blast from the past of 1964

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1964:
Otis Redding
    Otis Redding was an African American singer-songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music and an original artist in soul and rhythm and blues. His singing style was powerfully influential among soul artists of 1960s and helped exemplify the Stax sound.

    Born and raised in the state of Georgia, Redding quit school at age 15 to support his family, working with Little Richard's backing band, the Upsetters, and also performing at talent shows for prize money. In 1958, he joined Johnny Jenkins' band, the Pinetoppers, and toured the Southern states as a driver and musician.

    An unscheduled appearance on a Stax recording session led to a contract and his first single, "These Arms of Mine," in 1962. Stax released Redding's debut album Pain in My Heart two years later.

    Initially popular mainly with African Americans, Redding later reached a wider American popular music audience. Along with his group, he first played small gigs in the American South, then performed in the western states at the popular Los Angeles nightclub Whisky a Go Go. European appearances included London, Paris and other major cities.

    After appearing at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, Redding wrote and recorded his iconic "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" with Steve Cropper. The song became the first posthumous number-one record on both the Billboard Hot 100 and R&B charts after his death in a plane crash. The Dock of the Bay became the first posthumous album to reach number one on the UK Albums Chart.

    Redding died in an airplane crash, and it shook up the world. The cause of the accident was never determined. James Brown claimed in his autobiography, The Godfather of Soul, that he had warned Redding not to fly on the plane.

    Aretha Franklin stated, "I heard it on the TV. My sister Caroline and I stopped everything and stayed glued to the television and radio. It was a tragedy."

    Yes, we lost a great talent on that dreadful day. We thank Otis Redding for being such an inspiration to many with his beautiful songs. The world didn't seem like such a bad place whenever Otis Redding music was on; his melodies were a definite escape from harsh reality. This website would like to honor this great American with the 1964 Hamite Award for making us smile and making our lives a little more pleasant.

    Redding received many posthumous accolades, including the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. He also received the honorific nickname King of Soul.

Otis  Redding
Otis Redding
photo #101-yr-1941





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How were blacks feeling in 1964?
happy mood of blacks


The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a momentous occasion for sure; we are so happy. Finally, we will be given a fair shot in America with the law behind us.

That's all we ever wanted in the first place, a chance to get along with our fellow American brothers and compete on a level playing field. But we are so far behind educationally, and socially I just hope we can catch up, because I already know that our white brothers are not going to have any mercy whatsoever on us, claiming we are all stupid and ignorant without giving a crap about the circumstances.

I'm sure this will disillusion some but not most blacks. We will need to stick together and encourage the weaker ones and will eventually succeed and soar like the eagles.

Our situation kinda reminds me of the slave revolt in Haiti against the French in the 1700s, when the Haitian slaves overthrew the French government and took control of the Country because of oppression they suffered, but after victory they ended up in worst condition because they didn't know how to provide for themselves.

We will be fine, though, and we will learn to depend on ourselves because there is little love elsewhere. Who knows, maybe one day we might have a black President. Wouldn't that be something?



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Curt  Flood
Curt Flood
photo #102-yr-1938

Willie  Mays
Willie Mays
photo #103-yr-1931

     Sports in 1964
  • February 25, 1964 - Cassius Clay who would later change his name to Muhammad Ali defeats Sonny Liston for the world heavyweight championships.

  • March 6, 1964 - Cassius Clay joins the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Muhammad renames him Muhammad Ali.

  • May 20, 1964 - Buster Mathis defeats Joe Fraizer to qualify for the United States Olympic team

  • Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.

  • Curt Flood was a Gold Glove winner in National League Baseball and also led the leauge in hits with 211.



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black leaders ashamed of our progress


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racism

Mississippi civil rights workers
Mississippi civil rights workers
photo #109-yr-japheth

     Race in 1964
  • 1964 - Mississippi civil rights workers' murders In June 1964 in Neshoba County, Mississippi, three civil rights workers were abducted and killed in the act of racial violence. The victims were Andrew Goodman and Michael "Mickey" Schwerner from New York City, and James Chaney from Meridian, Mississippi. All three were associated with the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) and its member organization the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). They had been working with the "Freedom Summer" campaign by attempting to register African-Americans in the southern states to vote. This registration effort was a part of contesting over 70 years of laws and practices that supported a systematic policy of disenfranchisement of potential black voters by several Southern states that began in 1890. Forty-one years after the murders took place, one perpetrator, Edgar Ray Killen, was charged by the state of Mississippi for his part in the crimes. He was convicted of three counts of manslaughter in 2005 and is serving a 60-year sentence. On June 20, 2016, federal and state authorities officially closed the case and dispensed with the possibility of further prosecution.



