Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1922:
Bert Williams was one of the most famous entertainers during the Vaudeville era, and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. He was called by many the greatest comedian of the world, similar to Richard Pryor and Redd Foxx of our day.
During his long career, Williams helped to erase some of the stereotypes about the black person and opened many doors for blacks that had previously been shut tight.
Fellow funnyman and vaudevillian W.C. Fields, who appeared in productions with Williams, described him as "the funniest man I ever saw – and the saddest man I ever knew."
At the age of 11, Williams with his parents emigrated from the Bahamas to Florida. After graduation from High School, Williams began performing at various minstrel shows, including Martin and Selig's Mastodon Minstrels, where he first met his future partner, George Walker.
He and Walker performed song-and-dance numbers, funny dialogues and skits, and funny songs. They fell into stereotypical vaudevillian roles: initially Williams portrayed a slick conniver, while Walker played the "dumb coon" victim of Williams' schemes. However, they soon discovered that they got a better reaction by switching roles. The sharp-featured and slender Walker eventually developed a persona as a strutting dandy, while the stocky Williams played the languorous oaf.
Whenever these two men would pose for publicity photos they made it a point to be dressed sharp as a tack. This helped their audience in seeing them in another light, their real light. These two men lived to make people happy, but sadly all people didn't view them that way.
One night after a performance the two parted ways with Williams going in a fortunate direction and Walker choosing to take the streetcar. Big mistake. There had been a rumor spread around town (probably by white newspapers, they were notorious for false reporting) that a black man shot a white detective. A violent white mob noticed Walker and snatched him off the streetcar and beat him.
The two men were inseparable and would go on to create many great musicals such as "Son of Ham" and "In Dahomey." In Dahomey then traveled to London, where it was enthusiastically received. A command performance was given at Buckingham Palace in June 1903.
Walker was in ill health by this point due to syphilis, which was then incurable. In January 1909 he suffered a stroke onstage while singing, and was forced to drop out of Bandanna Land the following month. The great pair never performed in public again, and Walker died less than two years later.
Williams would go on to reestablish himself as a solo act. Williams accepted an unprecedented offer to join Flo Ziegfeld's Follies. The idea of a black featured performer amid an otherwise all-white show was a shock in 1910. Williams' initial reception was lukewarm, and several cast members delivered an ultimatum to Ziegfeld that Williams is fired. Ziegfeld held firm, saying: "I can replace every one of you, except [Williams]."
Williams' status had grown so much that he was allowed to be onstage at the same time as white women—a significant concession in 1912, Maybe that was the ultimate slap in a white man's face to see their wives with black men. It intimidated them.
But as well known and respected as he was during his day, there were many who just refused to give him respect.
On one occasion, when he attempted to buy a drink at the bar of New York's beautiful Hotel Astor, the white bartender tried to chase Williams away by telling him that he would be charged $50. Williams' response was to produce a thick roll of hundred dollar bills out of his pocket; placing the wad on the bar, he ordered a round for everyone in the room.
He told a reporter,
"They say it is a matter of race prejudice. But if it were prejudiced a baby would have it, and you will never find it in a baby... I have notice that this "race prejudice" is not to be found in people who are sure enough of their position to defy it."
In a letter to a friend, Williams later wrote,
"When ultimate changes come... I wonder if the new human beings will believe such persons as I am writing you about actually lived?"
Racism bothered Bert Williams, this had to be why W.C. Fields, described him as "the funniest man I ever saw – and the saddest man I ever knew."
On February 27, 1922, Williams collapsed during a performance in Detroit, Michigan, which the audience initially thought was a comic bit. Helped to his dressing room, Williams quipped, "That's a nice way to die. They were laughing when I made my last exit." He died on March 4, at the age of forty-seven from pneumonia.
This man is one of the icons of our Hamitic race. He was a tender hearted and loving individual whose only mission in life was to make people laugh.
He tried to heal the disease of racism with white people by laughter. But the disease was too far advanced for many with no hope of a cure, and this pained him. But the ones he did touch and the many others today that appreciated his marvelous contributions to the human society gladly join us in honoring this ultimate entertainer with the 1922 Hamite Award.
Egbert "Bert" Austin Williams |
Fashionable Bert Williams in the 1900s
George Walker and Bert Williams
styling in the 1900s
George Walker, Adah Overton Walker, and Bert Williams link arms and dance the cakewalk
in the first Broadway musical to be written and performed by African Americans, "In Dahomey."
|How were blacks feeling in 1922?
