blast from the past

blast from the past
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  Blast From The Past:
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annual hamite award

Wynonie Harris
    Wynonie Harris born in Omaha, Nebraska, was an American blues shouter and rhythm and blues singer of upbeat songs, featuring humorous, often ribald lyrics. With fifteen Top 10 hits between 1946 and 1952, Harris is considered one of rock and roll's forerunners, influencing Elvis Presley among others.

    In 1935 Harris, age 20, started dating 16-year-old Olive E. Goodlow (Ollie) of neighboring Council Bluffs, Iowa, who came to Omaha to watch him perform. On May 20, 1936, Ollie gave birth to daughter Pattie. On December 11, 1936, they married. Later they lived in the Logan Fontenelle projects in North Omaha. Ollie worked as a barmaid and nurse; Wynonie sang in clubs as well as taking on some odd jobs. Wynonie's mother, Mallie Harris, was Pattie's main caretaker. In 1940, Wynonie and Ollie Harris moved to Los Angeles, California, leaving Pattie with Mallie in Omaha.

    With dance partner Velda Shannon, Harris formed a dance team in the early 1930s. The team performed around North Omaha's flourishing entertainment community, and by 1934 they were a regular attraction at the Ritz Theatre. It was not until 1935, however, that Harris was able to earn his living as an entertainer. While performing at Jim Bell's new Harlem nightclub with Velda Shannon, Harris began to sing the blues.

    He also began frequently traveling to Kansas City, where he paid close attention to the blues shouters including Jimmy Rushing and Big Joe Turner. Harris became a local celebrity in Omaha during the depths of the Great Depression in 1935. Harris' break in Los Angeles was at a nightclub owned by Curtis Mosby. It was here that Harris became known as "Mr. Blues".

    Due to the 1942-44 musicians' strike, Harris was unable to pursue a recording career. Instead, he relied on personal appearances. Performing almost continuously, in late 1943 he appeared at the Rhumboogie Club in Chicago. Harris was spotted by Lucky Millinder who asked him to join his band's tour. Harris joined on March 24, 1944, while the band was in the middle of a week-long residency at the Regal in Chicago. They moved on to New York City, where on April 7 Harris took the stage with Millinder's band for his debut at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem. It was during this performance that Harris first publicly performed"Who Threw the Whiskey in the Well."br>
    After the band's stint at the Apollo, they moved on to their regular residency at the Savoy Ballroom, also in Harlem. Here, Preston Love, Harris' childhood friend, joined Millinder's band replacing alto saxophonist Tab Smith. On May 26, 1944, Harris made his recording debut with Lucky Millinder and His Orchestra.

    Harris' success and popularity grew as Millinder's band toured the country. He and Millinder had a falling out over money. In September 1945 while playing in San Antonio, Texas, Harris quit Millinder's band. Three weeks later, upon hearing of Harris' separation from the group, a Houston promoter refused to allow Millinder's band to perform. Millinder called Harris and agreed to pay Harris' asking price of one-hundred dollars a night. The promoter re-instated the date, but it was the final time Harris and Milliner worked together. Bull Moose Jackson replaced Harris as the vocalist in the band.

    In April 1945, a year after the song was recorded, Decca released "Who Threw the Whiskey in the Well." It became the group's biggest hit; it went to number one on the Billboard R&B chart on July 14 and stayed there for eight weeks. The song remained on the charts for almost five months, also becoming popular with white audiences, an unusual feat for black musicians of that era.

    Harris went on to record sessions for many labels, including Apollo, Bullet, and Aladdin. His greatest success came when he signed for Syd Nathan's King label, where he enjoyed a series of hits on the U.S. R&B chart in the late 1940s and early 1950s. These included a 1948 cover of Roy Brown's "Good Rocking Tonight," "Good Morning Judge" and "All She Wants to Do Is Rock." In 1946, Harris recorded two singles with pianist Herman "Sonny" Blount, who later earned fame as the eclectic jazz composer and bandleader Sun Ra.

    Harris transitioned between several recording contracts between 1954 and 1964. In 1960 he cut six sides for Roulette Records that included a remake of his hit "Bloodshot Eyes" as well as "Sweet Lucy Brown," "Spread the News," "Saturday Night," "Josephine" and "Did You Get the Message." He also became more indebted and was forced to live in less glamorous surroundings.

