blast from the past of 1965

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1965:
Malcolm X
    Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little and also known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz, was an American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

    Malcolm X was effectively orphaned early in life. His father was killed when he was six, and his mother was placed in a mental hospital when he was thirteen, after which he lived in a series of foster homes. In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for larceny and breaking.

    While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam, and after his parole in 1952, quickly rose to become one of the organization's most influential leaders, serving as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years. In his autobiography, Malcolm X wrote proudly of some of the social achievements the Nation made while he was a member, particularly its free-of-cost drug rehabilitation program.

    In keeping with the Nation's teachings, he promoted black supremacy, advocated the separation of black and white Americans, and rejected the civil rights movement for their emphasis on integration.

    By March 1964, Malcolm X had grown disillusioned with the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Muhammad. Expressing many regrets about his time with them, which he had come to regard as largely wasted, he embraced Sunni Islam.

    After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East which included completing the Hajj, he repudiated the Nation of Islam, disavowed racism and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. He continued to emphasize Pan-Africanism, black self-determination, and black self-defense.

    Malcolm X was a crucial part of the Civil Rights movement. Even though most blacks would choose the non-violent method of achieving our Civil Rights, Malcolm was an avenue to those who disagreed.

    He was a dedicated individual who loved our people. He rose from the mean streets to become one of the most widely respected African Americans on earth. Malcolm X will win the 1965 Hamite Award because he was a breath of fresh air to the stale stench of racism and a tireless advocate for the Negro cause.

    In February 1965 he was assassinated by three Nation of Islam members. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, published shortly after his death, is considered one of the most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.

annual hamite award
Malcolm X
photo#108-yr-1965




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How were blacks feeling in 1965?
happy mood of blacks


WE CAN SMELL THE ROSES

OUR CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS ARE DOING A REMARKABLE JOB, SADLY WE LOST MALCOLM X THIS YEAR, BUT WE'RE GONNA MAKE HIM PROUD BY ACHIEVING TO THE MAXIMUM.



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blacks moving into neighborhood



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Curt  Flood
Curt Flood
photo #102-yr-1938

Willie  Mays
Willie Mays
photo #103-yr-1931

John Junior Roseboro
John Junior Roseboro
photo #104-yr-1933

     Sports in 1965
  • Willie Mays won Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award.

  • Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.

  • Curt Flood was a Gold Glove winner in National League Baseball.

  • John Roseboro and Juan Marichal incident in 1965. Trivia:John Roseboro and San Francisco Giants player Juan Marichal were involved in a much talked about brawl during a game between the L.A. Dodgers and S.F. Giants. Earlier in the game, Marichal had knocked down Dodgers Maury Wills and Ron Fairly with brushback pitches. When Marichal came up to bat against Sandy Koufax in the third inning, Koufax wouldn't retaliate, but his catcher, Roseboro, apparently wanted to. On the throwback pitch to Koufax, the ball was super close to Marichal's face, which he proceeded to twice hit Roseboro over the head with the bat, opening a 2-inch gash. Both benches cleared. Marichal has suspended eight games and fined a then-NL record $1,750. Dodger fans were angry at Marichal for many years after this incident. However, by this time Roseboro had forgiven Marichal and personally appealed to the fans to calm down. After years of bitterness, Roseboro and Marichal became close friends in the 1980s, getting together occasionally at Old-Timers games, golf tournaments, and charity events. Roseboro also personally appealed to the Baseball Writers Association of America not to hold the incident against Marichal after it passed him over for election to the Hall of Fame four years in a row. Marichal did get elected in 1983, and thanked Roseboro in his induction speech.




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WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT?
greed
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.



Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man


I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.


My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)


Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.


 civil war


Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.


During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.


I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


WHO IS THIS MAN?


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan


This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974




WHO IS THIS MAN?


I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
Smedley Butler


I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.

I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.

I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.

Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering





I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt


I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.


I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.


It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.


The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.


I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.


Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.


In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.


Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.


greedy doctors
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!


Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)


John Adams




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President Lyndon B. Johnson
President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Martin Luther King, Jr.
at the signing of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Can you feel the excitement? I know I can!

photo #109-yr-1965

ballot box

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
photo #115-yr-1963

George C Wallace
George C Wallace (Alabama Governor)
photo #112-yr-1963

     Political Scene in 1965
  • 1965 - Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–69), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–63). Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961, including six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. Analysis: Lyndon Baines Johnson was quite the man, probably the closest to Abraham Lincoln than anybody. When he first hooked up with John Kennedy to run for president, he was already known for his abrasive style of politics. He didn't have a problem telling you like it was. Kennedy chose him as a running mate because of Johnsons high southern support, and it would later pay off big time for the American Negro. Historians say that Johnson was more gung-ho about civil rights than Kennedy was, and wanted to push up the pace while Kennedy was content on going slow. John's brother, Robert Kennedy and LBJ hated each other, so there was a lot of animosity in the White House during those days, but they all needed each other, so they worked it out. After Kennedy was shot, LBJ quickly assumed control and one of the first things on his list were the Civil Rights bill that Kennedy had started. The southern politicians would always play games when a bill came their way they didn't like, and LBJ was very familiar with each and every one of them. He maneuvered the Civil Rights bill in a way that it reached the floor for a vote and guessed what, SUCCESS! I wonder if Kennedy would have had the same success if he were alive to try? He used similar tactics with the Voting Rights Act also with success. He was a master politician. Riots would break out later in his administration with the American public turning against him. People blamed him that the blacks were rioting because of the bills he helped pass on their behalf. Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, and made the following comment:

    "What did you expect? I don't know why we're so surprised. When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do? He's going to knock your block off."

    President Johnson was a good president for the black person and all other citizens. He understood without a doubt what true America stood for, and it's weird because he was from the south and once used to fight Harry Truman when he attempted to send his Civil Rights bill for a vote. People change sometimes. Thanks LBJ.


  • 1965 - George Wallace, when sworn in as governor of Alabama, made his famous address: "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!" Wallace has the third longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,848 days. Analysis: George Wallace was quite the character. He would get folks so worked up you couldn't help but hate him. Because much of the garbage that came out of his mouth was filled with hate, or looking back was it all a show? People didn't realize it then but he was simply telling racist Southerners what they wanted to hear, with his main priority getting elected, he didn't care how he got there. He was without a doubt a thorn in the side for many years to the black person. He was finally cut down by an assassin's bullet that left him paralyzed. Presidential contender and Congresswoman Shirley Chilsom, while once again displaying blacks forgiving nature paid him a visit in the hospital, to the protest from other blacks. In time Wallace renounced what he had said about black people, simply stating he was wrong, and he even backed up those sentiments by appointing a record number of blacks to state positions in Alabama. I think he played an important part in the Civil Rights struggle because he proved people could change.


  • August 6, 1965 - The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the American Civil Rights Movement.


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education and hate


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Acts of Goodness is Colorblind


The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.

The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.


Andy, Opie, and Horatio



What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?

Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.

The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.

 black fathers


So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.

It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.

So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.



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Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of JIM CROW

Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.


Jim Crow laws
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.
photo#104-yr-1882


    Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.

  • "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.

  • Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.

  • Unfair bank lending practices.

  • Job discrimination.

  • Discriminatory union practices for decades.

  • Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.

  • Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.

  • U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.


  • Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.



    Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965

    NOTE:
    Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.


    Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Miscegenation
    photo# library


    Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!

    Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws
    photo#105-yr-1882


    New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws
    photo#106-yr-1882


    South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jim_Crow_law_examples_by_state



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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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Rawhide
John Ireland (left) as Jed Colby and Raymond St. Jacques as Simon Blake
from the television program Rawhide.
The characters and actors were new to the program.

photo #114-yr-1965

black Movies in America
Movies in America

Eddie Rochester Anderson
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
photo #103-yr-1937

Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
photo #104-yr-1937

Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr.
Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr.
photo #104-yr-1964

Lena Horne
Lena Horne
photo #109-yr-1956

     Television / Movies in 1965
    Movies:
  • Now! - Lena Horne (short subject) (voice only)



  • Television:
  • Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia: Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?

  • The Hollywood Palace was an hour-long American television variety show that was broadcast weekly on ABC from January 4, 1964 to February 7, 1970. The series used a different host each week.

  • Rawhide was an American Western TV series. Raymond St. Jacques was the first black actor to appear in a regular role on a western series, playing Simon Blake on the series.



