Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1955:
Matthew Alexander Henson was the first African-American Arctic explorer, an associate of Robert Peary on seven voyages over a period of nearly 23 years. They made six voyages and spent a total of 18 years in expeditions. Henson served as a navigator and craftsman, traded with Inuit and learned their language, and was known as Peary's "first man" for these arduous travels.
During their 1909 expedition to Greenland, Henson accompanied Peary in the small party, including four Inuit men, that has been recognized as the first to reach the Geographic North Pole (although this has also been subject to dispute). Henson was invited in 1937 as a member of The Explorers Club due to his achievement and was the first African American to be accepted.
Henson was born on a farm in Nanjemoy, Maryland, on August 8, 1866, to sharecroppers who had been free people of color before the American Civil War. Matthew was sent to live with his uncle in Washington, D.C. He paid for a few years of education for the boy and died. After his uncle's death, Henson got a job as a dishwasher at "Janey's Home-Cooked Meals Cafe."
At the age of twelve, the youth made his way to Baltimore, Maryland, where he went to sea as a cabin boy on a merchant ship named Katie Hines. Captain Childs took Henson under his wing, treating him like a son and teaching him to read and write. Childs and Henson were close for a long time. Henson sailed around the world with him for the next several years. He visited places such as China, Japan, the Philippines, France, Africa, and southern Russia. He became self-taught and a skilled navigator. After Childs had died about 1883, Henson worked as a seaman and then on land.
While working at a Washington D.C. clothing store, Henson met Commander Robert E. Peary. Learning of Henson's sea experience, Peary recruited him as an aide for his planned voyage and surveying expedition to Nicaragua, with four other men. Peary supervised 45 engineers on the canal survey in Nicaragua. Impressed with Henson’s seamanship on that voyage, Peary recruited him as a colleague, and he became " the first man" in his expeditions.
After that, for more than 20 years, their expeditions were to the Arctic. Henson traded with the Inuit and mastered their language; they called him Mahri-Pahluk. He was remembered as the only non-Inuit who became skilled in driving the dog sleds and training dog teams in the Inuit way. He was a skilled craftsman, often coming up with solutions for what the team needed in the harsh Arctic conditions; they learned to build igloos out of snow, for portable housing as they traveled. He and Peary with their teams covered thousands of miles in dog sleds and reached the "Farthest North" point of any Arctic expedition in 1906.
During the extended expeditions to Greenland, Henson and Peary both took Inuit women as "country wives" or concubines and fathered children with them, as was typical behavior by male explorers in those years. With Akatingwah, Matthew Henson fathered his only child, a son named Anauakaq. Her kids are Henson's only descendants. Similarly, Peary had a son, Kali, with his Inuit wife. Both boys were born in 1906. After 1909 Henson never saw Akatingwah or his son again; other explorers sometimes updated him about them.
We honor Matthew Alexander Henson with the 1955 Hamite Award. Henson was a fortunate man to have met Captain Childs in his young life. He learned much from Childs who took him under his wing, teaching him the life skills needed to survive. Upon meeting Peary, who was so impressed, he hired him for future missions. A Negro on the North Pole? What? Don't have that attitude with Matthew Henson; he felt he had just as much right as any man to accomplish that feat. Commendable attitude! Henson was a definite good role model for his day.
Henson died in the Bronx on March 9, 1955, at the age of 88. He was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery and survived by his wife, Lucy. After her death in 1968, she was buried with him.
Matthew Alexander Henson
Poster from U.S. Office of War Information. News Bureau, 1943
|How were blacks feeling in 1955?
Fox Lake Resort |
Moving on up to the eastside!!!! That's what I'm talking about. We finally have a place to travel for fun and relaxation. We just hope our white American brothers don't burn it down or deny/jack up the electricity and water rates or claim eminent domain like they did with other resorts blacks attempted to set up.
Even though the average black person cannot afford to visit or live in Fox Lake, it's still nice to know some of our peoples are enjoying the life and gives us the motivation to fight even harder this high wall of racism. I ain't mad at cha!
The Fox Lake resort community was developed in Angola, Indiana specifically for African Americans in the 1930s, when such communities were quite rare. In the years between World War I and World War II, and for some time after that, African American were not welcomed to traditionally white resort communities. Fox Lake provided black families with a place of their own where they could escape the heat of the cities and enjoy the pleasures of summertime activities. The historic district contains 32 relatively modest lake cottages, most of which were constructed before World War II.