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ballot box

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
photo #115-yr-1963

George C Wallace
George C Wallace (Alabama Governor)
photo #112-yr-1963

Fannie Lou Hamer
Fannie Lou Hamer
photo #107-yr-1963

     Political Scene in 1964
  • 1964 - Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–69), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–63). Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961, including six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. Analysis: Lyndon Baines Johnson was quite the man, probably the closest to Abraham Lincoln than anybody. When he first hooked up with John Kennedy to run for president, he was already known for his abrasive style of politics. He didn't have a problem telling you like it was. Kennedy chose him as a running mate because of Johnsons high southern support, and it would later pay off big time for the American Negro. Historians say that Johnson was more gung-ho about civil rights than Kennedy was, and wanted to push up the pace while Kennedy was content on going slow. John's brother, Robert Kennedy and LBJ hated each other, so there was a lot of animosity in the White House during those days, but they all needed each other, so they worked it out. After Kennedy was shot, LBJ quickly assumed control and one of the first things on his list were the Civil Rights bill that Kennedy had started. The southern politicians would always play games when a bill came their way they didn't like, and LBJ was very familiar with each and every one of them. He maneuvered the Civil Rights bill in a way that it reached the floor for a vote and guessed what, SUCCESS! I wonder if Kennedy would have had the same success if he were alive to try? He used similar tactics with the Voting Rights Act also with success. He was a master politician. Riots would break out later in his administration with the American public turning against him. People blamed him that the blacks were rioting because of the bills he helped pass on their behalf. Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, and made the following comment:

    "What did you expect? I don't know why we're so surprised. When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do? He's going to knock your block off."

    President Johnson was a good president for the black person and all other citizens. He understood without a doubt what true America stood for, and it's weird because he was from the south and once used to fight Harry Truman when he attempted to send his Civil Rights bill for a vote. People change sometimes. Thanks LBJ.


  • 1964 - George Wallace, when sworn in as governor of Alabama, made his famous address: "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!" Wallace has the third longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,848 days. Analysis: George Wallace was quite the character. He would get folks so worked up you couldn't help but hate him. Because much of the garbage that came out of his mouth was filled with hate, or looking back was it all a show? People didn't realize it then but he was simply telling racist Southerners what they wanted to hear, with his main priority getting elected, he didn't care how he got there. He was without a doubt a thorn in the side for many years to the black person. He was finally cut down by an assassin's bullet that left him paralyzed. Presidential contender and Congresswoman Shirley Chilsom, while once again displaying blacks forgiving nature paid him a visit in the hospital, to the protest from other blacks. In time Wallace renounced what he had said about black people, simply stating he was wrong, and he even backed up those sentiments by appointing a record number of blacks to state positions in Alabama. I think he played an important part in the Civil Rights struggle because he proved people could change.


  • The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. The primary goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. President Lyndon Johnson in his first State of the Union Address declares unconditional war on poverty. The Job Corps, the Neighborhood Youth Corps, Community Action Program, Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), the Model Cities Program for urban redevelopment, Upward Bound, Project Head Start, the Food Stamp Act of 1964 and more were all examples of programs started by the Johnson Administration.

  • February 4, 1964 - Constance Baker Motley was elected to the New York State Senate. She was the first African-American woman to sit in the State Senate.

  • Juyl 2, 1964 - United States President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act & Voting Rights Act into law.

  • 1964 - The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) delegation led by Fannie Lou Hamer is denied seating at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City.   Trivia: Black people who registered to vote in the South faced serious hardships at that time due to institutionalized racism, including harassment, loss of their jobs, beatings, and lynchings; nonetheless, Fannie Lou Hamer was the first volunteer. She later said, "I guess if I'd had any sense, I'd have been a little scared — but what was the point of being scared? The only thing they could do was kill me, and it kinda seemed like they'd been trying to do that a little bit at a time since I could remember." Hamer was known for singing hymns while doing her activist work. She would begin traveling around the South working in Mississippi. Hamer was on her way back from Charleston, South Carolina with other activists from a literacy workshop. Stopping in Winona, Mississippi, the group was arrested on a false charge and jailed. Once in jail, Hamer's colleagues were beaten by the police in the booking room. Hamer was then taken to a cell where two inmates were ordered, by the police, to beat her using a blackjack. The police ensured she was held down during the almost fatal beating and beat her further when she started to scream.

