OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER 1968:
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Words cannot express how much Martin Luther King, Jr. meant to the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. The movement began with the help of one particular First Lady who went by the name of Eleanor Roosevelt who insisted to her husband FDR to give blacks more of a say in government affairs. Thus the Black Cabinet was instituted.
The Black Cabinet was first known as the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was supported by First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt. By mid-1935, there were 45 African Americans working in federal executive departments and New Deal agencies.
This gave the early Civil Rights movement the opening we needed, because, after this momentous occasion, great bold black leaders took up the cause of equal rights for the Negro, especially A. Philip Randolph who organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly African-American labor union.
In the early Civil Rights Movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services.
In 1963, Randolph was the head of the March on Washington, which was organized by Bayard Rustin, at which King delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech. Randolph inspired the Freedom budget, sometimes called the "Randolph Freedom budget," which aimed to deal with the economic problems facing the black community.
It seems that Martin Luther King was born at the right time for the Negro, everything just fell into place for us. Martin Luther King Jr., with his uncompromising dedication to our cause and fiery deliverance of his speeches, had the power to send chills down the spine. Yes, he took the baton that was passed and excelled beyond all expectations.
Sadly, Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968 leaving a humongous void that would be hard to fill. How can we help in filling the space that has been left by his death? By living our lives to the fullest in positive achievement and helping one another.
We believe this would certainly make Martin happy if he were alive to witness it. Thank you Martin Luther King Jr. for your unwavering service to all Americans, we now honor your memory with the 1968 Hamite Award.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. photo#109
How were blacks feeling in 1968?
Goodbye Dr. King, and thank you for all you've done for our people. We won't let your legacy down. We promise to use these rights you fought for to achieve to the maximum. We will soar like the eagles! We are eternally grateful to you and your family. NOW STOP THE RIOTING PEOPLE, IT'S EVERYTHING THAT DR. KING WAS AGAINST!
President Reagan and Arthur Ashe.
Bob Gibson photo #101
Super Bowl II An NFL Coke bottle produced in 1994 as part of the "Super Bowl Series", with this one commemorating Super Bowl IIphoto #102-yr-1968
Sports in 1968
January 14, 1968 - The Green Bay Packers defeat the Oakland Raiders by the score of 33-14 in Super Bowl II.
January 21, 1968 - AFL Pro Bowl: East beats the West by a score of 25-24.
January 21, 1968 - NFL Pro Bowl: West beats the East by a score of 38-20.
February 21, 1968 - Major League Baseball announces a minimum annual salary of $10,000.
February 23, 1968 - Wilt the Stilt Chamberlain becomes the first National Basketball Association player to score 25,000 points.
March 4, 1968 - Joe Frazier knocks out Buster Mathis in 11 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
April 8, 1968 - Baseball's Opening Day is postponed because of Martin Luther King's assassination.
May 2, 1968 - The 22nd National Basketball Association Championship - Boston Celtics beat Los Angeles Lakers, 4-2.
June 24, 1968 - Joe Frazier knocks out Manuel Ramos in 2 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
June 25, 1968 - Bobby Bonds hits a grand slam in his first major league game with the San Francisco Giants.
June26, 1968 - Executive Council decides both AL and NL divided into two divisions.
July 1, 1968 - Bob Gibson's streak of 47 2/3 inn scoreless streak ends on his wild pitch.
July 5, 1968 - Philadelphia 76'ers trade Wilt the Stilt Chamberlain to the LA Lakers.
July 9, 1968 - All star MVP: Willie Mays of the San Francisco Giants.
July 14, 1968 - Braves Hank Aaron hits his 500th homerun off San Francisco Giants Mike McCormick.
August 25, 1968 - Arthur Ashe becomes the first black to win US singles championship in tennis.
September 14, 1968 - Jimmy Ellis beats Floyd Patterson in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
October 2, 1968 - Ace Bob Gibson sets a World Series record of 17 strikeouts.
October 10, 1968 - The Detroit Tigers win the 1968 World Series, defeating the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to 3.
October10, 1968 - Lee Evans of United States sets a new 400 meter record at 43.86.
October 16, 1968 - In Mexico City, African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their arms in a black power salute after winning, respectively, the gold and bronze medals in the Olympic men's 200 metres.
October 18, 1968 - Super fast Lee Evans sets a world record of 43.8 seconds in 400 meter dash.
October 26, 1968 - Up and coming George Foreman wins the gold medal for USA at Mexico Olympic games for heavyweight boxing action.
November 13, 1968 - Baseball ace Bob Gibson edges the great Pete Rose to win NL MVP.
November 26, 1968 - The 34th Heisman Trophy Award goes to O J Simpson of Southern California.
December 10, 1968 - Joe Frazier beats Oscar Bonavena in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.
Alex Johnson was the National League Comeback Player of the Year.
Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.
Curt Flood was a Gold Glove winner in National Baseball League.
