equality and being governed by the same individuals they mistreated and spit on and looked upon as ignorant savage beast?


They viciously fought against equality for black people at every turn and opportunity. They considered themselves true Sons of the South, do or die.


They had to feel like the North was punishing and embarrassing them by giving blacks American citizenship and the right to vote. Southern whites would kill many blacks for what they perceived as upholding their honor. What did the North do? They made a show of attempting to help black people, but in the end, that's all it was a show. In reality, they used blacks as a pawn to teach the South a lesson in hopes that one day the southern faithful would reconcile their hearts to the Union of America as one big happy white American family.



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 Tulsa Race Riot
National Guard and wounded during 1921 Tulsa race riots.
This caption claims that the wounded are being taken to the Brady theater.
(I bet the black guy in this picture was never seen again, what do you think?)

photo #114-yr-1921

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 Tulsa Race Riot
Destruction from the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot
photo #112-yr-1921

racism

 Tulsa Race Riot
Handwritten on negative, All That Was Left of His Home after the Tulsa Race Riot
photo #113-yr-1921

     Race in 1921
  • May 31 - June 1, 1921 - The Tulsa race riot was a large-scale, racially motivated conflict, in which a group of white people attacked the black community of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It resulted in the Greenwood District, also known as 'the Black Wall Street' and the wealthiest black community in the United States, being burned to the ground. Analysis: Blacks were completely outnumbered in this race riot and got the worse of it. But it's a continuing trend that they are fighting back, instead of just accepting slaughter. The riot started for stupid reasons and led to the destruction of prosperous Greenwood, where blacks had created a thriving community. This riot was typical of the countless others that happened in America against the Negro. It was the whites who did the killing and looting; it was the white newspapers who played a huge role in inciting the rioters. It was the white police who joined in the riots or ignored injustice against black citizens. The only arrest was of black people. There wasn't any mention of President Harding lifting his voice to denounce the terrorist actions by this hateful racist, he allowed it to happen, thereby empowering angry mobs in other cities to do the same exact thing. The world is looking at fake America and shaking its head. The Negro has to wonder at this point if justice is won by passiveness or to become more aggressive like the whites with plotting and planning terror and evil. The history books omitted this tragedy for many years, and has just recently been revisited.



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slang and memorable quotes
Cab Calloway
Cab Calloway, who wrote a Hepster's dictionary about the language of jive.
photo #100

slang talk

     sLANG tALK in 1921
  • Jive talk - harlmese speech, slang talking

  • Bringer-Downer - a disappointment

  • Alligator - a devotee of jazz or swing music

  • Chops - refers to any musician's level of ability

  • Frail - a noun for any hepster woman

  • G-man - government man, especially one harasses people

  • Gage - marijuana, particularly associated with Louis Armstrong

  • Gate - any man, usually used as a greeting

  • Hep - in the know, hip

  • Hep cat - smart and knowledgeable person, also hipster

  • High - happy, content, mellow

  • Hoochie Coocher - hot woman who dances laying down

  • Hoochie coochie - sexy dance

  • Jeff - opposite of hep; unhip, uncool

  • Jitterbug - a dance created in the 1920s and 1930s

  • Light up - to light a stick of T or reefer

  • Lid - a Prince Albert tobacco can filled to the lid

  • Man! - commonly used as an interjection or for emphasis

  • Mighty Mezz - an expertly rolled joint

  • Mop - woman, often meaning another hepster's girlfriend

  • Ofay - police

  • Puff - to smoke weed

  • Stick of tea - joint, reefer, left-handed cigarette

  • Zoot suit - suits popular with dancers of the swing era



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The Homesteader
The Homesteader (1919) is a lost black-and-white silent race film by African American
author and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. This is a newspaper advert for the film.