I guess everybody has their own troubles, some poor soul name Charlie Osborne had the hiccups that wouldn't go away, a record straight 435 million times. That's so terrible. I watched my own stepfather suffer from the same problem for years. (he died shortly after the hiccups stopped) Charlie Osborne has my deepest sympathy.
For the year 1922:
- Vinnette Justine Carroll was the first African-American woman to direct on Broadway, with the 1972 musical Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope.
The Coloured Hockey League performed from 1895-1930
| Sports in 1922 |
- Rube Foster organized the Negro National League, the first long-lasting professional league for African-American ballplayers, which operated from 1920 to 1931. He is known as the "father of Black Baseball."
Foster adopted his longtime nickname, "Rube", as his official middle name later in life.
- 1895-1930 - Coloured Hockey League was an all-black ice hockey league founded in Nova Scotia in 1895, which featured teams from across Canada's Maritime Provinces. The Coloured League is credited by some as being the first league to allow the goaltender to leave his feet to cover a puck in 1900. This practice was not permitted elsewhere until the formation of the National Hockey League in 1917. Historians also claim that the first player to use the slapshot was Eddie Martin of the Halifax Eureka in 1906. Trivia: In the Revolutionary War, America and the British promised the black slaves freedom if they fought for their respective sides. Of course, we all know that America won the war but failed to keep its promise to the slaves and forced them back into slavery. President George Washington had to know about this and did nothing on the slave's behalf. On the other hand, the British kept their promise and transported these slaves who were also called black loyalist to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Africa to start a new life. The Coloured Hockey League players were from Nova Scotia and introduced exciting innovations to the game of hockey.
Kappa Alpha Psi Chapter at Wilberforce University (Ohio) in 1922.
- photo#106 -yr-1911
Delta Sigma Theta Chapter at Wilberforce University (Ohio) in 1922.
- photo#108 -yr-1922
Founders of Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc.
Dorothy Whiteside, Vivian White Marbury, Nannie M. Johnson, Hattie M. Redford and Mary Lou Little
- photo#110 -yr-1922
| Education in 1922 |
- September 1922 - Upon his graduation from Harvard, William Leo Hansberry taught for a year at Straight College (now Dillard University) in New Orleans. In September 1922, Hansberry joined the faculty of Howard University where he started the African Civilization Section of the History Department.
- 1922 - The Harmon Foundation was established in 1922 by William E. Harmon. It served as a large-scale patron of African-American art and helped gain recognition for African-American artists who otherwise would have remained largely unknown.
- 1922 - Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. was founded on November 12, 1922, at Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana by seven young educators. It was incorporated within the state of Indiana in December 1922 and became a national collegiate sorority on December 30, 1929.
- 1922 - Guide Right is a program for the educational and occupational guidance of youth, primarily inspirational and informational in character. Conceived in 1922 by Leon Wop Stewart, and suggested at the twelfth Grand Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi, Guide Right became the Fraternity's National Service Program.
Warren G. Harding
| Political Scene in 1922 |
- Republican Warren G. Harding was elected the 29th President of the United States from 1921 to 1923.
Analysis: Harding had a conscience about the Negro. But much more is needed if blacks are to make any headway into a complete enjoyment of our Civil Rights like other American citizens. How does he do? He advocated an anti-lynching bill to curb violence against African Americans, but it failed to pass Congress. He also endorsed African-American civil rights. It was rumored that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American, but he denied this. Harding was the first President to openly advocate black political, educational, and economic equality during the 20th century. In the "Birmingham speech," Harding wanted African Americans to have equal educational opportunities and greater voting rights in the South. The white section of the audience listened in silence while the black part of the segregated audience cheered. Blacks were very much interested in the political process by attending that speech. There were limits for Harding's love for blacks, though. He openly stated that he was not for black social equality regarding racial mixing or intermarriage. Harding also spoke on the Great Migration, that was going on at the time, believing that blacks migrating to the North and West to find employment had harmed race relations between blacks and whites. It's becoming clear this issue is relevant only to the black person. Our crying out in anguish falls upon closed ears. We are second class citizens at every turn, set up for failure. Presidents past and future will recognize that an injustice exists, but it's not worth it to them, to fight for us. They would lose everything politically in doing so. So every President chooses to let the situation get worse and worse for the next administration. A courageous and brave President is desperately needed for the Negro cause, the American cause, because since emancipation the Declaration of Independence and Constitution have been soiled and diluted by weak leaders, too afraid to stand up for real justice, which would have made America a shining star in the whole world, envious of all nations at how she treated all of her citizens. But as it stands now, the nations have to think of America as a great country, but a great fake country with all of her insincere talk of democracy for all. It would take blacks themselves to force a change of our government, in fact, that's a Constitutional right to legally force change if the government doesn't work. Harding probably wanted to help blacks, but he would face much opposition, so he didn't push the envelope. It's also interesting to note as illustrated by the table below that the Solid South is still sticking together with their voting patterns, even though slavery has been over since 1863. I guess they still want to keep the black person in his place, because they vote against every bill that might aid in our advancement.