President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 photo #119-yr-1968
Lyndon B. Johnson
George C Wallace (Alabama Governor)
Political Scene in 1968
1968 - Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–69), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–63). Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961, including six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. Analysis: Lyndon Baines Johnson was quite the man, probably the closest to Abraham Lincoln than anybody. When he first hooked up with John Kennedy to run for president, he was already known for his abrasive style of politics. He didn't have a problem telling you like it was. Kennedy chose him as a running mate because of Johnsons high southern support, and it would later pay off big time for the American Negro. Historians say that Johnson was more gung-ho about civil rights than Kennedy was, and wanted to push up the pace while Kennedy was content on going slow. John's brother, Robert Kennedy and LBJ hated each other, so there was a lot of animosity in the White House during those days, but they all needed each other, so they worked it out. After Kennedy was shot, LBJ quickly assumed control and one of the first things on his list were the Civil Rights bill that Kennedy had started. The southern politicians would always play games when a bill came their way they didn't like, and LBJ was very familiar with each and every one of them. He maneuvered the Civil Rights bill in a way that it reached the floor for a vote and guess what, SUCCESS! I wonder if Kennedy would have had the same success if he were alive to try? He used similar tactics with the Voting Rights Act also with success. He was a master politician. Riots would break out later in his administration with the American public turning against him. People blamed him that the blacks were rioting because of the bills he helped pass on their behalf. Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, and made the following comment:
"What did you expect? I don't know why we're so surprised. When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do? He's going to knock your block off."
President Johnson was a good president for the Negro and all other citizens. He understood without a doubt what true America stood for, and it's weird because he was from the south and once used to fight Harry Truman when he attempted to send his Civil Rights bill for a vote. People change sometimes. Thanks LBJ.
1968 - George Wallace, when sworn in as governor of Alabama, made his famous address: "segregation now; segregation tomorrow; segregation forever!" Wallace has the third longest gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U.S. history at 5,848 days. Analysis: George Wallace was quite the character. He would get folks so worked up you couldn't help but hate him. Because much of the garbage that came out of his mouth was filled with hate, or looking back was it all a show? People didn't realize it then, but he was merely telling racist Southerners what they wanted to hear, with his top priority getting elected, he didn't care how he got there. He was without a doubt a thorn in the side for many years to the Negro. He was finally cut down by an assassin's bullet that left him paralyzed. Presidential contender and Congresswoman Shirley Chilsom, while once again displaying blacks forgiving nature paid him a visit in the hospital, to the protest from other blacks. In time Wallace renounced what he had said about black people, just stating he was wrong, and he even backed up those sentiments by appointing a record number of blacks to state positions in Alabama. I think he played an important part in the Civil Rights struggle because he proved people could change.
April 11, 1968 - The Civil Rights Act of 1968 is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of strength, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone … Because of their race, color, religion, or national origin.”
June 5, 1968 - Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated.
November 1, 1968 - Shirley Chisholm is the first African Americank woman elected to the U.S. Congress.
Who is this man?
His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."
If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.
In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.
We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?
Firefighters spraying water on shops, including Beyda's, Miles Shoes, and Graysons, that were burned during the riots that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Race in 1968
February 8, 1968 - The Orangeburg Massacre refers to the shooting of protesters by South Carolina Highway Patrol Officers in Orangeburg, South Carolina. The approximately 150 protestors were demonstrating against racial segregation at a local bowling alley. Three of the protestors, African American males, were killed, and twenty-eight other demonstrators were injured.
April 4, 1968 - Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
April 6, 1968 - A shootout between Black Panthers and the Oakland police results in several arrests and deaths, including that of 16-year-old Black Panther Bobby Hutton.
June 8, 1968 - James Earl Ray was arrested for the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
July 23, 1968 - The Glenville shootout was a series of violent events which occurred in the Glenville section of Cleveland, Ohio, United States, beginning on the evening of July 23 and continuing through July 28, 1968. By the end of the conflict, seven people have killed: three law enforcement officers, three suspects, and a bystander. Fifteen others were wounded.
July 27, 1968 - There was a race riot in Gary, Indiana.
August 8, 1968 - There was a race riot in Miami, Florida
August 10, 1968 - There was a race riot in Chicago, Illinois.
August 10, 1968 - There was a race riot in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Firefighters spraying water on shops, including Beyda's, Miles Shoes, and Graysons, that were burned during the riots that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All
It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.
But within time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these different classes to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.
But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.
Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?
Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and worldly intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.
Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.
So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.
But in time things would change and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.
Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.
Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.
But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.
Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.
Is America at the crossroad?
Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.
Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.
Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and completely fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.
"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him." George Washington Williams
How did it begin?
It's a worldwide negative perception of blacks.