photo #108-yr-1919

black Movies in America
Movies in America


Evelyn Preer
Actress Evelyn Preer
photo #104-yr-1896

Oscar Micheaux
American film director Oscar Micheaux
photo #107-yr-1919

Rose McClendon
Actress Rose McClendon
photo #101-yr-1884

     Movies in 1921
  • Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"

  • 1921 - Oscar Micheaux was an African-American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. The first of which was released in 1919 called The Homesteader which was met with critical and commercial success. Trivia: Image is everything and Oscar recognized that fact. Up unto the time, he began producing movies; the Negro was portrayed as lazy, weak morals, thieves, dishonest savage people you couldn't trust. Well guess what? Oscar changed all of that with his movies. He put positive role models on the silver screen and finally the world was able to see the Negro in their right light, as intelligent, well to do honest people, hard working, industrious human beings who loved their families. Oscar was a critical aspect to active Negro development in this country. Are we continuing to lift the image of our people in this country today?

  • African American Charles Sidney Gilpin became one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. In 1920 he was the first black American to receive the Drama League of New York's annual award, as one of the ten people who had done the most that year for American theater.

  • 1920s - Rose McClendon was a leading African-American Broadway actress of the 1920s. McClendon was a contemporary of Paul Robeson, Ethel Barrymore, Lynn Fontanne and Langston Hughes.



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Augusta Chiwy
Augusta Chiwy
photo #117-yr-1921

famous african american birthdays

Slappy White
Comedian Slappy White
photo #105

Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
photo #106-yr-1921

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989

Ezzard Charles
Ezzard Charles
photo #107-yr-1949

Alex Haley
Alex Haley
photo #104-yr-1992

     Famous Birthdays in 1921
  • March 27, 1921 - Harold Lloyd Nicholas  was an American dancer specializing in tap.

  • May 3, 1921 - Sugar Ray Robinson  was an American professional boxer. Frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight.

  • June 6, 1921 - Augusta Chiwy  was a Black/Belgian nurse who served as a volunteer during the siege of Bastogne. She worked with U.S. Army physician Dr. John Prior and with fellow Belgian nurse Renee Lemaire, treating injured soldiers during the Battle of the Bulge. Trivia: Chiwy was the daughter of a Belgian veterinarian from Bastogne and his Congolese wife, was born in 1921 in the Belgian Congo. She returned to Belgium at the age of nine and at aged 19, she went to Leuven to be trained as a nurse. She was a forgotten hero for many years until British historian Martin King tracked her down to get her the recognition she deserved. Her actions as a nurse in WWII while in the constant face of danger and saving countless lives went far beyound the call of duty. In July 2015 a documentary film about Chiwy entitled Searching for Augusta: The Forgotten Angel of Bastogne, produced by Martin King won the Emmy Award for Historical Documentary.

  • July 7, 1921 - Ezzard Mack Charles   was an American professional boxer and former World Heavyweight Champion.

  • July 12, 1921 - Hugh Morgan Hill  an African American educator, storyteller, actor, musician, street performer and living icon.

  • July 31, 1921 - Whitney Young  was an American civil rights leader.

  • August 11, 1921 - Alex Haley  was an American writer. He is best known as the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family.

  • August 29, 1921 - Wendell Oliver Scott  was an American stock car racing driver from Danville, Virginia.

  • September 20, 1921 - Melvin Edward "Slappy" White   was an African American comedian and actor. He worked with Redd Foxx on the Chitlin' circuit of stand-up comedy during the 1950s and 1960s.

  • November 19, 1921 - Roy Campanella   nicknamed "Campy", was an American baseball player, primarily as a catcher. The Philadelphia native played for the Negro leagues and Mexican League for several seasons before moving into the minor leagues in 1946.



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famous african american quotes      Famous African American Quotes
    Sugar Ray Robinson -   African-American professional boxer, frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time.

    "Rhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble."