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, Blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.
SOUTHERN HATE if I said it once I must say it again, these people ain't normal!|
The Civil War Is Over, Why Do You Still Hate Me So Much Man?
There were over 179,000 black soldiers who fought in the Civil War for their freedom and the right to become American citizens. Many brave souls died. They thought once it was over things would be better for the colored people. But it wasn't and especially in the South.
What the HELL! Why do these southern whites hate blacks so much and fight against our pursuit of happiness at every turn? They ain't normal, and surely not American, because if they were they would believe all are created equal, which is what our country was founded on.
Southern whites had enjoyed a lifestyle much better than their ancestors before them. Before arriving in America, most white immigrants were destitute and severely oppressed by their governments. Many were uneducated peasants and serfs not much better off than a black slave. When they finally encountered blacks in America, they showed little empathy toward them.
No longer on the bottom rung of the ladder of humanity, these white immigrants would also proclaim themselves superior and joined the higher class of whites in dominating blacks unmercifully for many years. Whites as a group was happy as a lark even the not so intelligent ones.
The North understood slavery to be a temporary situation, but in contrast Southern whites viewed it as a permanent institution that should be expanded into new territories that hadn't been admitted to the union yet. Stop the Slave Power at all cost was the North's goal. This reason the Civil War started, not because Abraham Lincoln had this burning desire to free the slaves.
Before the war, southern whites grew very comfortable with their lifestyle and after losing it blamed blacks for everything. Many were brilliant and proud people. Now can you imagine proud, intelligent white people who had dominated blacks for hundreds of years, and faced with the possibility of black equality and being governed by the same individuals they mistreated and spit on and looked upon as ignorant savage beast?
They viciously fought against equality for black people at every turn and opportunity. They considered themselves true Sons of the South, do or die.
They had to feel like the North was punishing and embarrassing them by giving blacks American citizenship and the right to vote. Southern whites would kill many blacks for what they perceived as upholding their honor. What did the North do? They made a show of attempting to help black people, but in the end, that's all it was a show. In reality, they used blacks as a pawn to teach the South a lesson in hopes that one day the southern faithful would reconcile their hearts to the Union of America as one big happy white American family.
A man lynched from a tree. Face partially concealed by angle and headgear.
| Race in 1922 |
- December 14-15, 1922 - The Perry race riot was a racially motivated conflict in which whites burned Charles Wright at the stake and attacked the black community of Perry, Florida after the murder of Ruby Hendry, a white schoolteacher. Wright, a 21-year-old escaped convict, and Albert (or Arthur) Young, his alleged accomplice, were arrested and jailed for Hendry's murder. A mob, several thousand strong, made up of local and out-of-state whites seized the accused from the sheriff, and extracted a confession from Wright by means of torture.
Cab Calloway, who wrote a Hepster's dictionary about the language of jive.
|sLANG tALK in 1922 |
- Jive talk - harlmese speech, slang talking
- Alligator - a devotee of jazz or swing music
- Bringer-Downer - a disappointment
- Chops - refers to any musician's level of ability
- Frail - a noun for any hepster woman
- G-man - government man, especially one harasses people
- Gage - marijuana, particularly associated with Louis Armstrong
- Gate - any man, usually used as a greeting
- Hep - in the know, hip
- Hep cat - smart and knowledgeable person, also hipster
- High - happy, content, mellow
- Hoochie Coocher - hot woman who dances laying down
- Hoochie coochie - sexy dance
- Jeff - opposite of hep; unhip, uncool
- Jitterbug - a dance created in the 1920s and 1930s
- Light up - to light a stick of T or reefer
- Lid - a Prince Albert tobacco can filled to the lid
- Man! - commonly used as an interjection or for emphasis
- Mighty Mezz - an expertly rolled joint
- Mop - woman, often meaning another hepster's girlfriend
- Ofay - police
- Puff - to smoke weed
- Stick of tea - joint, reefer, left-handed cigarette
- Zoot suit - suits popular with dancers of the swing era
The Homesteader (1919) is a lost black-and-white silent race film by African American
author and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. This is a newspaper advert for the film.