    NOTE: The younger ones especially need to read about this lady who was our mother, sisters, aunts and grandmothers. These courageous civil rights workers were willing to die, or take horrific beat downs for us. How are we living our lives to honor that?

    Did that beating stop Fannie Lou Hamer? Heck no, she would go on to face extreme racism when attending the Democratic National Convention of which she was a representative. She did things differently, and it drove President Lyndon Johnson crazy because she was familiar with the people and drew lots of attention from the media, enraging Johnson, who referred to her in speaking to his advisors as "that illiterate woman." She would make the following comment to the Convention's Credentials Committee on live television:

    All of this is on account we want to register, to become first-class citizens, and if the Freedom Democratic Party is not seated now, I question America. Is this America, the land of the free and the home of the brave where we have to sleep with our telephones off the hooks because our lives are threatened daily because we want to live as decent human beings — in America? Fannie Lou Hamer

    In Washington, D.C., President Johnson, fearful of the power of Hamer's testimony on live television, called an emergency press conference in an effort to divert press coverage, but it didn't work, and they tried to make a deal with her by having Senator Hubert Humphrey talk to her in compromising for voting seats. Her reply was:

    Do you mean to tell me that your position is more important than four hundred thousand black people's lives? Senator Humphrey, I know lots of people in Mississippi who have lost their jobs trying to register to vote. I had to leave the plantation where I worked in Sunflower County, Mississippi. Now if you lose this job of Vice-President because you do what is right because you help the MFDP, everything will be okay. God will take care of you. But if you take the nomination this way, why, you will never be able to do any good for civil rights, for poor people, for peace, or any of those things you talk about. Senator Humphrey, I'm going to pray to Jesus for you. Fannie Lou Hamer

    Future negotiations were conducted without Hamer, and the compromise was modified such that the Convention would select the two delegates to be seated "at-large," with no voting rights. The MFDP rejected the agreement, with Hamer making the famous quote:

    We didn't come all the way up here to compromise for no more than we’d gotten here. We didn't come all this way for no two seats when all of us is tired. Fannie Lou Hamer

    In 1968 the MFDP was finally seated after the Democratic Party adopted a clause which demanded equality of representation from their states' delegations. In 1972, Hamer was elected as a national party delegate.

    Hamer died of heart failure due to hypertension and was buried in her hometown of Ruleville, Mississippi. Her tombstone is engraved with one of her famous quotes:

    “ I am sick and tired of being sick and tired. Fannie Lou Hamer

    Absolutely amazing, I learn something everyday!

    Note: I love my work! I'm able to give an opinion without hearing any noise, wonderful. This situation with Fannie Lou Hamer and President Johnson reminds me of an issue that many Americans face daily, but I must admit not as much as it once was. The reason President Johnson did not care too much for Fannie Lou Hamer is that of her perceived ignorance by him. Johnson was an active supporter of the civil rights of the black person, he took the risk on our behalf to the American whites, and now this lady was speaking to the world using language whites were not used to. This is why Johnson called her illiterate. He had to feel like he was guilty by association with this lady speaking to the nation, and proud America didn't want to be represented that way. It was a sensitive issue for whites that was solved by exercising empathy because many loved and supported her. If the Reconstructions schools of the 1860s were kept open, it would have been a different story, because her relatives would have learned the American way and passed it down to her, and then no doubt she would have learned to be a model spokesperson, but the former slaves were never given an opportunity to progress, but completely shut down after slavery ended. Even though slavery had ended years prior, it still affected the moral of many during that period and even to this very day. Fannie Lou Hamer was like many blacks who wanted to better themselves and represent America in the correct way, but because of circumstances were not able. I'm sure she recognized her shortcomings but didn't let that stop her from getting up in front of millions to represent her people, that make her an amazing woman to me.




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Who is this man?

His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."

George  Kennan


If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.

Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974

We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.

In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.

We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?



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HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence

The purpose of this feature is to arrive at an honest and reliable answer how white Americans feel about black citizens. What better way to accomplish this than to examine its past leaders who represented the communities they served. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions will without a doubt give us a clue.


GEORGE WASHINGTON

George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.


Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:

"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."


While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.


During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.


Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.



ABRAHAM LINCOLN

In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."


"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."


Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. But if living in our day would have probably changed his views. He was well known for his ability to adapt. So why was he a great President?


Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.


whites sitting on fence

Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.



FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy. Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.


Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.


In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.


Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:

"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."


whites sitting on fence

Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.


What can we learn from these three great men?


The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different. The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers. In their eyes, it's either white superiority or black superiority and forget all that brother crap.


But on the other hand black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't truthfully see beyond color (which represents advantage).


When it's all said and done racism exist because of money and pride. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing and controlled the purse strings with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. This would eliminate the bulk of racism because whites wouldn't have any power.


Money=power, but money doesn't have to equal hate, it what the one with the power chooses to do with it. This is where pride comes in because all racist feel they are special people and their way of doing things is the best way, the superior way and the only way as far as they are concerned. People have the power to opt for love, but always choose selfishness and hate.


Because of this, America has never been the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television, and being the father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.


Generally speaking, white citizens today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three distinct classes:


(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.


(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.


(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy-washy and travels where the winds blow them.


It's important to remember that all three classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any, and this is said because even today it's rare for the races to mingle and when they do can be uncomfortable in a social setting, how ridiculous! The race with the power is the only one that can change this for the better. It's that simple.


In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded and died for his beliefs. Roosevelt dabbled on either side by sitting on the fence of inaction and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous to his class.


The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand and appreciate this danger.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.”  Tim Wise


So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?


Good question, but you must answer yourself.


But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?


whites sitting on fence





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black professional women


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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Eddie Rochester Anderson
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
photo #103-yr-1937

Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
photo #104-yr-1937

Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr.
Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr. from the television program The Hollywood Palace.
photo #104-yr-1964

Theater / Television / Movies in 1964

    Television:
  • Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:  Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?

  • The Hollywood Palace was an hour-long American television variety show that was broadcast weekly on ABC from January 4, 1964 to February 7, 1970. The series used a different host each week.



  • Movies:
  • Sidney Poitier wins the Best Actor Oscar for his role in Lilies of the Field. He is the first African American to win the award.



  • Theater:
  • April 23, 1964 - Blues for Mister Charlie is James Baldwin's second play, a tragedy in three acts. It was first produced and published in 1964. It is dedicated to the memory of Medgar Evers, and his widow and his children, and to the memory of the dead children of Birmingham." The play is loosely based on the Emmett Till murder that occurred in Money, Mississippi, before the Civil Rights Movement began.




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famous african american birthdays


Michelle  Obama
Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait
Absolutely amazing!
If this doesn't motivate us to achieve and soar like the eagles, nothing will.

photo #101-yr-1964

Barry Bonds
Barry Bonds
photo #101-yr-1994

Vivica Fox
Vivica Fox
photo #108-yr-1964

     Famous Birthdays in 1964
  • January 6, 1964 - Jacqueline DeLois Moore semi-retired American professional wrestler, former WWE Diva and former TNA Knockout.

  • January 17, 1964 - Michelle Obama  First Lady of the United States of America.

  • January 22, 1964 - Wayne Leonard Kirby former right fielder in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1991 to 1998.

  • March 6, 1964 - Yvette Renee Wilson  was an American comedienne and actress.

  • March 7, 1964 - Wanda Sykes  is an American writer, comedian.

  • March 9, 1964 - Ernest Lee "Ernie" Hudson Jr. an African-American actor.

  • March 25, 1964 - Lisa Gay Hamilton an American film, television, and theater actress known for her role as attorney Rebecca Washington on the ABC legal drama The Practice.

  • April 24, 1964 - Cedric the Entertainer  is an American actor, comedian, director, and game show host.

  • April 28, 1964 - Barry Louis Larkin retired Major League Baseball (MLB) player. Larkin played shortstop for the Cincinnati Reds.

  • May 9, 1964 - Sonja Sohn  an American actress and community activist.

  • May 16, 1964 - John Thomas Salley  retired American professional basketball player, actor and talk show host.

  • May 22, 1964 - Mark Christopher Lawrence an American character actor, stand-up comedian and voice-over artist.

  • May 26, 1964 - Lenny Kravitz an American rock singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, actor and arranger.

  • June 1, 1961 - Mark Curry  is an American actor, comedian, and host.

  • June 11, 1964 - Wren Troy Brown  is an American film, theater, and television actor.

  • June 25, 1964 - Toni Deniece Seawright  an American actress and singer-songwriter.

  • June 27, 1964 - Taimak Guarriello  a martial arts actor and stuntman, best known as Leroy Green in the 1985 martial arts film The Last Dragon.