Occasionally big-name musicians were booked for dances at the clubhouse, which was surrounded by tennis courts, horseshoe pits, and basketball hoops. Saddle horses were available until the early 1950s. Other activities included trap shooting matches, weekly Family Night at the restaurant, and Sunday school held on the beach under the trees.
Today, Fox Lake is still a prosperous black community. Its traditions are still maintained by many second- and third-generation owners, who occupy a large number of the cottages.
What a wonderful history!!!
American Beach, Florida
American Beach, Florida was founded in 1935 by Florida's first black millionaire, Abraham Lincoln Lewis, and his Afro-American Life Insurance Company. The plan was for his employees to have a place to vacation and own homes for their families by the shore.
(thank you so much Abraham, we needed this!) Throughout the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s, summers at American Beach were busy with families, churches, and children. It was a place where African Americans could enjoy "Recreation and Relaxation Without Humiliation." The beach included hotels, restaurants, bathhouses and nightclubs as well as homes and other businesses.
American Beach played host to numerous celebrities during this period, including folklorist Zora Neale Hurston, singer Billie Daniels, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Billy Eckstein, Hank Aaron, Joe Louis, actor Ossie Davis, and Sherman Hemsley. We know they had some fun! That's what I'm talking bout!
For the year 1955:
- Marian Anderson was the first African-American member of the Metropolitan Opera.
- Arthur Mitchell was the first African-American male dancer in a major ballet company.
- Leontyne Price was the first African-American singer to appear in a telecast opera.
- August Martin was the first African-American pilot of a scheduled US airline.
- E. Frederic Morrow was the first African-American to serve as a presidential executive assistant.
Isaac Burns Murphy
| Sports in 1950 |
- Althea Gibson won the American Tennis Association (ATA) (which is the oldest African-American sports organization in the United States.) NY State Championship, and the ATA national championship in the girls' division in 1944-1945, after losing in the women's final in 1946, she won her first of ten straight national ATA women's titles in 1947.
- Isaac Burns Murphy was the first jockey to be inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame.
America began with the noblest of intentions.
But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed!
My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr. |
I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.
My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)
Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.
Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.
During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.
I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!
I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.
I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.
It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.
The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.
I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.
Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock. If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attenetion to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.
In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.
Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.
Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
| Political Scene in 1955 |
- Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. Analysis: Dwight D. Eisenhower was raised in a very religious household and some of his values followed him into later life. When receiving backlash from the Navy because of a refusal to integrate fully, Eisenhower made the statement that America is not taking one step backward in Civil Rights of blacks. Why? It wasn't because it was the right and moral thing to do, it was because Communists around the world who were using the racial discrimination and history of violence in the U.S. as a point of propaganda attack. Well, I guess we'll take justice anyway we can get it. Many positive changes happened for the black person during this period because of Communism. Eisenhower told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children. He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. "There must be no second-class citizens in this country" he stated.
Acts of Goodness is Colorblind
The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.
The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.
What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?
Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.
The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.
So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.
It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.
So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878
| Race in 1955 |
- Emmett Louis Till was an African-American teenager who was murdered in Mississippi at the age of fourteen, after reportedly flirting with a white woman. Analysis: These racist white people kill because they know they won't be punished. The goverment is in cahoots with them, just like the NAACP made the claim of genocide back in 1947, which is true.
- December 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks refuses to give up her bus seat to a white man initiating the Montgomery Bus Boycott which was led by Dr. Martin Luther King
- President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order 10590 which is a goverment policy to enforce nondiscrimination in federal employment.
- 1955 - George Washington Lee was an African-American civil rights leader, minister, and entrepreneur who was assassinated in 1955.
Analysis: George Lee started off very poor and worked his way up through hard work. He would end up being the pastor of 4 churches and the owner of a grocery store. He was a successful businessman but wanted more out of life than money, so he got a local branch of the NAACP started in his community. White racist had kept blacks from the voting polls with restrictive laws, but Lee was the first to register in the county. He began to encourage more blacks and would end up with 90 qualified black voters. Whites didn't like this and attempted intimidation to get him to stop, he refused and kept pursuing his Civil Right. A month later in the night a car pulls up beside him and shot him with a shotgun, killing him. Of course, no one was arrested, and the sheriff didn't even want to look into the case. These white people were all organized for hate crimes against blacks, sounds like genocide to me, plain and clear. The NAACP had made this exact accusation at a United Nations meeting in 1947 (please see 1947) to the dismay of white Americans. Lee's wife insisted upon an open casket so the world could view what they had done to her husband. That was an excellent idea because later on in the year, Emmitt Till who was also murdered by whites, a mother did the same thing. Rest in Peace George Washington Lee A great man indeed!
Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of
Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.
Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.
- "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.
- Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.
- Unfair bank lending practices.
- Job discrimination.
- Discriminatory union practices for decades.
- Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.
- Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.
- U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.
Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.
Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965
Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.
Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!
Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent."
(STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:
Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All
It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.
But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.
But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.
Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?
Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and strategic intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.
Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.
So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.
But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.
Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.
Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.
But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.
Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.
Is America at the crossroad?
Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.
Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.
Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.
|| sLANG tALK in 1955 |
- Baby - term of endearment to the opposite sex
- Bread - money, cash, moola
- Cookin' - doing something very well
- Cool it - forceful way of saying to stop doing what you're doing fool
- Cooties - considers another person dirty in a playful way
- Cut out - to leave the scene
- Dibs - wants a share
- Dig - understand
- Flick - a movie
- Gig - a job
- Give me five - a favorable greeting
- Heat - danger, usually the police are close or could mean a gun
- Hip - cool, everything under control, up to date, trendsetter
- Made in the shade - complete success at something
- Make out - kissing or could mean to be discovered by someone
- No sweat - no problem, everything is under control
- Pad - the house, home
- Punk - weak person, considered not cool to hang around
- Split - leave the scene
- Square - a person who is not hip, slow, not with the times
- The man - police
- Tight - everything is completely together, flawless.
Movies in America
Count Basie from the 1955 film Rhythm and Blues Revue
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Gunsmoke - Clockwise from top: Ken Curtis (Festus), James Arness (Matt), Amanda Blake (Kitty), and Milburn Stone (Doc) in 1968
| Television / Movies in 1955 |
- Rhythm and Blues Revue - Count Basie (Rhythm and Blues Revue is a plotless variety show with many great black stars)
- March 30, 1955 - at the 27th Academy Awards, Dorothy Dandridge lost out on the Award for Best Actress for her performance in the 1954 film Carmen Jones but became a big hit with the public.
- Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:
Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?
- 1955 - Gunsmoke, an American television Western drama series . The stories take place in and around Dodge City, Kansas, during the settlement of the American West. The television series ran for 20 seasons from 1955 to 1975, and stands as the United States' longest-running prime time, live-action drama with 635 episodes. Analysis: What Negro didn't like Gunsmoke? It was one of our favorite shows. Cool Matt Dillon, always fighting for justice, sexy Ms. Kitty always enticing, Doc, always helping and Festus always acting silly.
- The "King of the Party Records", Redd Foxx breaks unto the scene with his rated-X party records. He got his start with grown folk nightclub acts during the 1950s and 1960s. He would go on to create more than 50 party records in his career.
| Famous Birthdays in 1955 |
- March 3, 1955 - Darnell Williams a British-born soap opera actor.
- March 23, 1955 - Moses Malone is an American retired Hall of Fame basketball player.
- April 7, 1955 - Grace Hightower De Niro an American philanthropist, socialite, actress, and singer. She has been married to actor Robert De Niro since 1997
- April 25, 1955 - Toukie A. Smith an African American actress and model.
- May 9, 1955 - Kevin Peter Hall was an American actor best known for his roles as the title character in the first two films in the Predator franchise.
- May 10, 1955 - Larry "Flash" Jenkins an American actor, film director, producer, and screenwriter and has been in the entertainment industry for over 30 years.
- May 18, 1955 - James Gaines an African-American-Filipino character actor, writer and director with dual nationality.
- June 2, 1955 - Vickilyn Reynolds an American film and television actress and singer.
- July 13, 1955 - Lance E. Nichols an American actor from New Orleans, Louisiana.
- July 27, 1955 - Roger Guenveur Smith an American actor, director, and writer.
- September 1, 1955 - Billy Blanks is an American fitness guru, martial artist, actor, and the inventor of the Tae Bo exercise program.
- October 29, 1955 - Darrell Wayne Brown a retired Major League Baseball (MLB) outfielder.
- November 13, 1955 - Whoopi Goldberg is an American comedienne, actress, singer-songwriter, political activist, author and talk show host.