Movies in America
Actress Evelyn Preer
American film director Oscar Micheaux
Actress Rose McClendon
| Movies in 1922 |
- Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"
- 1922 - Oscar Micheaux was an African-American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. The first of which was released in 1919 called The Homesteader which was met with critical and commercial success.
Trivia: Image is everything and Oscar recognized that fact. Up unto the time, he began producing movies; the black person was portrayed as lazy, low morals, thieves, dishonest savage people you couldn't trust. Well guess what? Oscar changed all of that with his movies. He put positive role models on the silver screen and finally the world was able to see the black person in their true light, as intelligent, well to do honest people, hard working, industrious human beings who loved their families. Oscar was a critical aspect of positive Negro development in this country. Are we continuing to lift the image of our people in this country today?
- African American Charles Sidney Gilpin became one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. In 1920 he was the first black American to receive the Drama League of New York's annual award, as one of the ten people who had done the most that year for American theater.
- 1920s - Rose McClendon was a leading African-American Broadway actress of the 1920s. McClendon was a contemporary of Paul Robeson, Ethel Barrymore, Lynn Fontanne and Langston Hughes.
Redd Foxx in Sanford and Son
Charles Mingus Jr. - Performance for the U.S. Bicentennial, New York City, July 4, 1976.
Photo by Tom Marcello
Roscoe Lee Browne
Charles Luther Sifford
| Famous Birthdays in 1922 |
- March 9, 1922 - Floyd Bixler McKissick, first African-American student at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Law School.
- March 11, 1922 - Vinnette Justine Carroll was an American playwright and actress, and the first African-American woman to direct on Broadway, with the 1972 musical Don't Bother Me, I Can't Cope.
- March 28, 1922 - Lutrelle Fleming "Lu" Palmer, Jr., Called the godfather of Chicago black political activism.
- April 15, 1922 - Harold Lee Washington was an American lawyer, politician and elected in 1983 as the 51st Mayor of Chicago. He was the first African-American Mayor of Chicago, serving from April 29, 1983 until his death on November 25, 1987.
- April 22, 1922 - Charles Mingus Jr., a highly influential American jazz double bassist, composer and bandleader.
- May 2, 1922 - Roscoe Lee Browne, an American actor and director, known for his rich voice and dignified bearing.
- June 2, 1922 - Charles Luther Sifford was a professional golfer who was the first African American to play on the PGA Tour.
- July 6, 1922 - Bessie Griffin was an African-American gospel singer.
- July 17, 1922 - Lillian Irene Hayman was a Tony Award-winning American actress and singer.
- August 2, 1922 - Wilmer Leon Fields was an African American baseball player who was a household name in the Negro Leagues and other baseball circuits between the 1940s and 1950s.
- September 1, 1922 - Charles McGregor was an African American actor, best known for his role as Fat Freddie in Super Fly.
- September 11, 1922 - James Charles Evers, the older brother of slain civil rights activist Medgar Evers.
- September 24, 1922 - Theresa Merritt Hines was an American stage, film, and television actress and singer.
- October 27, 1922 - Ruby Dee, an American actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist and activist.
- October 30, 1922 - Jane White was an actress of African-American and European descent.
- November 9, 1922 - Dorothy Jean Dandridge, an African-American film and theatre actress, singer and dancer. She is perhaps best known for being the first black actress to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress.
- December 3, 1922 - Ralph Gardner-Chavis, chemist and chemistry professor.
- December 9, 1922 - Redd Foxx, comedian and actor, best remembered for his explicit comedy records and his starring role on the 1970s sitcom Sanford and Son.
| Famous Deaths in 1922 |
- January 8, 1922 - Charles Young was the third African-American graduate of West Point, the first black U.S. national park superintendent, first black military attaché, first black to achieve the rank of colonel, and highest-ranking black officer in the United States Army until his death in 1922.
- March 4, 1922 - Bert Williams was one of the pre-eminent entertainers of the Vaudeville era and one of the most popular comedians for all audiences of his time. He was by far the best-selling black recording artist before 1920. In 1918, the New York Dramatic Mirror called Williams "one of the great comedians of the world."