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African American culture going downhill

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famous african american birthdays


Rodney King
Rodney King
photo #102-yr-1965

Chris Rock
Chris Rock
photo #104-yr-1965

Ellen Cleghorne
Ellen Cleghorne
photo #100-yr-1991

 Danielle Spencer
Danielle Spencer
photo #106-yr-1965

David Robinson
David Robinson
photo #103-yr-1986

     Famous Birthdays in 1965
  • January 21, 1965 - Jam Master Jay  was an American musician and rapper. He was the DJ of the influential hip hop group Run–D.M.C.

  • January 22, 1965 - DJ Jazzy Jeff  an American hip hop and R&B disc jockey, record producer, turntablist and actor.

  • February 7, 1965 - Chris Rock  one of the funniest comedians of all times.

  • February 9, 1965 - Bruce Bruce  an American actor and stand-up comedian from Atlanta, Georgia. He grew up in The Bluff, one of the city's roughest ghettos.

  • February 18, 1965 - Dr. Dre  an American record producer, rapper and entrepreneur.

  • April 2, 1965 - Rodney King  was an African American construction worker who became nationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3, 1991.

  • April 7, 1965 - Bill Bellamy an African-American actor and stand-up comedian. Bellamy first gained national notoriety on HBO's Russell Simmons' Def Comedy Jam.

  • April 16, 1965 - Martin Lawrence an American actor, comedian, and filmmaker. He came to fame during the 1990s, establishing a Hollywood career as a leading actor.

  • May 27, 1965 - Todd Bridges  an American actor known for his childhood role as Willis Jackson on the sitcom Diff'rent Strokes.

  • June 24, 1965 - Danielle Spencer   an American actress and former child star best known for her role as Dee Thomas on the ABC sitcom What's Happening!!, which ran from 1976 to 1979.

  • July 9, 1965 - K. Todd Freeman  an American actor in theatre, television, and film.

  • July 16, 1965 - Daryl "Chill" Mitchell  an American actor. He is known for such roles as Dexter Walker on The John Larroquette Show.

  • July 24, 1965 - Kadeem Hardison  an American actor. He is best known for his role as Dwayne Wayne on A Different World, a spin-off of the long-running NBC sitcom The Cosby Show.

  • August 3, 1965 - Lance Robertson A Los Angeles-based musician, DJ, and actor also known as "DJ Lance Rock".

  • August 6, 1965 - David Robinson  an American former professional basketball player, who played center for the San Antonio Spurs in the National Basketball Association (NBA) for his entire career. Based on his prior service as an officer in the United States Navy, Robinson earned the nickname "The Admiral".

  • August 11, 1965 - Duane Martin an American film and television actor and real estate agent.

  • August 11, 1965 - Viola Davis an American actress.

  • August 20, 1965 - KRS-One   an American rapper and occasional producer from The Bronx, New York City, New York.

  • August 24, 1965 - Reggie Miller  a retired professional basketball player who played his entire 18-year National Basketball Association (NBA) career with the Indiana Pacers.

  • September 28, 1965 - Joe Torry an American actor and comedian.

  • October 13, 1965 - Reginald Ballard an African-American character actor and comedian from Galveston, Texas, who is probably best known as "Bruh-man from the fifth flo".

  • November 29, 1965 - Ellen Cleghorne   an African-American actress and comedian, best known for being a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1991 to 1995.

  • December 3, 1965 - Steve Harris an American actor.

  • December 7, 1965 - Jeffrey Wright an American film, television and stage actor.

  • December 16, 1965 - JB Smoove an American actor, writer, and stand-up comedian who began his TV career on Russell Simmons's Def Comedy Jam in the early 1990s.

  • December 24, 1965 - Christian Payton  Singer and actor.

  • 1965 - Deezer D  an American actor, rapper and motivational speaker.



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famous african american deaths

Nat King Cole
Nat King Cole
photo #103-yr-1965

Malcolm X
Malcolm X
photo#108-yr-1965

Dorothy Dandridge
Dorothy Dandridge
photo #102

     Famous Deaths in 1965
  • February 15, 1965 - Nat King Cole  was an American singer and musician.

  • February 21, 1965 - Malcolm X  African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist.

  • February 23, 1965 - John Kitzmiller was an African-American actor.

  • September 8, 1965 - Dorothy Dandridge was an African-American film and theatre actress, singer and dancer.