  • July 11, 1964 - Cassandra "Cassi" Davis an American actress.

  • July 15, 1964 - Shari Headley an American actress. She is perhaps best known for portraying police officer Mimi Reed Frye Williams on the soap opera All My Children.

  • July 18, 1964 - Wendy Williams  an American media personality, actress, comedian and author.

  • July 24, 1964 - Barry Lamar Bonds   a former American baseball left fielder who played 22 seasons in Major League Baseball.

  • July 30, 1964 - Vivica Fox an American actress and television producer.

  • August 25, 1964 - Blair Erwin Underwood an American television, film, and stage actor and director.

  • September 5, 1964 - Thomas Mikal Ford an American actor who is best known for his role as Tommy Strawn in the sitcom Martin.

  • September 11, 1964 - Ellis Rena Burks   former outfielder and designated hitter who played in Major League Baseball for 18 seasons.

  • September 18, 1964 - Holly Robinson Peete  is an American actress and singer.

  • September 23, 1964 - Erik Todd Dellums  an American actor, voice actor, and narrator.

  • 1964 - Brian Copeland an American actor, comedian, radio talk show host, playwright and author based in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  • October 4, 1964 - Mark Tremell McLemore  former second baseman and utility player in Major League Baseball.

  • October 13, 1964 - Douglas Christopher Judge an American actor best known for playing Teal'c in the Canadian-American military science fiction television series Stargate SG-1.

  • October 13, 1964 - Christopher Karlton "Chris" Gwynn   a former Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • October 25, 1964 - Kevin Michael Richardson   an American actor who provides voices for a number of characters in animation and video games.

  • October 25, 1964 - Michael Boatman  is an Image Award-nominated American actor and writer.

  • October 28, 1964 - Leonard Anthony Harris   a former Major League Baseball utility infielder.

  • November 3, 1964 -  an American actress and producer.

  • November 6, 1964 - Corey Glover an American singer, guitarist and actor.

  • November 7, 1964 - Troy Byer an American film director, screenwriter and actress.

  • November 15, 1964 - Poetic  was an American rapper and producer.

  • November 16, 1964 - Dwight Eugene "Doc" Gooden   an American retired professional baseball player. A pitcher, Gooden played in Major League Baseball for the New York Mets.

  • November 16, 1964 - Harry Joseph Lennix an American actor. He is best known for his roles as Terrence "Dresser" Williams in the Robert Townsend film The Five Heartbeats .

  • November 22, 1964 - Khalil Kain  an American actor best known for his role as Raheem Porter in the 1992 film Juice.

  • November 27, 1964 - Robin Simone Givens an American stage, television, and film actress.

  • November 29, 1964 - Don Cheadle  is a very popular and talented American actor.

  • December 3, 1964 - Darryl Quinn Hamilton   a former Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • December 5, 1964 - Tyrone Eugene "Gene" Harris   a former Major League Baseball player who pitched in the major leagues from 1989-1995.

  • December 22, 1964 - Michael Ray "Mike" Jackson former professional baseball player whose career spanned 19 seasons.

  • December 26, 1964 - Apache  was an American rapper.

  • December 27, 1964 - Theresa E. Randle  an American stage, film and television actress.

  • December 29, 1964 - Kimberly Russell   an American actress.

  • 1964 - Deneen Zezell Graham Kerns a dance teacher and pageant contestant from North Carolina.



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famous african american deaths

John Henry  Lloyd
John Henry "Pop" Lloyd
photo #107-yr-1884

Nellallitea Nella Larsen
Nellallitea "Nella" Larsen
photo #110-yr-1891

Anna J. Cooper
American author, educator, and speaker
Anna J. Cooper

photo #103-yr-1893

Sam Cooke
Sam Cooke
photo #104-yr-1958

     Famous Deaths in 1964
  • February 9, 1964 - Willie Bryant was an American jazz bandleader, vocalist, and disc jockey.

  • February 25, 1964 - Kenneth Lee Spencer  usually known as Kenneth Spencer, was an African-American opera singer and actor. A talented bass-baritone, Spencer starred in a few Broadway musicals and musical films in the United States during the 1940s.

  • February 27, 1964 - Anna Julia Haywood Cooper was an American author, educator, speaker and one of the most prominent African-American scholars in United States history.