- April 5, 1922 - John Henry Murphy, Sr. was an African-American newspaper publisher, best known as founder of the Baltimore Afro-American (also known colloquially/for short as The Afro), published by the Afro-American Newspaper Company of Baltimore, Inc.
- August 14, 1922 - Rebecca J. Cole was an American physician.
- August 22, 1922 - Bruce Anderson was an African American Union Army soldier in the American Civil War and a recipient of America's highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions during the Second Battle of Fort Fisher.
- September 4, 1922 - John Quincy Adams who was born free was a politician, publisher, newspaper editor and educator.
- September 28, 1922 - William Joseph Seymour was an American minister, and an initiator of the Azusa Street Revival. Seymour was one of the most influential individuals in the revival movement that grew into the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.
| Famous Weddings in 1922 |
- August 22, 1922 - Jazz pianist and singer Lil Hardin Armstrong and Jimmie Johnson were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1922 - Marcus Garvey and Amy Jacques Garvey were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1922 - Ossian Sweet and Gladys Mitchell were wed in holy matrimony.
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
| Famous Divorces in 1922 |
- 1922 - Ruby Dandridge and Cyril Dandridge were divorced.
- 1922 - Bill "Bojangles" Robinson and Lena Chase were divorced.
Vaudeville star George Walker
Egbert "Bert" Austin Williams
| Entertainment in 1922 |
- George Walker formed the The Frogs (club)
Why did George Walker start a black club for actors when he could have just joined the American Actors Beneficial Association? Because like everything else in America, it was becoming commonplace for blacks and whites to be separated in everything. Doctors, Realtors, Lawyers, Unions, etc. and every other organization you can think of was segregated. It's almost like whites needed a race of people such as the lowly black person to measure it's greatness against. Blacks had no choice but to organize for their benefit. The Negro didn't want it this way, but like a famous rapper once said: "That's just the way it is" The American Actors Beneficial Association excluded blacks from its memberships and didn't appreciate it when Walker formed the Frogs. His original start up group, The Colored Vaudeville Benevolent Association, received negative attitude from white producers. The concept of the colored man supporting himself through performance and no longer just “taking what they were given” posed a threat to the white vaudevillian and theatrical community. With this, Walker set forth to create The Frogs. On July 18, 1908, at Walker’s home at 52 West 153rd St in Harlem, eleven of the most prominent names in the industry formed together to create the African American theatrical organization. The Frogs became known for their big event “The Frolic of the Frogs” or “The Frogs Frolic” every August at the Manhattan Casino (New York City) at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue. For 50 cents, people enjoyed a combination ball, party and vaudeville show where favors were given to the ladies, and door prizes went to the three people wearing unique costumes symbolic of the frogs. With a large success in the early years of the event, “The Frolic of the Frogs” was able to tour their event in cities such as Philadelphia, Richmond, Baltimore and Washington D.C. Popularity in the frolic was found among both blacks and whites. We love happy stories like "The Frogs" had given the people of New York. Come on let's face it, 99% of the time because of racial oppression; it's was negative for the Negro. George Walker died in 1911, but his longtime friend Bert Williams would take over the company continuing its amazing success well into the 1920s.
|It's a Party in 1922 |
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.|
They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.
Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.
So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.
We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.
Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and tasty burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
Fun At The Beach?
The Negro has historically been excluded from every aspect of American life and success, but what about the public beaches, was he made to feel unwelcome there also?
In a word. HELL YEAH. I'm sorry, that's two words.
If a Negro and his family attempted to visit a public beach, he would be met with sure violence from whites.
It wasn't until after the Civil Rights protest in the 60s that the fight for equal access to public accommodations made it illegal to exclude the Negro.
One popular beach that blacks congregated was in Southern California. It was called "Ink Well" for obvious reasons. It served the black community very well.
You're not going to believe how blacks acquired another little piece of paradise in the same area called Bruce's Beach. A wonderful white American brother named George H. Peck who was a wealthy developer and the founder of Manhattan Beach, "bucked" the practice of racial exclusion and set aside two city blocks of the beachfront area and made them available for purchase by African Americans.
Jumping on this incredible opportunity, Willa and Charles Bruce purchased property in the Strand area and built a bathhouse, and dining area that catered to blacks. Peck would also go on to develop "Peck's Pier," the only pier in the area open to African Americans. In time because of increased racial tension and the value of beachfront property rising, the city pushed the blacks out claiming the eminent domain law. This type of exclusion was typical all across America for the Negro.