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famous african american deaths


Nat Love
Nat Love a.k.a. Deadwood Dick
photo #107-yr-1876

     Famous Deaths in 1921
  • December 22, 1921 - Pierre Caliste Landry  was an American slave who after the American Civil War became an attorney, Methodist Episcopal minister, and politician in Louisiana. He was elected as mayor of Donaldsonville, the first Black to hold that position in the United States.

  • 1921 - Caesar Carpenter "C.C." Antoine   African American politician in Louisiana during Reconstruction.

  • December 21, 1921 - Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback   was a publisher and politician, a Union Army officer, and the first person of African descent to become governor of a U.S. state.

  • 1921 - John N. Conna   enlisted in the 1st Louisiana Colored Infantry to fight in the Civil War. After the war, Conna was a land owner in the in the Tacoma/Auburn area. He also started his own real estate business which included a notary public service.

  • 1921 - William Calvin Chase   was an African-American lawyer and newspaper editor.

  • 1921 - Nat Love   also known as "Deadwood Dick", was an African-American cowboy and former slave in the period following the American Civil War that liberated African American slaves in the United States.



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famous african american weddings
Frederick Madison Roberts
Frederick Madison Roberts
photo #105-yr-1879

Paul Leroy Robeson
Paul Robeson
photo #111-yr-1898

Josephine Baker
Josephine Baker
photo #104-yr-1906

Shirley Graham
Shirley Graham
photo #107-yr-1932

     Famous Weddings in 1921
  • 1921 - Josephine Baker married Willie Baker.

  • 1921 - Eva Taylor married Clarence William.

  • 1921 - Politician Frederick Madison Roberts married Pearl Hinds.

  • 1921 - African-American cabaret singer, dancer, and comedian Florence Mills married Ulysses "Slow Kid" Thompson.

  • 1921 - Singer Paul Robeson married Eslanda "Essie" Goode.

  • 1921 - Award-winning author, playwright, composer, and activist Shirley Graham married Shadrach T. McCants.



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George Walker
Vaudeville star George Walker
photo #114-yr-1908

Egbert  Austin Williams
Egbert "Bert" Austin Williams
photo #104-yr-1910

     Entertainment in 1921
  • George Walker formed the The Frogs (club) Why did George Walker start a black club for actors when he could have just joined the American Actors Beneficial Association? Because like everything else in America, it was becoming commonplace for blacks and whites to be separated in everything. Doctors, Realtors, Lawyers, Unions, etc. and every other organization you can think of was segregated. It's almost like whites needed a race of people such as the lowly Negro to measure its greatness. Blacks had no choice but to organize for their benefit. The Negro didn't want it this way, but like a famous rapper once said: "That's just the way it is" The American Actors Beneficial Association excluded blacks from it were memberships and didn't appreciate it when Walker formed the Frogs. His original start up group, The Colored Vaudeville Benevolent Association, received negative attitude from white producers. The concept of the colored man supporting himself through performance and no longer just “taking what they were given” posed a threat to the white vaudevillian and theatrical community. With this, Walker set forth to create The Frogs. On July 18, 1908, at Walker’s home at 52 West 153rd St in Harlem, eleven of the most prominent names in the industry formed together to create the African American professional organization. The Frogs, became known for their big event “The Frolic of the Frogs” or “The Frogs Frolic” every August at the Manhattan Casino (New York City) at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue. For 50 cents, people enjoyed a combination ball, party, and vaudeville show where favors were given to the ladies and door prizes went to the three individuals wearing unique costumes symbolic of the frogs. With a large success in the early years of the event, “The Frolic of the Frogs” was able to tour their event in cities such as Philadelphia, Richmond, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Popularity in the frolic was found among both blacks and whites. We love happy stories like "The Frogs" had given the people of New York. Come on let's face it, 99% of the time because of racial oppression; it's was negative for the Negro. George Walker died in 1911, but his longtime friend Bert Williams would take over the company continuing it's amazing success well into the 1920s.




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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

     It's a Party in 1921
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.