Well, a quick and straightforward trip back in history will get the likely answer. The Arab trade of Zanj (Bantu) slaves in Southeast Africa predated the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years but it wasn't until the Portuguese sailed to West Africa in search of gold and discovered something much more valuable, (slaves) and shared with the world what they encountered that aided in the bad rap on blacks.
During the transatlantic slave trade the African empires of Benin, Dahomey, and Yoruba were very powerful. From these kingdoms, more than from any other part of Africa were the people sold into American slavery.
These kingdoms had many districts with different tribes and clans who always fought against each other. These tribes were illiterate without a written form, passing their history to the next generation orally. They were blissfully ignorant of the world around them. As with all people of a common nature, they lived within the limits and respect of the land and were very content in doing so.
Europeans considered the Africans pagans because most tribes were involved with witchcraft, idol worship, cannibalism, superstition, female genital mutilation, and human sacrifices just to name a few of their foolish practices. Europeans thought of themselves as being illuminators to the world made in the image of God which in their minds was white and holy.
Before Christianity took place in Europe, whites believed in a different form of worship which was called mythology, but in time came to their senses with the help of a man named Thales who would later become known as the father of science. Thales was the first person in human history to dispel mythology and would usher in a new way of thinking which was based on facts which in its beginning was called Natural philosophy, and later would be called science. Science would eventually take mythology's place in the way white people believed. Goodbye Jupiter and Neptune.
Thales studied, recorded and compared facts laying the foundation for science. In time, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would go on to perfect the methods of science. Over the centuries with this wealth of new knowledge discoveries with the aid of science, you can probably imagine how this had to elevate the Europeans ego and self-worth in themselves.
Before long they would claim white superiority, and many began even to doubt the existence of a God. So by the time the Portuguese made their arrival to Africa, they were only smarter and better educated than the blacks and of course dominated as they pleased.
Africans were still living in the past in a fast changing world and were no match for the very greedy and violent Europeans. Africans had seen the last of their glory days. It's a documented fact the Africans were the beginning of human innovation. Other races would go on to copy and perfect their existing creations, scientifically.
If you study ancient history and technological achievements which were in many ways the equal of, or superior of, much that we have today, were founded and carried to a high technological proficiency by Hamitic (African) people. This is the role in history given by God to the descendants of Ham. The Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, all were Hamitic people. They were the great inventors of mankind.http://www.ldolphin.org/ntable.html
Why were the African people a no-show in technological discoveries other nations around the world were experiencing?
It wasn't because Africans weren't capable of learning. Type the key phrase into Google "African immigrants in college" you will discover the same lineage of Sub-Saharan Africans today out-perform all races in America's colleges academically. Skin color doesn't matter when it comes to learning; it was because of conditions beyond their control.
Africans couldn't share and contribute information with other nations during this period because of one humongous roadblock. The Sahara Desert. The entire continental United States would fit inside the Sahara Desert with plenty of room to spare. This desert spanned from west to east of Northern Africa and continued to grow, making it very dangerous and challenging for travel.
Sub Saharan Africans were landlocked, lost in time away from all other humanity. The Sahara Desert wasn't always a desert, but slowly grew to be that way. Cave drawings have been discovered in parts of the Sahara that actually depict the flora as green and thriving. http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/history_of_west_africa
So with Portuguese arriving in Africa with their advanced knowledge they encountered a people lost in time and because of their tribal culture and erroneous Pre-Adamic belief the Portuguese had about black people, these people were labeled ignorant wild beast, incapable of learning and the world agreed.
The Africans had a reputation as a peaceful and lovable people and were considered easy pickings by ruthless and brilliant Europeans who extended no mercy.
With their love for science, whites would constantly compare themselves with blacks. They collectively studied the Negro from the kinks in his hair, size of his brain to the jam in his toenails and declared themselves superior to this lowly ape-like creature.
They believed Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamism races and that the White race was made in the image and likeness of God and that Adam gave birth to the White race only.
They also believed and taught that blacks are not human beings but pre-Adamite beasts and could not possibly have been made in God's image and likeness because they are beastlike, immoral and ugly. Whites also claimed that the pre-Adamite races such as blacks didn't have souls. The world would be satisfied with their scientific theory they learned with the help of a blatant and racist media. Whites accepted these lies as truth and raised their kids to do the same.
Science, pre-Adamite beliefs, and the media would go on to replace common sense. According to whites, it was the destiny of these black beast to serve whites, and they believed they had God's backing. Some of the things they wrote as fact about the Negro would go on to cause many innocent deaths.
More than anything else science, pre-adamite beliefs and the racist media played an enormous role which perpetuated the negative image of blacks all over the world. The saddest part was when many blacks would believe these false teachings and felt unworthy, ugly and completely worthless as human beings and lived their lives in a useless way and the process was reinforcing these negative views.
Once in America the following comment gives insight into how whites viewed the Negro in the 1700s during colonial days.