William Manuel "Bill" Johnson
Black Swan record label
Thomas "Fats" Waller
| Music in 1922 |
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Breakaway
- The Foxtrot
Musical Happenings in 1922:
- William Manuel "Bill" Johnson assembled King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, considered perhaps the best of the early ensemble style jazz bands. He taught younger Chicago musicians (including Milt Hinton) his "slap" style of string bass playing. He made many fine recordings in Chicago in the late 1920s.
- In the year 1922, Louis Satchmo Armstrong followed his band leader Joe “King” Oliver to Chicago, Illinois from New Orleans, Louisiana. Armstrong showed a unique talent for improvisation and very quickly became a jazz sensation. For over 30 years, he defined jazz in Chicago. During that same time, Chicago enjoyed a number of jazz greats such as Earl “Fatha” Hines, Jelly Roll Morton, Erskine Tate, Fats Waller, and the great Cab Calloway.
- OKeh Records begins using the term race music, which soon becomes the standard referent for African-American popular music.
- Trixie Smith, a popular blues singer, recorded "My Man Rocks Me (With One Steady Roll)", one of the earliest uses of the terms rock and roll together in secular music.
- Elisabeth Margaret Welch was an American singer, actress, and entertainer, whose career spanned seven decades. Her best-known songs were "Stormy Weather", "Love for Sale" and "Far Away in Shanty Town". After her first appearance in America in Liza in 1922, Elisabeth Welch was the initial singer of the Charleston in the show Runnin' Wild (1923).
- Trixie Smith, a popular blues singer, recorded "My Man Rocks Me (With One Steady Roll)", one of the earliest uses of the terms rock and roll together in secular music.
- 1922 - Black Swan Records was a record label founded in 1921 in Harlem, New York. It was the first widely distributed label to be owned and operated by, and marketed to, African Americans. The production company declared bankruptcy in December 1923; and in March 1924 Paramount Records bought the Black Swan label.
- 1922 - The Oklahoma City Blue Devils was the premier Southwest territory jazz band in the 1920s. Originally called Billy King's Road Show, it disbanded in Oklahoma City in 1925 where Walter Page renamed it. The name Blue Devils came from the name of a gang of fence cutters operating during the early days of the American West.
- 1920s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy,
adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable,
inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind,
unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
Women's fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
Men's fashion in 1920s
| Fashions in 1922 |
During the 1920s, the notion of keeping up with fashion trends and expressing oneself through material goods seized middle-class Americans as never before. Purchasing new clothes, new appliances, new automobiles, new anything indicated one's level of prosperity. Being considered old-fashioned, out-of-date, or—worse yet—unable to afford stylish new products was a fate many Americans went to great lengths to avoid.
- During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. African-Americans wore clothing that was far from somber. Women were dressed in wide hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress, possibly with a ribbon at the hip. Though the 1920s cloche, a close-fitting number usually made of felt or wool, was extremely popular for casual wear and was worn gaily pulled down over the eyes. Popular by the 1930s was the trendy beret hat with stand-up or egret feather. Men wore zoot suits which were wide-legged, high-waisted, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide padded shoulders and lapels. They also wore wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. African Americans also expressed respect for their heritage through a style of leopard-skin coats indicating the great power of the infamous African animal.
A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell".
Dang it! We're so Tired of all the Hate|
We can't wait to leave this wicked South,
and make the big bucks in the North!
Will our white American brothers love us there?
What type of employment awaits the Negro in the 1900s?
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds
from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia Postmarked 1912
90% of Negroes still lived in the South up until the late 1910s.
King Cotton was still a big source of income for blacks. These workers were hired as temporary help. Many were tenant farmers, renting a piece of land and some of their tools and supplies, and paying the rent at the end of the growing season with a portion of their harvest. White and black farm laborers were paid comparable wages, and rental rates. Blacks didn't exclusively work in the cotton fields, for example some blacks worked in the Turpentine industry.
"Dipping and scraping pine trees. Turpentine industry in Florida." Postmarked 1912
Whites were much more likely to own land as opposed to blacks. Black children were unlikely to be in school because they helped the parents in the fields to support the family and also because of a lack of good quality schools. Funds that were intended for black schools went to white schools instead in the form of raising teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while reducing class size. Black schools suffered at this expense. Separate but Equal was a big lie, because it was anything but equal.
The government didn't have a special watchdog organization to enforce these racist laws, and the requirement of equality was not enforced. Black children never really had a fair chance.