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soul music orgin


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King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra
King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra, Houston Texas
photo #111-yr-1921

Ethel Waters
Ethel Waters
photo #105-yr-1883

Bennie Moten
Bennie Moten
photo #109-yr-1921

Eubie Blake
Eubie Blake
photo #105-yr-1883

Noble Sissle
Noble Sissle
photo #102-yr-1921

Wild About Harry
"I'm Just Wild About Harry"
photo #107

Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
photo #108-yr-1890

Bill
William Manuel "Bill" Johnson
photo #108-yr-1872

Black Swan record label
Black Swan record label
photo #116-yr-1921

Thomas
Thomas "Fats" Waller
photo #117-yr-1920

     Music in 1921

  Popular Soul Dances
  • The Breakaway

  • The Foxtrot



  Musical Happenings in 1921:
  • William Manuel "Bill" Johnson assembled King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, considered perhaps the best of the early ensemble style jazz bands. He taught younger Chicago musicians his "slap" style of string bass playing.


  • "I'm Just Wild About Harry" is a song written in 1921 with lyrics by Noble Sissle and music by Eubie Blake for the Broadway show Shuffle Along. The most popular number of the production, was "I'm Just Wild About Harry" which was the first financially successful Broadway play to have African-American writers and an all African-American cast.


  • The Norfolk Jazz Quartet begins recording for OKeh, becoming "one of the earliest and most popular group to emerge" from the Tidewater area of Virginia, a fertile region for African-American singing quartets.


  • The National Baptist Convention's Gospel Pearls, a compilation of hymns, collected by Lucie Campbell, is released in its second edition, becoming so popular it remains in print, without a new edition, into the 1990s. The first use of the term gospel is recognized.


  • The Penn Hotel becomes the first African-American-owned hotel in Baltimore, and where the Douglass Theater, later more famously known as the Royal Theatre, is opened as one of the finest African-American theaters in the country. The Royal Theatre will become one of the major stops on the black entertainment circuit.


  • W. C. Handy and Harry Pace start Black Swan, the first black-owned record label.


  • Black Swan Records becomes the first African-American-owned record label, specializing in what was then known as "race music". Singer Ethel Waters records the label's first hits, "Down Home Blues" and "Oh, Daddy", and will be the label's biggest star.


  • Bennie Moten's orchestra becomes the earliest major jazz band in Kansas City.


  • Soprano Florence Cole Talbert recorded at least four titles for the new Black Swan label.


  • 1921 - Black Swan Records was a record label founded in 1921 in Harlem, New York. It was the first widely distributed label to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. The production company declared bankruptcy in December 1923; and in March 1924 Paramount Records bought the Black Swan label.


  • 1921 - The Oklahoma City Blue Devils was the premier Southwest territory jazz band in the 1920s. Originally called Billy King's Road Show, it disbanded in Oklahoma City in 1925 where Walter Page renamed it. The name Blue Devils came from the name of a gang of fence cutters operating during the early days of the American West.


  • 1920s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.




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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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Claude McKay
Claude McKay
photo #102-yr-1889

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
photo#112-yr-1920

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
photo#113-yr-1920

black men's fashion in 1920s
Men's fashion in 1920s
photo#114-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1921

  Popular Fashions:

  • Overview:
    During the 1920s, the notion of keeping up with fashion trends and expressing oneself through material goods seized middle-class Americans as never before. Purchasing new clothes, new appliances, new automobiles, new anything indicated one's level of prosperity. Being considered old-fashioned, out-of-date, or—worse yet—unable to afford stylish new products was a fate many Americans went to great lengths to avoid.


  • During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. African-Americans wore clothing that was far from somber. Women were dressed in wide hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress, possibly with a ribbon at the hip. Though the 1920s cloche, a close-fitting number usually made of felt or wool, was extremely popular for casual wear and was worn gaily pulled down over the eyes. Popular by the 1930s was the trendy beret hat with stand-up or egret feather. Men wore zoot suits which were wide-legged, high-waisted, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide padded shoulders and lapels. They also wore wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. African Americans also expressed respect for their heritage through a style of leopard-skin coats indicating the great power of the infamous African animal.