Speaking on the duties of missionaries in converting the Negro to Christianity in 1784, Bishop Porteus published an extensive plan for the most effectual conversion of the slaves contending that
"despicable as they are in the eyes of man they are, nevertheless, the creatures of God."
When slaves first arrived in America, it wasn't quite agreed what their social status would be because it was supposed to be only temporary until white immigrants could come from other countries to take their place, but it didn't happen that way. This is when slavery slowly became associated with dark skin. Everybody jumped on the bandwagon against the lowly Negro who was considered inhuman and a savage beast.
But because it was later discovered that blacks were capable of learning, it made some bright whites change their negative view, except for white slavemasters who had a financial interest in keeping the Negro uneducated and made it a felony for anyone caught teaching them.
Real Americans soon began to realize blacks were human beings just as they were and started movements to free them from the bondage of slavery.
Writers of that day cite desirable characteristics of blacks, saying they were deeply religious, cheerful, imaginative, patient, courageous, had high physical endurance, affectionate and without vindictiveness, even though living under a brutal slavery system. They hated slavery, but always kept hope alive, waiting for their Judgement Day.
When their Judgement day arrived, how did slaves act once freed?
Imagine if you spent your entire existence depending and working from dusk to dawn for someone else and suddenly set free.
How would you do?
Who would teach you to read and write, the importance of family, morality, open a bank account, manage your money, how to distinguish between necessity and want, how to keep your house maintained, the importance of honesty in personal and business dealings, how to think big and become self-reliant with confidence and the many more life skills that's needed in society? All would agree that these are crucial life skills to master that the Negro didn't have during slavery.
Well, needless to say, many former slaves didn't measure up after freedom, wasting their lives with pleasure seeking and absolutely no ambition at all. These people gave the whole race a bad rap and continued to do so until this day.
But most wanted to learn these life skills and progress. That's why the Reconstruction schools of the 1870s were so important; it was like a halfway or transition house for the blacks into American culture. But of course we know that the U.S. government did away with Reconstruction in 1877 because of pressure from white southerners who didn't want educated blacks in America.
Our achievements have been many since then, so why does the negative image of blacks persist?
It's simple. The negative image of blacks persists around the world because of a lack of compassion and love mainly from non-black people. Even though erroneous beliefs of science and pre-Adamic theories happened centuries ago, hard habits are hard to break. It's entrenched in the hearts of many.
That's really sad, but as American citizens today, how are blacks doing?
Well under the circumstances blacks are doing a fantastic job, and it's a wonder we are still around. We as African-Americans are honing our life skills with increasing precision without the same network or support groups that other races enjoy. We are a unique type of people that don't have a reference point but must learn as we go.
Quite frankly, we are true Americans who continue to accomplish our goals non-violently and completely understand what the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence stands for. Would other races been able to do the same? We are love, always have been and always will be.
Historically, after being raped, tortured, lynched and murdered with perpetrators enjoying total impunity, the usual reply of blacks were these words, "I forgive you." Even though made out to be the violent savage beast, blacks seldom retaliated. It's true, check your history books. We live for today and as Americans realizing we have this excellent opportunity to excel and soar like the eagles, and we will!
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)
George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)
The Season 5 1970-1971 cast from left: Leonard Nimoy, Greg Morris, Lesley Ann Warren, Peter Lupus, and Peter Graves photo #102-yr-1966
Movies in America
Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston
- photo #104-yr-1968
Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad photo #110-yr-1968
Otis Young as Jernal David from the short-lived television program The Outcasts. The show is significant in that it was the first Western television program to feature an African-American co-star (Young). photo #111
Pearl Mae Bailey - photo#100-yr-1918 -
Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr. from the television program The Hollywood Palace. photo #104-yr-1964
Gail Fisher as Peggy Fair and Mark Stewart as her son, Toby, from the television program Mannix. photo #113-yr-1968
Eartha Kitt as Catwoman in Batman photo #106-yr-1967
Night of the Living Dead photo #122-yr-1968
The zombies swarm around the house, searching for living human flesh. photo #123-yr-1968
Actor Duane Jones in a scene from the movie Night of the Living Dead
Television / Movies in 1968
For Love of Ivy - Daniel Mann Sidney Poitier, Abbey Lincoln, Beau Bridges Romantic comedy
The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter - Robert Ellis Miller Alan Arkin, Chuck McCann, Sondra Locke, Cicely Tyson
Monterey Pop - D. A. Pennebaker Jimi Hendrix, Otis Redding, Simon & Garfunkel, The Mamas & the Papas, Jefferson Airplane, The Who Documentary
The Scalphunters - Sydney Pollack Burt Lancaster, Ossie Davis, Telly Savalas
The Split - Gordon Flemyng Jim Brown, Diahann Carroll, Jack Klugman, Gene Hackman
Wild in the Streets - Barry Shear Christopher Jones, Shelley Winters, Richard Pryor, Hal Holbrook
Night of the Living Dead - is a 1968 American independent zombie film directed by George A. Romero, starring Duane Jones, Judith O'Dea, and Karl Hardman. It premiered on October 1, 1968, and was completed on a $114,000 budget.