Boll weevil ruins Cotton Crops in the 1920s
Of course hindsight is 20-20. But wouldn't it have been nice if during slavery someone would have thought to travel to Mexico and bring back the Cotton boll weevil to transplant them into Southern cotton crops?
Cotton boll weevil |
Where were you when we really
needed you, pre-1863?
A little integration of the boll weevil and Mr. King Cotton would have been a good thing for the Negro. We wonder what kind of effect that would have had on chattel slavery?
Well what the heck is a boll weevil?
The boll weevil is a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south.
Southern blacks were tied to the cotton fields in the early 1900s, but after 1914, many were fed up and wanted to try something new and different. By then they were open for a change because of restrictive Jim Crow laws and the boll weevil destroyed many crops, putting them out of work. They decided to take the plunge, a new and exciting life for them. Their move was called the Great Migration. News had spread to these poor black Southerners about better opportunities in the North, so many of them packed up their belongings and bid farewell to the South, never looking back.
During World War I, blacks were very much desired in the workplace. The United States had a quota for Colored soldiers to enlist for service. Blacks filled the quota very quickly, and many had to be turned back. With white men fighting in the war, this left openings in industry for blacks to fill. How did they do? Employers loved them and wanted more. They proved themselves to be excellent workers. This is probably one of the main reasons for so many riots when the white soldiers returned to America because blacks had taken their jobs. So by the early 1900s, we have proven ourselves to be excellent and courageous soldiers and dependable workers at home.
In other cases, some Negroes were recruited to travel North by agents of the businesses who would pay their fare. In some cases, these poor blacks were tricked into traveling a great distance for jobs only to discover they would be hired as strikebreakers, which was a very dangerous undertaking. Money was better for the Negro in the North, but in many cases, racism persisted with many riots happening. Many unions in the North had explicit rules barring membership by black workers.
Blacks had various successes at different job locations, for example when the auto industry took off, Ford Motor Co. hired many blacks to work in its automobile plant, but other auto plants often excluded them. Jobs were not a certainty for the Negro; he had to stay alerted and knock on many doors. But blacks were making a little advancement, by 1940 there were more than 200,000 African Americans in the CIO, many of them officers of union locals.
A. Philip Randolph|
When the war broke out a very special man by the name of A. Philip Randolph petitioned President Roosevelt for jobs in the Defense plants which previously had been reserved for whites. Randolph had a special card up his sleeve in the form of 100,000 peaceful marchers on Washington to protest if Roosevelt declined.
Roosevelt half-heartedly gave in and created a new program for blacks called the Fair Employment Practice Committee which was designed to monitor the hiring practices of companies. The Committee did accomplish many blacks being hired into the Defense departments at very nice wages but closed down later because of a lack of funding from the U.S. Government.
After World War II, The G.I. Bill which was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation was a big boon for whites and was a major factor in the creation of the white American middle class.
But sadly because of racial inequality, many of the benefits of the G.I. bill were not granted to black soldiers. This is because "at the very moment when a wide array of public policies was providing most white Americans with valuable tools to advance their social welfare—insure their old age, get good jobs, acquire economic security, build assets, and gain middle-class status—most black Americans were left behind or left out." It seems like we can get off the ground with these people, but we never give up. Also the black middle class failed to keep pace with the white middle class because blacks had fewer opportunities to earn college degrees.
In time, it became critical to have a college degree, for better pay wages which many whites were now working toward with the help of the G.I. Bill, but blacks were left behind in dying trades or just making it the best way they could because of racial discrimination and National leaders doing absolutely nothing to help.
Once they returned home after the war, blacks faced not only discrimination but also poverty, which confronted most blacks during the 1940s and 1950s and represented another barrier to harnessing the benefits of the G.I. Bill, as poverty made seeking an education problematic to while labor and income were needed at home. Banks and mortgage agencies routinely refused loans to blacks, making the G.I. Bill even less effective for blacks.
In addition to the other obstacles, gaining admission to universities was no easy task for blacks on the G.I. Bill. Most universities had segregationist principles underlying their admissions policies, utilizing either official or unofficial quotas. Those blacks that were prepared for college level work and gained access to predominantly white universities still experienced racism on campus.
During the 70s and 80s, the number of employed blacks increased. The civil rights movement played a huge role in this development. There were heavy gains in blue-collar jobs, such as steel, automobile production, electrical and non-electrical machinery, appliances, food and tobacco manufacturing, and textiles, and also white-collar occupations, where the four major subcategories-professional and technical, managerial and administrative, sales, and clerical increased very sharply.