- November 17, 1955 - Yolanda Denise King was an American activist and first-born child of Coretta Scott King and civil rights leader Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
- November 24, 1955 - Alvaleta Guess was an American stage/musical theatre actress, both on and off-Broadway, but also played the occasional supporting role on television and in feature films.
- December 24, 1955 - Clarence Alfred Gilyard, Jr. a former American actor and a current college professor who has been featured in movies and television since 1980.
- December 24, 1955 - Grand Lee Bush i is an American actor of stage, television and major motion pictures.
Cleveland Leigh "Cleve" Abbott
Officers of the United States Army's segregated 366th Infantry Regiment on board the
RMS Aquitania, en route home from World War I service, (Abbott at left)
Mary McLeod Bethune
Matthew Alexander Henson
James P. Johnson
| Famous Deaths in 1955 |
- March 9, 1955 - Matthew Alexander Henson was the first African-American Arctic explorer, an associate of Robert Peary on seven voyages over a period of nearly 23 years.
- March 12, 1955 - Charles Parker, Jr. also known as "Yardbird" and "Bird", was an American jazz saxophonist and composer.
- March 21, 1955 - Walter Francis White was an American civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century.
- April 14, 1955 - Cleveland Leigh "Cleve" Abbott was an African-American football player, coach and educator.
- May 7, 1955 - George Washington Lee was an African American civil rights leader, minister, and entrepreneur. He was a vice president of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership and head of the Belzoni, Mississippi branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. He was assassinated in 1955.
- May 18, 1955 - Mary Jane McLeod Bethune was an American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida.
- November 17, 1955 - James P. Johnson was an American pianist and composer. A pioneer of the stride style of jazz piano, he was one of the most important pianists who bridged the ragtime and jazz eras.
John William Coltrane
Frank E. Petersen, Jr.
| Famous Weddings in 1955 |
- April 5, 1955 - Ray Charles and Della Beatrice Howard are wed.
- December 17, 1955 - Thurgood Marshall and Cecilia Suyat are wed.
- 1955 - Esther Rolle and Oscar Robinson are wed.
- 1955 - Ike Turner and Lorraine Taylor Turner are wed.
- 1955 - Joe Louis and Rose Morgan are wed.
- 1955 - Geoffrey Holder and Carmen De Lavallade are wed.
- 1955 - Shirley Horn and Sheppard Deering are wed.
- 1955 - Ruth Brown and Earl Swanson are wed.
- 1955 - John Coltrane and Juanita Naima Grubbs are wed.
- 1955 - United States Marine Corps Lieutenant General Frank E. Petersen, Jr. and Eleanor "Ellie" Burton are wed. Trivia: Petersen was a pilot on rotation for test flights in dropping an atomic bomb and was called for a flight on the night of his wedding.
The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread.
Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers, and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.
| It's a Party in 1955 |
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi
An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
of a crowd. Los Angeles California.
African American music sprang from our strong and beautiful ancestors into an original contribution to American culture without a doubt. It changed everything. Is it safe to say that without black music and dance, there would never have been a Elvis Presley? Elvis never denied his love of African American music and dance and how he imitated it and sought at an early age to integrate the races for the love of music.
In an interview with the Charlotte Observer on June 26, 1956, Elvis explained the origins of his music:
The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I’m don’ now for more years than I know. They played it like that in the shanties and in their juke joints, and nobody paid it no mind ‘til I goose it up.
I got it from them, down in Tupelo, Mississippi I used to hear old Arthur Crudup band his box the way I do now, and I said if I ever got to the place I could feel all old Arthur felt, I’d be a music man like nobody ever saw.