Trivia: The lead role of Ben was played by unknown stage actor Duane Jones. His performance depicted Ben as a "comparatively calm and resourceful Negro" (in real life, a distinguished gentleman, and former university professor), according to a movie reviewer in 1969. Casting Jones as the hero was, in 1968, potentially controversial. At the time, it was not typical for a black man to be the hero of a U.S. film when the rest of the cast was composed of white actors; but Romero said that Jones "simply gave the best audition." After Night of the Living Dead, he was in a few other films and continued as a theater actor and director until his death in 1988. Despite his other film roles, Jones worried that people only recognized him as Ben. It felt good to see a black man take control; he inspired many blacks winning the lead role in this movie.
Uncle Tom's Fairy Tales - Richard Pryor (The Movie for Homosexuals)
Pearl Mae Bailey American actress and singer won a Tony Award for the title role in the all-black production of Hello, Dolly! in 1968.
The Mod Squad which aired from 1968-1973 was a show we wouldn't dare to miss. It felt good to see a fresh black character such as an undercover cop, Linc Hayes taking care of business. It was also kind of cool the way Julie (Peggy Lipton) and Pete (Michael Cole) included him in all of their adventures. It made us feel like maybe one-day racism would be stamped out and we could all work and live together peacefully because of this show.
The Outcasts appeared on ABC in the 1968-69 season. The series stars Don Murray and Otis Young. It is most notable for being the first television Western with an African American co-star.
The Hollywood Palace was an hour-long American television variety show that was broadcast weekly (generally on Saturday nights) on ABC from January 4, 1964, to February 7, 1970. The series used a different host each week.
Mannix was an American television detective series that ran from 1967 to 1975 on CBS. Gail Fisher
was best known for playing the role of the secretary "Peggy Fair" on the television detective series, a role for which she won two Golden Globe Awards and an Emmy Award.
Mission: Impossible series aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973. It chronicles the missions of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force (IMF). Barnard "Barney" Collier (Greg Morris), a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics was a true inspiration to blacks back in the 70s, finally a black man that used his brains in a television role.
In the late 1960s, Batman featured Eartha Kitt as Catwoman after Julie Newmar had left the role.
Actor Duane Jones as Ben gives actress Judith O'Dea, playing Barbra, her slippers in a scene from the movie Night of the Living Dead photo #125-yr-1968
Famous African American Quotes
Gail Fisher - actress on Mannix television show 1967 - 1975
"Certain people who had no knowledge of blacks have maybe -- maybe -- learned something because of Mannix's Peggy Fair. Blacks were pretty much alien objects on TV as recently as 10 years ago, you know, and now we're people. I think maybe before it's all over, it's going to be all right, and I'm proud I'm a part of that."
Gary Coleman photo #105-yr-1968
LL Cool J
Halle Berry photo #106
Famous Birthdays in 1968
January 2, 1968 - Chris Spencer is an American actor, comedian, writer, and producer.
January 2, 1968 - Cuba Gooding Jr., actor
January 6, 1968 - John Singleton, director and writer
January 11, 1968 - Cougnut, rapper
January 13, 1968 – Traci Bingham, actress
January 14, 1968 – LL Cool J, African-American rapper/actor
January 26, 1968 - Eric Davis, NFL cornerback
January 28, 1968 - Rakim, singer
February 8, 1968 - Gary Coleman, actor
March 17, 1968 - Mathew St. Patrick is an American actor best known for his portrayal of Keith Charles on the HBO drama television series Six Feet Under.
April 7, 1968 - Bill Bellamy, actor
April 8, 1968 - Stretch, rapper and producer
April 10, 1968 - Orlando Jones is an American comedian and film and television actor.
May 16, 1968 - Ralph Tresvant, singer
May 27, 1968 - Frank Thomas, baseball player
June 2, 1968- Beetlejuice, a member of Stern's Wack Pack
June 4, 1968 - Al B. Sure, R&B singer
June 14, 1968 - Faizon Love is an American actor and comedian. He is best known for roles in the films Friday, Elf, The Replacements, Made, and Couples Retreat.
June 18, 1968 - Jeffrey D. Sams is an American actor.
June 26, 1968 - Shannon Sharpe, retired football player/commentator
July 7, 1968 - Allen Payne is an American film and television actor, best known for his role as C.J. Payne on Tyler Perry's House of Payne television series.
July 23, 1968 - Gary Payton, basketball player
July 15, 1968 - Eddie Griffin is an American actor and comedian.
July 16, 1968- Barry Sanders, football player
July 18, 1968 - Andre Royo is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Reginald "Bubbles" Cousins on the HBO crime-drama television series The Wire.