  • March 19, 1964 - John Henry "Pop" Lloyd  nicknamed "El Cuchara", was an American baseball shortstop and manager in the Negro leagues. He is generally considered the greatest shortstop in Negro league history, and both Babe Ruth and Ted Harlow, a noted sportswriter, reportedly believed Lloyd to be the greatest baseball player ever.

  • March 30, 1964 - Nellallitea "Nella" Larsen  was an American novelist of the Harlem Renaissance. First working as a nurse and a librarian, she published two novels—Quicksand (1928) and Passing (1929)—and a few short stories.

  • December 11, 1964 - Sam Cooke  was an American recording artist and singer-songwriter, generally considered among the greatest of all time. Influential as both a singer and composer, he is commonly known as the King of Soul for his distinctive vocals and importance within popular music.

  • 1896 - 1964 - Samuel L. Robinson was an African-American athlete. After getting out of military service in World WarI, Robinson got involved with professional boxing. His nick name was "Smiling Sammy" because he always had a smile on his face, a man at peace with his bitter surroundings. As a complete amateur to running, Robinson got involved in a long distance race from Los Angeles to New York, it took 84 days. There were four other blacks who entered the race also. When the runners made it to Texas, is when the really racist Jim Crow terrorist minded people would give the runners a bad time, but Robinson kept on going. There were many blacks along Route 66 who were cheering for him, making his heart glad I'm sure for their support. Can you imagine the electrifying scene? History in the making! Thanks, Sammy. When Sammy made it to New York, he received a hero's welcome. Robinson didn't win the race, but just as almost important he finished. Please Google this man's name to read more about his amazing accomplishments to American history.

  last words
  Sam Cooke


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famous african american weddings

Gail Fisher
Gail Fisher
photo #113-yr-1968

Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
photo #106-yr-1921

Bill Cosby
Bill Cosby
photo #101-yr-1988

     Famous Weddings in 1964
  • January 25, 1964 - Bill Cosby married Camille O. Cosby who he met while performing stand-up in Washington, D.C.

  • April 12, 1964 - Chubby Checker married Catherina Lodders.

  • May 5, 1964 - Roy Campanella and Roxie Doles were married.

  • 1964 - Ed Bradley married Diane Jefferson.

  • 1964 - Gail Fisher married John Levy.



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famous african american divorces

Claudia McNeil
Claudia McNeil
photo #104-yr-1917

     Famous Divorces in 1964
  • January 1964 - Barack Obama Sr. and Ann Dunham were divorced.

  • 1964 - Otis Williams and Josephine Williams were divorced.

  • 1964 - Ed Bradley and Diane Jefferson were divorced.

  • 1964 - Gladys Knight and James Newman were divorced.

  • 1964 - Claudia McNeil and Herman McCoy were divorced.



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mike jackson


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soul music orgin



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  The Jackson 5
The Jackson 5
photo #106-yr-1964



John Coltrane
John Coltrane
photo #105-yr-1964


The Toys
The Toys were an American pop girl group from Jamaica, New York, which was formed in 1961 and disbanded in 1968.
photo #109-yr-1961


     Music in 1964

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • From November 30, 1963 to January 23, 1965 there was no Billboard R&B singles chart. Trivia: No specific reason has ever been given as to why Billboard ceased releasing R&B charts, but the prevailing wisdom is that the chart methodology used was being questioned, since more and more Caucasian acts were reaching number-one on the R&B chart. According to researcher Joel Whitburn, "there was so much crossover of titles between the R&B and pop singles (Hot 100) charts that Billboard considered the charts to be too similar. This does not mean that R&B artists stopped turning out hits. After all, it was during this 14-month period that Motown established itself as an R&B institution."

  Popular Soul Dances
  • The Twist

  • The Monkey

  • Chicago Walk

  • The Stroll

  • The Dog

  • The Madison

  • The Hully Gully

  • The Camel Walk

  • The Watusi

  • The Pony

  • The Swim

  • The Hitch Hike

  • Cool Jerk

  • Hand Jive



  Musical Happenings in 1964:
  • The word soul has become a common musical term in African American households, but is still not used by most media. It will spread widely in the next few years, however.

  • John Coltrane's first "large-scale composition", A Love Supreme, is a landmark jazz album that marks his emergence "not only as a technical innovator but also a spiritual leader".

  • Formed in 1964 under the name the Jackson Brothers, the founding members were Jackie, Tito and Jermaine. Marlon and Michael would later join, and the band's name would be changed to The Jackson 5. Trivia: After participating in talent shows and the chitlin' circuit, they entered the professional music scene in 1967 signing with Steeltown Records and releasing two singles. In 1969 they left Steeltown Records in order to sign with Motown.