Elvis Presley appreciated black music and paved the way for performers like Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Fats Domino, and Bo Diddley who weren't allowed to perform to mainstream America because of racial prejudice. There were rumors during Presley's career that he made negative comments about blacks, but this website was unable to locate a reliable source but was easily able to find many favorable things said about this great American performer in how he felt about blacks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley (read racial issues)
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
| Music in 1955 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
Popular Soul Dances:
- January 15, 1955 "Earth Angel (Will You Be Mine)" — The Penguins
- January 22, 1955 "Sincerely" — The Moonglows
- February 12, 1955 "Pledging My Love" — Johnny Ace
- April 9, 1955 "The Wallflower" — Etta James
- April 23, 1955 "My Babe" — Little Walter
- May 7, 1955 "I Got a Woman" — Ray Charles
- May 21, 1955 "Unchained Melody" — Roy Hamilton
- June 11, 1955 "Ain't That a Shame" — Fats Domino
- June 18, 1955 "Unchained Melody" — Al Hibbler
- June 25, 1955 "Bo Diddley" — Bo Diddley
- August 6, 1955 "A Fool for You" — Ray Charles
- August 20, 1955 "Maybellene" — Chuck Berry
- October 22, 1955 "Only You (and You Alone)" — The Platters
- October 29, 1955 "All by Myself" — Fats Domino
- December 17, 1955 "Hands Off" — Jay McShann and His Orchestra
- December 31, 1955 "Poor Me" — Fats Domino
- December 31, 1955 "Adorable" — The Drifters
Musical Happenings in 1955:
- The Bop
- The Stroll
- The Hand Jive
- The Cha Cha
- The Twist
- Bosa Nova
The Ed Sullivan Show was a TV variety show that ran on CBS from 1948 to 1971 and was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. Sullivan was a champion of black talent. He launched the careers of many performers by presenting them to a nationwide TV audience and ignored the criticism. In an NEA interview, Sullivan commented:
"The most important thing (during the first ten years of the program) is that we've put on everything but bigotry. When the show first started in 1948, I had a meeting with the sponsors. There were some Southern dealers present, and they asked if I intended to put on black people. I said yes. They said I shouldn't, but I convinced them I wasn't going to change my mind. And you know something? We've gone over very well in the South. Never had a bit of trouble."
In the year 1955, African-American rock 'n' roll singer & guitarist Bo Diddley appeared on the show, only to get on the wrong side of Sullivan. Diddley comments, ("I did 2 songs and he got mad"). Diddley had been asked to perform Tennessee Ernie Ford's hit "Sixteen Tons". But when he appeared on stage, he sang his number #1 R&B hit "Bo Diddley". Diddley later recalls, "Ed Sullivan says to me in plain words:
"You are the first black boy—quote—that ever double crossed me!' I was ready to fight, because I was a little young dude off the streets of Chicago, an' him calling me 'black' in them days was as bad as saying 'nigger.' My manager says to me 'That's Mr. Sullivan!' I said: 'I don’t give a shit about Mr. Sullivan, he don't talk to me like that!' An' so he told me, he says, 'I'll see that you never work no more in show business. You'll never get another TV show in your life!'"
- The creation of the Doo-wop sound:
Doo-wop is a genre of music that was developed in African-American communities all across America achieving mainstream popularity in the 1950s and early '60s. Built upon vocal harmony, doo-wop was one of the most mainstream, pop-oriented R&B styles of the time. In it's beginning, singers would gather on street corners, and in subways, generally in groups of three to six. They sang a cappella arrangements, and would mimic certain instruments since instruments were little used: the bass singing "bom-bom-bom", a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang" and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop".
- Fats Domino's musical hit, "Ain't It a Shame", a recording which made him famous and set him on his way to becoming an iconic figure of American popular music.
- Chuck Berry records "Maybellene" with Jerome Green and Willie Dixon. popularizing the use of the guitar as the "focal instrument" of R&B.
- Little Richard records "Tutti Frutti". The song becomes a surprise hit that helped inspire such pioneers as Otis Redding, James Brown and Paul McCartney.
- Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers record the popular doo wop hit, "Why Do Fools Fall in Love".
- Handsome Harry Belafonte initiates a brief fad for pop music based on calypso, a style of Trinidadian music.
- Opera's Marian Anderson becomes the first African-American opera singer to entertain with the Metropolitan Opera Company, in Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera. If that wasn't amazing enough a few weeks later, talented baritone Robert McFerrin becomes the first black male to accomplish it.
- Mahalia Jackson and the Drinkard Singers delights the audience by being the first gospel performers to appear at the Newport Folk Festival.
- Opera's great Leontyne Price becomes the first African-American singer to entertain in an opera on television, in Tosca by Puccini.
1950s Mens Fashions
1950s Men's Fashions
1950s Women's Fashions
2.Actress Diahann Carroll wears a full-skirted dress with a small Peter Pan collar
360 Waves hairstyle
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.