July 29, 1968 - Rodney Allen Rippy is a former American child actor. He appeared in TV commercials for the fast-food chain Jack in the Box in the early 1970s, as well as in numerous roles in television and movies.
July 30, 1968 - Terry Crews is an American actor and former American football player.
August 4, 1968 - Lexie Darnell Bigham, Jr., film and television actor
August 5, 1968 - Funkmaster Flex,hip hop DJ
August 7, 1968 -Big Mello, rapper from Houston, Texas
August 14, 1968 - Halle Berry, actress
August 23, 1968 - Cortez Kennedy, NFL defensive tackle
September 4, 1968 - Phill Lewis is an American actor, director and comedian.
September 10, 1968 - Big Daddy Kane, hip-hop artist
September 14 1968 - Corey Holcomb is an American stand-up comedian, radio host, and actor.
September 17, 1968 - Lord Jamar is an American rapper and actor. He is a member of the hip-hop group Brand Nubian, which formed in 1989.
September 25, 1968 - Will Smith is an American actor, producer, and rapper. He has enjoyed success in television, film, and music.
October 9, 1968 - Troy Davis, death row inmate
October 13, 1968 - Tisha Campbell, actress
October 25, 1968 - Speech, rapper and musician
November 10, 1968 - Tracy Morgan is an American actor and comedian best known for his eight seasons as a cast member on Saturday Night Live.
November 11, 1968 - Lavell Crawford is an American stand-up comedian and actor from St. Louis, Missouri and is known for playing Huell in Breaking Bad.
November 15, 1968 - Ol' Dirty Bastard, rapper
November 21, 1968 - Antonio Tarver, light heavyweight boxer
December 3, 1968 - Montell Jordan, singer
1968 - muMs the Schemer is an American poet and actor.
John Matthew Shippen photo #111-yr-1896
Famous Deaths in 1968
February 27, 1968 - Ex-Teenagers singer Frankie Lymon is found dead from a heroin overdose in Harlem.
April 4, 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr. is shot dead at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Riots erupt in major American cities, lasting for several days afterwards.
May 9, 1968 - Arthur Wergs Mitchell, U.S. Representative from Illinois.
May 20, 1968 - John Matthew Shippen, Jr. was an African American/Native American golfer who competed in the several early U.S. Opens.
June 5, 1968 - Senator Robert Kennedy is assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles.
June 15, 1968 - Wes Montgomery, jazz guitarist, dies of a heart attack at 48 years old.
September 23, 1968 - Dudley Dickerson was an African American film actor. Born in Oklahoma, he appeared in nearly 160 films between 1932 and 1952, and is best remembered for his roles in several Three Stooges films.
1968 – John Campbell Dancy, Jr. African American social worker.
1968 – Charles "Luckeyth" Roberts was an accomplished pianist and composer.
Famous Weddings in 1968
July 8, 1968 - MLB baseball player Reggie Jackson marries Jennie Campos
September 30, 1968 - Jazz great Miles Davis marries singer Betty Mabry
October 17, 1968 - Jazz trumpeter Quincy Jones Jr. marries actress Ulla Andersson
November 30, 1968 - Rebbie Jackson marries Nathaniel Brown.
1968 - James Earl Jones marries Julienne Marie.
1968 - Gregory Hines marries Patricia Panella.
1968 - Herbie Hancock marries Gudrun Mexines.
1968 - Actress, singer and voice artist Nichelle Nichols marries Duke Mondy.
1968 - Newscaster Louis Lomax marries Robinette Kirk.
Famous Divorces in 1968
December 19, 1968 - May Britt and Sammy Davis, Jr. were divorced.
The Originals - Clockwise from left: C.P. Spencer, Hank Dixon, Walter Gaines and Freddie Gorman photo #112-yr-1968
Gladys Knight and the Pips
Marvin Gaye photo #108-yr-1968
Music in 1968
Billboard Soul Hits:
January 6 "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" Gladys Knight & the Pips
January 13, 1968 - "I Second That Emotion" Smokey Robinson & the Miracles
January 20, 1968 - "Chain of Fools" Aretha Franklin
February 17, 1968 - "I Wish It Would Rain" The Temptations
March 9, 1968 - "We're a Winner" The Impressions
March 16, 1968 - "(Sittin' on) the Dock of the Bay" Otis Redding
April 6, 1968 - "(Sweet Sweet Baby) Since You've Been Gone" Aretha Franklin
April 27, 1968 - "I Got the Feelin'" James Brown
May 11, 1968 - "Cowboys to Girls" The Intruders
May 17, 1968 - "Tighten Up" Archie Bell & the Drells
June 1, 1968 - "Shoo-Be-Doo-Be-Doo-Da-Day" Stevie Wonder
June 8, 1968 - "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell
June 15, 1968 - "Think" Aretha Franklin
July 6, 1968 - "I Could Never Love Another (After Loving You)" The Temptations
July 13, 1968 - "Grazing in the Grass" Hugh Masekela
August 10, 1968 - "Stay in My Corner" The Dells
August 31, 1968 - "You're All I Need to Get By" Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell
October 5, 1968 - "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud (Part 1)" James Brown
November 16, 1968 - "Hey, Western Union Man" Jerry Butler
November 23, 1968 - "Who's Making Love" Johnnie Taylor
December 14, 1968 - "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" Marvin Gaye
Popular Soul Dances:
The Temptation Walk
The Tighten Up
The African Twist
The LA Stomp
The Chicago Walk
The Hully Gully
The Camel Walk
The Hitch Hike
The Cool Jerk
The Hand Jive
Musical Happenings in 1968:
January 4 – Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding.