 Grammy winners in 1964:
    The 6th Annual Grammy Awards were held on May 12, 1964 at Chicago, Los Angeles and New York. They recognized accomplishments by musicians for the year 1963.

    Best Instrumental Arrangement
  • Quincy Jones (arranger) for "I Can't Stop Loving You" performed by Count Basie


  • Best Original Jazz Composition
  • Steve Allen & Ray Brown (composers) for "Gravy Waltz" performed by Steve Allen


  • Best Performance by an Orchestra - for Dancing
  • Count Basie for This Time by Basie! Hits of the 50's and 60's


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Recording
  • Ray Charles for "Busted"




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The Cookies
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
photo #103-yr-1954


watermelon slaves food
DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the soul-food revolution began? It became a popular term in the 1960's. Slave ships with their cargo of slaves traveled from West Africa to North America with foods that were native to African soil. It was the ship's captain best interest to keep slaves alive and healthy by feeding them these foods for their long transatlantic voyage. Some of these foods native to Africa are black-eyed peas, rice, yams, peanuts and don't forget the infamous watermelon. Once here in America, slaves were allowed to grow these foods and along with the scraps the master would give them during 'ration times' (sometimes meat) is what laid the foundation for soul-food.


watermelon slaves food


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children fashion
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s

photo #106-yr-1960

girls fashion
1960s Girls Fashions
photo #106-yr-1960

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1964

  Popular Fashions:
  • Bellbottoms

  • Miniskirts

  • Tie Dye T-shirts

  • Turtlenecks


  • Men & Women Hairstyles:
    The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.


  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.




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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s

 dogs chasing kids

blacklight
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
photo #107-yr-1960

Asa Philip Randolph
Asa Philip Randolph
photo #103-yr-1889

Mississippi John Hurt
Mississippi John Hurt
photo #107-yr-1892

Josephine Baker
Josephine Baker
photo #104-yr-1906

Our Community in 1964
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • March 12, 1964 - Malcolm X cuts ties with the Nation of Islam, and later in June would form the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

  • June 26, 1964 - Blacks & Whites riot over racial segregation in St Augustine.

  • July 18, 1964 - There was a race riot in Harlem New York City; the riots would evntually spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.

  • July 25, 1964 - There was a race riot in Rochester, New York.

  • August 2, 1964 - There was a race riot in Jersey City, New Jersey.

  • August 11, 1964 - There was a race riot in Paterson, New Jersey.

  • August 12, 1964 - There was a race riot in Elizabeth, New Jersey.

  • August 15, 1964 - There was a race riot in Dixmoor, Illinois.

  • August 28, 1964 - There was a race riot in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  • September 14, 1964 - President Lyndon B. Johnson presented Asa Philip Randolph with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

  • October 1964 - Martin Luther King Jr. receives the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

  • 1964 - Good Americans have died so blacks could vote. James E. Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were murdered by the KKK in Mississippi simply for aiding in registering blacks to vote.

  • 1964 - Exciting entertainer Josephine Baker will lose her beautiful castle because of finacial problems.

  • 1964 – President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, which was long overdue. It was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction days. It prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin.

  • Mississippi John Hurt was recorded by the Library of Congress in 1964. This helped further the American folk music revival, which had led to the rediscovery of many other bluesmen of Hurt's era.

  • 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.

  • 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.

  • 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.

  • The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.



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pretty lady cooking
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.

We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.



sweet potatoes
Sweet Potatoes / Yams


Barbecue Ribs
Barbecue Ribs


Ham Hocks
Ham Hocks


Rice and Beans
Rice and Beans


Fish and Chips
Fish and Chips


Bean Soup
Bean Soup


Biscuits and Gravy
Biscuits and Gravy


Waffles
Waffles


Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken


Cornbread
Cornbread


Collard Greens
Collard Greens


Fried Liver
Fried Liver


Peach Preserves
Peach Preserves


Pinto Beans
Pinto Beans


Pound Cake
Pound Cake


Pork Chops
Pork Chops


Watermelon
Watermelon


black man hungry


(images - https://pixabay.com/)
Southern Cooking - Soul Food

    Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.

    This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;

    "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"

    This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.

    Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.