  • November 6, 1965 - Clarence Williams  was an American jazz pianist, composer, promoter, vocalist, theatrical producer, and publisher.

  • December 12, 1965 - John Dotson "Johnny" Lee, Jr. was an American singer, dancer and actor known for voicing the role of Br'er Rabbit in Disney's Song of the South.

  last words
  Malcolm X


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famous african american weddings

Leslie Uggams
Leslie Uggams
photo #104-yr-1943

Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson
photo #101-yr-1989

Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes
photo #104-yr-2005

     Famous Weddings in 1965
  • 1965 - George Benson married Johnnie Benson.

  • 1965 - Maynard Jackson married Burnella Hayes Burke.

  • 1965 - Leslie Uggams married Grahame Pratt.

  • 1965 - boxer Isaac Hayes  married Emily Ruth Watson.

  • 1965 - boxer Sugar Ray Robinson  married Millie Wiggins Bruce.



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famous african american divorces

Kim Hamilton
Kim Hamilton, Ivan Dixon and Steven Perry
photo #105-yr-1960

Eartha Mae Kitt
Eartha Mae Kitt
photo #108-yr-1928

Jackie Wilson
Jackie Wilson
photo #106-yr-1934

     Famous Divorces in 1965
  • 1965 - Sidney Poitier and  Juanita Hardy were divorced.

  • 1965 - Barry White and Betty Smith were divorced.

  • 1965 - Eartha Kitt and Bill McDonald were divorced.

  • 1965 - Denise Nicholas  and  Gilbert Moses were divorced.

  • 1965 - Kim Hamilton and Dave Geisel were divorced.

  • 1965 - Singer Jackie Wilson  and   Freda Hood were divorced.



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

negro green book

The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread. Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers, and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.

     It's a Party in 1965
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood there would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.


  • chitlin circuit
    Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
    Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi

    photo #111-yr-1930

    chitlin circuit
    An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
    of a crowd. Los Angeles California.

    photo #112-yr-1930



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soul music orgin


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The Cookies
The Cookies were an American R&B girl group in the 1950s to 1960s.
Members of the original lineup would later become the Raelettes,
the backing vocalists for Ray Charles.
photo #103-yr-1954




The Temptations
The Temptations
photo #110-yr-1965

 Nancy Wilson
Nancy Wilson
photo #111-yr-1965

The Supremes
The Supremes
photo #106-yr-1966

The Toys
The Toys were an American pop girl group from Jamaica, New York, which was formed in 1961 and disbanded in 1968.
photo #109-yr-1961


     Music in 1965

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • January 2, 1965 - NO CHART

  • January 9, 1965 - NO CHART

  • January 16, 1965 - NO CHART

  • January 23, 1965 - NO CHART

  • January 30, 1965 - "My Girl" The Temptations

  • March 13, 1965 - "Shotgun" Junior Walker & the All-Stars

  • April 3, 1965 - "Got to Get You Off My Mind" Solomon Burke

  • May 1, 1965 - "We're Gonna Make It" Little Milton

  • May 22, 1965 - "I'll Be Doggone" Marvin Gaye

  • May 29, 1965 - "Back in My Arms Again" The Supremes

  • June 5, 1965 - "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie Honey Bunch)" The Four Tops

  • August 7, 1965 - "In the Midnight Hour" Wilson Pickett

  • August 14, 1965 - "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag (Part 1)" James Brown

  • October 9, 1965 - "I Want To (Do Everything for You)" Joe Tex

  • October 30, 1965 - "Rescue Me" Fontella Bass

  • November 27, 1965 - "Ain't That Peculiar" Marvin Gaye

  • December 4, 1965 - "I Got You (I Feel Good)" James Brown



  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Twist

  • The Monkey

  • Chicago Walk

  • The Stroll

  • The Dog

  • The Madison

  • The Hully Gully

  • The Camel Walk

  • The Shotgun

  • The Watusi

  • The Pony

  • The Swim

  • The Hitch Hike

  • Cool Jerk

  • Hand Jive



  Musical Happenings in 1965:
  • James Brown's "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" ushers in the new style of funk music.

  • John Coltrane records Om, a pioneering album that incorporated African and Asian musical techniques and instruments into his work.