February 12 – Jimi Hendrix is given an honorary high school diploma from Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington. Hendrix is also given the key to the city.
February 22 – Florence Ballard of the Supremes is released from her contract with Motown.
April 4 – James Brown appears on national television, in an attempt to calm feelings of anger in the United States following the assassination of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
April 7 – Singer/pianist/songwriter Nina Simone's performance at Westbury Music Fair is dedicated to the late Dr Martin Luther King, Jr.
June 20 – David Ruffin is fired from The Temptations.
November 17 – Diana Ross & the Supremes replace The Beatles' hugely successful "Hey Jude" at number-one in the U.S. with "Love Child"; these two groups battled back and forth during the 1960s.
Martha Reeves & the Vandellas make their debut at the Copacabana in New York City, winning a rave review in the New York Times. The engagement was recorded but remains in the Motown vaults
Jimi Hendrix's manager Chas Chandler quits over differences with Hendrix during the recording of Electric Ladyland.
Aretha Franklin records her live LP Aretha In Paris at the Olympia Theater.
Blues artist Little Willie John dies in prison after being convicted of manslaughter.
TCB airs on NBC starring Diana Ross & the Supremes and The Temptations becoming the first variety special in America to feature an exclusively African American cast.
The Originals often called "Motown's best-kept secret", were a successful Motown R&B and soul group during the late 1960s and the 1970s, most notable for the hits "Baby I'm for Real", "The Bells" and the disco classic "Down to Love Town". Formed in 1966, the group originally consisted of bass singer Freddie Gorman, baritone (and the group's founder) Walter Gaines, and tenors C. P. Spencer and Hank Dixon (and briefly Joe Stubbs). Ty Hunter replaced Spencer when he left to go solo in the early 1970s.
Richard M. Graham becomes the first African American on the faculty at the University of Georgia after he is made an assistant professor of music.
The National Black Theater in Harlem begins producing works using African and Caribbean-derived dance, music and ritual elements
Aretha Franklin is featured on the cover of Time magazine, along with a lengthy article entitled "Lady Soul Singing It Like It Is"; a year later, Billboard magazine will begin using the term soul in place of "rhythm and blues." These two events constitute the beginning of the media's acceptance of the term soul.
The Black Artists Group is formed in St. Louis, Missouri, featuring Charles "Bobo" Shaw, Julius Hemphill, Hamiet Bluiett and Oliver Lake, leading to that city's rise in prominence in the field of jazz.
Marcus Thompson becomes the first African American with a "notable career" as a violist.
A festival is held in New Orleans, as part of the city's 250th celebration. The festival will take place every year, eventually becoming the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival, one of the premier jazz festivals in the country.
Albums Released in 1968:
Lady Soul - Aretha Franklin
Om - John Coltrane
The Dock of the Bay - Otis Redding
Nefertiti - Miles Davis
Dance to the Music - Sly & the Family Stone
The Temptations Wish It Would Rain - The Temptations
La La Means I Love You - The Delfonics
Aretha Now - Aretha Franklin
The Immortal Otis Redding - Otis Redding
Miles in the Sky - Miles Davis
Tell Mama - Etta James
Diana Ross & the Supremes Sing and Perform "Funny Girl" Diana Ross & the Supremes
In the Groove - Marvin Gaye
Live at the Apollo, Volume II James Brown
You're All I Need - Marvin Gaye & Tammi Terrell
Life - Sly & the Family Stone
Aretha In Paris - Aretha Franklin
Electric Ladyland The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Diana Ross & the Supremes Join the Temptations Diana Ross & the Supremes & The Temptations
Love Child - Diana Ross & the Supremes
Eivets Rednow - Stevie Wonder
For Once in My Life - Stevie Wonder
The Natch'l Blues - Taj Mahal
Blues on Top of Blues – B. B. King
Dionne Warwick in Valley of the Dolls – Dionne Warwick
From St. Louie to Frisco – Chuck Berry
Here Comes The Judge – Frederick Earl "Shorty" Long
I Can't Stop Dancing – Archie Bell & The Drells
I Got the Feelin – James Brown
The Midnight Mover – Wilson Pickett
NBC-TV Special:TCB Soundtrack – Diana Ross & The Supremes with The Temptations
'Nuff Said! – Nina Simone
Otis Redding Live at the Whiskey A Go Go – Otis Redding
Soul Master – Edwin Starr
Soulful Christmas – James Brown
Speak Like a Child – Herbie Hancock
Special Occasion – Smokey Robinson & The Miracles
Stoned Soul Picnic – The 5th Dimension
Taj Mahal – Taj Mahal
There Is – The Dells
30 by Ella – Ella Fitzgerald
Tighten Up – Archie Bell & The Drells
Grammy winners in 1968:
The 10th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 29, 1968 at Chicago, Los Angeles, Nashville and New York. They recognized accomplishments of musicians for the year 1967.