Black couple in the 1950s
| Fashions in 1955 |
Immediately after the war, men's suits were broad-shouldered and often double-breasted. As wartime restrictions on fabric eased, trousers became fuller, and were usually styled with cuffs (turn-ups). Dark charcoal gray was the usual color, and the era of the gray flannel suit was born. By the later 1950s, a new Continental style of suit appeared from the fashion houses of Italy, with sharper shoulders, lighter fabrics, shorter, fitted jackets and narrower lapels. Hawaiian shirts, worn untucked from suspenders, also became widely popular during this era. Some young men wore tight trousers or jeans, leather jackets, and white tee shirts. Browline eyeglasses were commonly worn by men during the 1950s and early 1960s.
A popular style of brassiere for women during the 1950s was the "bullet bra", where cups were pointed in a conical shape. This brassiere design was popularized by famous actresses of that day. Women who had worn trousers on war service refused to abandon these practical garments which suited the informal aspects of the post-war lifestyle. Casual sportswear was an increasingly large component of women's wardrobes. Casual skirts were narrow or very full. In the 1950s, pants became very narrow, and were worn ankle-length.
Shorts were very short in the early '50s, and mid-thigh length Bermuda shorts appeared around 1954 and remained fashionable through the remainder of the decade. Loose printed or knit tops were fashionable with pants or shorts. They also wore bikinis to sport training.
Swimsuits were one- or two-piece; some had loose bottoms like shorts with short skirts. Bikinis appeared in Europe but were not worn in America in the 1950s.
- Men's Hairstyles:
The conk, which was derived from congolene, a hair straightener gel made from lye was a hairstyle very popular among African-American men from the 1920s to the 1960s. This hairstyle called for a man with naturally "kinky" hair to have it chemically straightened using a relaxer, sometimes the pure corrosive chemical lye, so that the newly straightened hair could be styled in specific ways. Back in those days, you were cool to have a conk job done.
- 360 Waves Hairstyle is generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. In the 1950s African American males would straighten their hair with a homemade lye relaxer or one from the barber shop and have a texturizing cream put in for a wave pattern. This was commonly worn by young men in Doo-wop groups.
- Women's Hairstyles:
The hot comb was an invention developed in France as a way for women with coarse curly hair to achieve a fine straight look traditionally modeled by historical Egyptian women. However, it was Annie Malone who first patented this tool, while her protégé and former worker, Madam CJ Walker widened the teeth. Today, hot combs are still used by many African-American beauticians and families as an alternative to chemical hair straightening. Many African American and women of other races, still utilize hot combs because this form of straightening is temporary and less damaging to the hair if done properly.
- Braiding Hairstyles:
Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.
Pullman porters, who were primarily black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.
During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves, and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.
But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1950s
Rosa Parks in 1955, with Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background
Confidential Magazine cover March 1956
Beautiful black family in the 50s
| Our Community in 1955 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- December 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement.
- Louis Till was an African-American soldier and convicted rapist and murderer. He was the father of Emmett Louis Till, whose murder in 1955 at the age of fourteen galvanized the African-American civil rights movement.
- 1950s Happenings in America - Car Hops at burger establishments where waitresses roller-skate to your car and take your order. 3D Movies which had been around since the 1920s was making a comeback, competing against the television. Everybody loved the Blackjack Chewing Gum which had a licorice flavor. Frisbee throwing was becoming a serious art form, the tricks some could do with a frisbee were amazing. Hula Hoop was a regular in everyones home, the inventors put sand or rocks inside the hoop to make noise while in use. Pez candy was a favorite for kids. Men of all races wore sideburns which was facial hair that grew down about an inch below the ears.
- The United States Population is 150,697,361 with a total of 15,044,937 being African Americans. Negroes are having more babies, and more than likely it was because of the Great Migration and jobs opening up in the North with the war effort.
#100 - Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain],
via Wikimedia Commons
#101 - By Photographer is Daniel Langer, dlanger on flickr.com. Copyright is held by Daniel Langer and Comic Relief, Inc. (http://flickr.com/photos/dlanger/310838776/) [
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#102 - By Maurice Carnes LaClaire [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Masao Nakagami (http://www.flickr.com/photos/goro_memo/315786763/) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - Carl Van Vechten [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Confidential Magazine (ebay) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Charles Henry Alston, 1907-1977, Artist (NARA record: 3569253) (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Coast Artists Inc. (management); photographer: John E. Reed, Hollywood. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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