  • Duke Ellington peforms a jazz concert at the Grace Cathedral Church of San Francisco, California.

  • Nortronics introduces the eight-track head and an endless-loop cartridge machine.



 Grammy winners in 1965:
    The 7th Annual Grammy Awards were held on April 13, 1965 at Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills. They recognized accomplishments of musicians for the year 1964.

    Song of the Year
  • Jerry Herman (songwriter) for "Hello, Dolly!" performed by Louis Armstrong


  • Best Comedy Performance
  • Bill Cosby for I Started Out as a Child


  • Best Vocal Performance, Male
  • Louis Armstrong for "Hello, Dolly!"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Recording
  • Nancy Wilson for "How Glad I Am"




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children fashion
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s

photo #106-yr-1960

girls fashion
1960s Girls Fashions
photo #106-yr-1960

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1965

  Popular Fashions:
  • Bellbottoms

  • Miniskirts

  • Tie Dye T-shirts

  • Turtlenecks


  • Men & Women Hairstyles:
    The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.


  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.




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Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin, half-length portrait, facing front, microphones in foreground
World Telegram & Sun photo by Stanley Wolfson - 1965

photo #102-yr-1987

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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s

 dogs chasing kids

blacklight
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
photo #107-yr-1960

Dorothy Irene Height
Dorothy Height
photo #108-yr-1957

 Bloody Sunday
Bloody Sunday - officers await demonstrators
photo #112-yr-1965

The Watts riots
The Watts riots
photo #113-yr-1965

Our Community in 1965

 Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • February 21, 1965 - Malcolm X is assassinated.
    Trivia: Malcolm X was preparing to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom when someone in the 400-person audience yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!" As Malcolm X and his bodyguards tried to quell the disturbance, a man rushed forward and shot him once in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun and two other men charged the stage firing semi-automatic handguns. Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after arriving at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

  • August 11, 1965 - The Watts riots were race riots that took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. It started when a black motorist was arrested for drunk-driving, and a minor roadside argument suddenly turned into a riot. There followed six days of looting and arson, especially of white-owned businesses, and police needed the support of nearly 4,000 members of the California Army National Guard. There were 34 deaths and over $40 million in property damage.

  • 1965 - The three Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965 were part of the Voting Rights Movement underway in Selma, Alabama. By highlighting racial injustice in the South, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. It would be known as "Bloody Sunday," after police use whips, tear gas, and police batons against them.

  • 1965 - The Negro Family: The Case For National Action (the 1965 Moynihan Report) was written by Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a sociologist and later U.S. Senator. It focused on the deep roots of black poverty in America and concluded controversially that the relative absence of nuclear families (those having both a father and mother present) would greatly hinder further progress toward economic and political equality.

  • 1965 - Civil Rights activist Dorothy Height wrote a column called "A Woman's Word" for the weekly African-American newspaper the New York Amsterdam News, and her first column appeared in the issue of March 20, 1965, on page 8.

  • 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.

  • 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.

  • 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.

  • The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.



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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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RESOURCES:


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#100 -   Public Domain image - Constance Motley and Randolph Rankin attending City Hall budget hearing, 1 photographic print. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1965

#101 -   Public Domain image - Mrs. Constance B. Motley, half-length portrait, facing right, 1 photographic print. | Photograph shows Mrs. Constance Baker Motley, newly elected Lady Borough President, seated at her desk signing papers. Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1965

#102 -  By Justinhoch / Justin Hoch for a Hudson Union Society event (Own work and Flickr) [CC-BY-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -  William P. Gottlieb [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By Zohar Elkayam (Madagascar 2 premiere in Israel) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public Domain image - By Ed Ford, World Telegram staff photographer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   Public Domain image - By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Dick DeMarsico, World Telegram staff photographer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Mary GarrityRestored by Adam Cuerden [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By not listed (Picture History) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Schomberg Centre for Research in Black Culture (New York Public Library Archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#108 -   Public Domain image - By Ed Ford, World Telegram staff photographer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   Public Domain image - Yoichi Okamoto [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   Public Domain image - By Bernie Ilson, Inc. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   By Jac. de Nijs / Anefo (Nationaal Archief) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   Public Domain image - See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#113 -   Public Domain image - By New York World-Telegram (LOC) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons #114 -   Public Domain image - By CBS Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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