Song of the Year Jimmy L. Webb (songwriter) for "Up, Up and Away" performed by The 5th Dimension
Best Comedy Performance - Bill Cosby for Revenge
Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Small Group or Soloist With Small Group
Cannonball Adderley Mercy, Mercy, Mercy performed by the Cannonball Adderley Quintet
Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Large Group or Soloist with Large Group
Duke Ellington for "Far East Suite"
Best Performance by a Vocal Group The 5th Dimension for "Up, Up and Away"
Best Contemporary Group Performance (Vocal or Instrumental) The 5th Dimension for "Up, Up and Away"
Best R&B Solo Vocal Performance, Female Aretha Franklin for "Respect"
Best R&B Solo Vocal Performance, Male Lou Rawls for "Dead End Street"
Best Rhythm & Blues Group Performance, Vocal or Instrumental Sam & Dave for "Soul Man"
Best Rhythm & Blues Recording Aretha Franklin for "Respect"
Afro hairstyle of the 60s/70s -
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California in the 60s
1960s Girls Fashions
360 Waves hairstyle
American jazz violinist Eddie South with a conk hairdo. photo #104-yr-1920
Fashions in 1968
Long Maxi Coats
Tie Dye T-shirts
Men & Women Hairstyles:
The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.
Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.
Curtis Mayfield Were A Winner
Demonstrators participating in the Poor People's March at Lafayette Park and on Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C.
United States Census for African Americans in the 1960s
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms photo #107-yr-1960
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Tommie Smith and John Carlos Three Proud People mural in Newtown
Our Community in 1968
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
March 4th, 1968 - The Poor People’s Campaign was motivated by a desire for economic justice: the idea that all people should have what they need to live. The Poor People’s Campaign was a multiracial effort—including African-Americans, whites, Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Native Americans—aimed at alleviating poverty regardless of race.
March 15, 1968 - LIFE magazine calls the great Jimi Hendrix "most spectacular guitarist in the world".
Apr 9, 1968 - Ralph Aberbathy is elected to head the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
July 15, 1968 - Get your gossip on ladies (and some men too) "One Life to Live" premieres on TV in 1968.
August 21, 1968 - The Medal of Honor is posthumously awarded to James Anderson, Jr., the first African American United States Marine to be awarded the Medal of Honor.
October 16, 1968 - The 1968 Olympics Black Power salute was an act of protest by the African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos during their medal ceremony at the 1968 Summer Olympics in the Olympic Stadium in Mexico City.
1968 - American poet and teacher Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks was appointed Poet Laureate of Illinois in 1968, a position she held until her death.
1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.
1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, strange symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.
1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.
The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.
The first Big Mac goes on sale in McDonalds costing 49 cents
The Emergency 911 telephone service started
34 cents for a gallon for gas
Average monthly rent was $130.00
A new car average cost was $2,822.00
Average cost of new house was $14,950.00
Average income per year $7,850.00
A movie ticket would cost you $1.50
The minimum wage was $1.60 in 1968
North Vietnam and Viet Cong troops launch the Tet offensive
Boeing 747 made its maiden flight
The Zodiac serial murderer begins his reign of terror in California
#103 - Public Domain image - Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. U.S. News & World Report Magazine Collection.
#104 - Public Domain image - Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. [Actors Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston., 08/28/1963, DescriptionPoitier Belafonte Heston Civil Rights March 1963.jpg Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Actors Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte, and Charlton Heston.], 08/28/1963
#105 - By GaryColemanE3May05.jpg: Daniel McConnell at http://www.flickr.com/photos/trojandan/derivative work: Off2riorob (GaryColemanE3May05.jpg) CC-BY-SA-2.0, via Wikimedia Commons
#107 - Public Domain image - Aretha Franklin - Billboard, page 9, 15 July 1967
#108 - Public Domain image - Marvin Gaye - Billboard, page 1, 27 April 1974
#109 - Public Domain image - Martin Luther King Jr. - Billboard, page 1, 27 April 1974
#110 - Public Domain image - By ABC Television-part of the release is gone but a portion of the ABC New York Avenue of the Americas address remains. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#111 - Public Domain image - By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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