    Breakfast
  • Maryland Beat Biscuit
  • Waffles
  • Cream Cake
  • Flannel Cakes
  • Sallie Lund
  • Egg Corn Bread
  • Plantation Corn Bread
  • Light Bread


  • Broiled Meats
  • Beefsteak
  • Lamb or Mutton Chops
  • Pork Steak or Chops
  • Venison


  • Croquettes
  • Lamb
  • Chicken
  • Crab
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Fish


  • Cakes Etc.
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Almond
  • Feather
  • Sponge
  • Fruit
  • Jelly
  • Carolas
  • Ginger Cookies
  • Sweet Wafers


  • Pickels, Sauces Etc.
  • Sweet Cucumber Pickles
  • Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
  • Chow Chow
  • Creole Chow Chow
  • Cherry Chutney
  • Game Sauce
  • Compound Tomato
  • Napoleon
  • Sweet Pickle Peaches
  • Sweet Pickle Prunes
  • Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
  • Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
  • Milanese Sauce
  • Sauce for Suet Pudding


  • Pies, Etc.
  • Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
  • Preparing the Fruit for Pies
  • Rhubarb
  • Apple
  • Peach
  • Lemon Pies
  • Cocoanut
  • Cream Apple
  • Sweet Potato
  • Gooseberry and Cherry
  • Light Bread
  • Mince
  • Blackberry Roll
  • Oyster


  • Puddings
  • Snow
  • Plum
  • Corn
  • Corn Fritters
  • Batter
  • Rice
  • Yorkshire
  • Cheese
  • Suet


  • Preserves, Spices, ETC.
  • Brandy Peaches
  • Quince Preserves
  • Syrups for Preserves
  • Preserved Peaches
  • Preserved Pears
  • Currant Jelly
  • Cranberry Jelly
  • Strawberry Jam
  • Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
  • Marmalade Peach
  • Crab Apple Jelly
  • Blackberry Brandy
  • Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
  • Preserved Apricots
  • Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
  • Charlotte Eusse
  • Spiced Currants
  • Preserved Cherries


  • Roast Meats
  • Venison
  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Pig
  • Veal
  • Turkey
  • Chicken
  • Birds
  • Quail
  • Domestic Duck
  • Wild Duck


  • Salads
  • Chicken
  • Veal
  • Lamb
  • Shrimp
  • Crab
  • Meat


  • Sherbets
  • Orange
  • Lemon
  • Pineapple


  • Soups, Chowders, Etc.
  • Beef
  • Ox-TaH
  • Calf 's Head
  • Mock Turtle
  • Green Turtle
  • Oyster Gumbo
  • Ochra Gumbo
  • Old Fashioned Turnip
  • Chicken
  • Corn and Tomato
  • Creole
  • Fish Chowder
  • Chicken Gumbo


  • Miscellaneous
  • Fricassed Chicken
  • Fried Chicken
  • Chicken fried Steak
  • Meat Stews or Entrees
  • Ice Cream
  • Boiled Turkey
  • Beef a la Mode
  • Neckbones
  • Spiced Round
  • Hog Maws
  • Stuffed Ham
  • Lima Beans
  • Jumberlie a Creole Dish
  • Baked Fish
  • Ribs, Beef or Pork
  • Boiled Corn
  • Peach Cobbler
  • Egg Plant Stuffed
  • Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
  • Corned Beef Hash
  • Ladies' Custard
  • Tonic Bitters
  • Terrapin Stew
  • Leaven Biscuit
  • Pap for infant Diet
  • Sorghum Syrup
  • Cracklins
  • Meringue for Pudding
  • Circuit Hash


  • What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
    Paperback – March, 1995
    by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)

    http://www.amazon.com/Fisher-Knows-About-Southern-Cooking/dp/1557094039

 

Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)

    Butter: 1 pound
    Sugar: 3 cups
    Eggs: 6
    Milk: 3/4 cup
    Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
    Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
    Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
    Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon

    Directions:
    For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
    Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
    Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
    Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
    Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
    Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
    Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.



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RESOURCES:


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#101 -   Public Domain image - By Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy (P021213CK-0027 (direct link)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - By RCA Victor Records (Billboard page 21) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image - By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   By Gelderen, Hugo van / Anefo [CC BY-SA 3.0 nl], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   Public Domain image - By CBS Television (Original text : eBay item photo frontphoto back)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   Public Domain image - By Warren K. Leffler, U.S. News & World Report Magazine [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   Public Domain image - http://www.pixabay.com

#109 -   Public Domain image - By Nobel Foundation (http://nobelprize.org/) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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