The black labor force by the late 1990s, approximately sixty percent of these were white-collar sales and clerical personnel; many in this group were non-union workers with limited benefits and wages. However, another twenty percent of the black labor force, nearly three million workers, was classified as professional and technical employees and administrators. The percentage of the black labor force in the blue-collar field declined.
So what type of work did blacks do in the 1900s?
There were black doctors, dentist, newspaper editors, plumbers, mailman, teachers, singers, scientist, athletes, Pullman porters, laborers, politicians, judges, lawyers, mill workers, welders, domestic help, authors, factory workers, customer service, business owners, policemen, firemen, and every other profession you could think of. Sadly, their numbers and presence weren't as high as white Americans because of entrenched discrimination against the black race. It's in the history books, read it for yourself.
Blacks have historically had a harder time than other races being employed in America, ever since emancipation, and for the most part it has to do with racism. We're not fooled into believing any different. But we don't let this stop us and continue to push on. Our amazing journey has had many barriers and roadbloocks every step of the way.
The Fair Employment Practice Committee of the 40s and the Civil Rights movement helped a bit, but after slavery and the following Jim Crow years, racism had become deeply entrenched in the American workforce. It's not out in the open as it was during Jim Crow days but today more subtle and hidden, but just as hurtful, degrading and discouraging. But to our credit, blacks seem always to find a way. Truly remarkable American people, and if it were possible, would make our battered ancestors who sailed deep seas, shout for joy in their graves.
African Americans in the Twentieth Century
African Americans and the G.I. Bill
Blacks in the 1970's
Social and Economic Issues of the 1980s and 1990s
What The Negro Achieved in Industry
The Negro National League annual meeting held in Chicago on January 28, 1922. Back row, far left:
Ira Lewis, a Pittsburgh Courier editor and secretary of the Pittsburgh Keystones. Back row, sixth from left:
Alexander Williams, Mr. Williams’s grandfather, builder of Central Park and founder and president of the
Pittsburgh Keystones. Middle row, far left: Joe Green, owner/manager of the Chicago Giants. Front row,
far left: J. L. Wilkinson, owner of the Kansas City Monarchs. Front row, third and fourth from left:
Rube Foster and C. I. Taylor. January 28, 1922
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1920s
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.
Photo of Yarmouth, first ship in the Black Star Liner Fleet
| Our Community in 1922 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- June 13, 1922 - The longest attack of the hiccups begins. Charlie Osborne, 98 hiccupped over 435 million times before it stops, He dies eleven months later.
- August 12, 1922 - Frederick Douglas' home was dedicated in Washington DC as a national shrine.
- February 1922 - The Black Star Line ceased sailing. The company's losses were estimated to be between $630,000 and $1.25 million. It is regarded as a considerable accomplishment for African Americans of the time, despite the thievery by employees, engineers who overcharged, and the Bureau of Investigation's acts of infiltration and sabotage.
- 1922 - In the 1920s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.
- The United States Population is 105,710,620 with a total of 10,463,131 being African Americans.
| Typical Local News & Advertisements in the Black Community for 1922|
- January 7, 1922 - The Famous Georgia Minstrels - 40-people-40 Band and Orchestra - Watch For The Street Parade. Only Show Of It's Kind In The World. Prices $1.00 - $1.50 - plus tax. Seats now on sale at Drakes Drug Store, Main and Hardwood Streets
The Dallas express. (Dallas, Tex.), 07 Jan. 1922
- June 19, 1922 - Showing Some Artist Are Made by Circumstances - A New Serial By Octavus Roy Cohen "Completely Done In Oils" Starting tomorrow in the Washington Herald
The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.), 19 June 1922
- March 10, 1922 - Happy Ross Dies - Charles Ross, colored, porter, better known to scores of Marysville people as "Happy" died at his home in the alley to the rear of the Catholic Church.
The public ledger. (Maysville, Ky.), 10 March 1922.
- August 19, 1922 - Mamie Smith Sings For Okeh - The Record of Quality. Two Of Her Best. 75cents-I want a jazzy kiss, A little kind treatment, Down home blues, Arkansas blues, Send No Money, just mail us your order and pay when you receive. St Louis Music Company
The Dallas express. (Dallas, Tex.), 19 Aug. 1922
- May 13, 1922 - The Broad Ax - Millions of colored men and women in all parts of the country have lost their life savings amounting to millions in fooling with Col. Garvey and his back to Africa scheme
The broad ax. (Salt Lake City, Utah), 13 May 1922
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