  • Trivia:
    A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell".




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black pullman porter

black pullman porter

Pullman porters, who were primarily black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.

During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.

But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.



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 Binga State Bank in Chicago
The opening day of Binga State Bank in Chicago, IL. Mr. Jesse Binga is pictured sixth from the left.
photo #115-yr-1921

United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1920s

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

A 1921 Cadillac advertisement
A 1921 Cadillac advertisement
photo #103-yr-1921

Black Star Line
Photo of Yarmouth, first ship in the Black Star Liner Fleet
photo #112-yr-1919

     
Our Community in 1921

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • 1921 - Jesse Binga founds the largest African American bank in the United States. The Binga State Bank was located in Chicago, Illinois.

  • June 1921 - The Black Star Line having a maximum capitalization of $500,000, BSL stocks were sold at UNIA conventions at five dollars each. It stood as a major symbol for Marcus Garvey's followers and African Americans in search of a way to get back to their homeland.

  • 1921 - In the 1920s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.

  • The United States Population is 105,710,620 with a total of 10,463,131 being African Americans.


typical black news
Typical Local News & Advertisements in the Black Community for 1921

  • October 28, 1921 - Real Menace Is The Negro, Not The Indian - The belief has been prevalent for years that a great number of our dusky friends "bite the dust" every year from tuberculosis. This is not true. The real menace is the Negro with far more deaths.
    (The independent. volume (Elizabeth City, N.C.), )
    http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025812/1921-10-28/ed-1/seq-6/


  • 1921 - The Negro and Education - The present North Carolina program of Negro education and health state and local provides for an expenditure of $4,000,000 in the near future. North Carolina is steadily working to a point where it will give it's colored people every educational advantage provided for the white people.
    ( The independent. volume (Elizabeth City, N.C.) )
    http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025812/1921-10-14/ed-1/seq-6/


  • 1921 - Fall Down Shaft Fatal To Negro - Luther Chambers colored 40 years old 707 sixth street Southwest was instantly killed when he fell down an elevator shaft from the third floor of the new City Club. The man, a laborer was employed by the builders, was working near a shaft on the third floor when he slipped and fell.
    ( The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.)
    http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045433/1921-10-19/ed-1/seq-3/


  • 1921 - Madam C.J. Walker's Wonderful Hair Grower - Your Future Hold Money Property Success. A healthy scalp, Long wavy hair, and a lovely complexion. Learn the Madam C.J. Walker's system of beauty culture. and sell her 18 superfine preparations and a prosperous future is yours. Use her world renowned preparations regularly and have beautiful hair and a charming complexion.
    ( The Dallas express. (Dallas, Tex.)
    http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025779/1921-05-07/ed-1/seq-7/


  • 1921 - Too Unlucky - A visitor in Kentucky came across that rare specimen, an unmarried colored man. The Negro was a quiet elderly person, not shiftless but quite industrious, so the Northern man felt curious and determined to find out why he had remained single.
    ( The evening world. (New York, N.Y.)
    http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030193/1921-07-15/ed-1/seq-16/




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#102 -   Public Domain image - Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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#104 -   Public Domain image - By Mills Artists; photographer: James Kriegsmann, New York (eBay item photo) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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#106 -   Public Domain image - By New York World-Telegram and the Sun staff photographer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   Public Domain image - By Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake (Indiana University[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   Public Domain image - William P. Gottlieb [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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#111 -   Public Domain image - Robert Runyon [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   Public Domain image - By United States Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95517018/) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#113 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#114 -   Public Domain image - By Tulsa world ([1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#115 -   Public Domain image - By Julius F. Taylor (The Broad Ax) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#116 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#117 -   Public Domain image - By Embassy of the United States in Brussels, Belgium's official Facebook [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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