    In 1964 Harris resettled for the last time in Los Angeles. His final recordings were three sides which he did for the Chess Records label (in Chicago) in 1964: "The Comeback," "Buzzard Luck" and "Conjured." His final large-scale performance was at the Apollo, New York in November 1967, where he performed with Big Joe Turner, Big Mama Thornton, Jimmy Witherspoon and T-Bone Walker.

    We chose Wynonie Harris for our 1969 Hamite Award winner because as strange as it sounds there were hardly any mention of racism in his biography, something that sets him apart from the many other blacks who faced daily discrimination.Isn't it wonderful to be able to succeed on your own merits and not worry about those racist dream busters?

    On June 14, 1969, aged 53, Harris died of esophageal cancer at the USC Medical Center Hospital in Los Angeles.

 Wynonie Harris
Wynonie Harris
photo #111-yr-1948

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How were blacks feeling in 1969?
happy mood of blacks

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african american first

 For the year 1969:
  • Moneta J. Sleet, Jr. was the first African-American man to win the Pulitzer, and the first African American to win award for journalism.

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blacks and basketball

Curt  Flood
Curt Flood
photo #102-yr-1938

Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
photo #106-yr-1921

Donn Alvin Clendenon
Donn Alvin Clendenon
photo #106-yr-1935

Charles Luther Sifford
Charles Luther Sifford
photo #107-yr-1922

Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
photo #105-yr-1969

     Sports in 1969
  • April 22, 1969 - Fighter Joe Frazier knocks out Dave Zyglewick in the first round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • June 23, 1969 - Sluggers Joe Frazier knocks out Jerry Quarry in 8 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • July 24, 1969 - Boxer Muhammad Ali is convicted for refusing induction in United States Army on his appeal.

  • September 22, 1969 - San Francisco Giant Willie Mays becomes the second player in baseball history to hit 600 home runs.

  • 1969 - Roy Campanella "Campy" was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1969.

  • 1969 - In the 1969 World Series, New York Mets' Donn Clendenon named World Series MVP.

  • 1969 - Curt Flood was a Gold Glove winner in National League Baseball.

  • 1969 - Charles Luther Sifford won the Los Angeles Open in 1969.

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education and hate

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blacks and education

     Education in 1969
  • October 29, 1969 - Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ordered immediate desegregation of public schools in the American South. It followed 15 years of delays to integrate by most Southern school boards after the Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregated public schools were unconstitutional. Analysis: These racist anti-americans are fighting to the bitter end.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans, who were Americans, on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21; Aldrin joined him about 20 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft and collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth.

Analysis: In 1969 if you were a white American during this period you were very proud of your country of achieving such a remarkable feat. On the other hand, if you were Black, Mexican, Chinese, Japanese or any other minority you probably marveled at this accomplishment but had to feel left out by not seeing people who looked like you participating and contributing to the NASA program. A bittersweet feeling that many whites wouldn't care to understand. But what makes America unique is it attempts to change and progress over time with issues of humanity where all are satisfied and happy and not just a privileged few.

On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Charles Frank Bolden, Jr. as NASA Administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the Senate on July 15, 2009. He is the first African-American to head the agency on a permanent basis. Now that's what I call progress for all Americans!

Charles Frank Bolden
Charles Frank Bolden, Jr.

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ballot box

Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
photo #106-yr-1969

Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson

Famous words of LBJ were “Do it now. Not next week. Not tomorrow. Not later today. Now.” His record speaks for itself on how he felt about ALL Americans sharing in the American dream. The Voting Rights Act, first black Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, first black cabinet officer Robert Weaver, first black member of the Federal Reserve Board Andrew Brimmer. He felt that if the private sector witnessed successful blacks in authority, this would open the door for others. Martin Luther King, Jr. once told Johnson, “You have created a second emancipation.” The President replied, “The real hero is the American Negro.” President Johnson may have had negative personal feelings against the black person according to some reports, similar to Abraham Lincoln, but what made him a great President has he put those personal feelings on the back burner and America's interest first.
photo #115-yr-1963

Howard N. Lee
Howard N. Lee
photo #104-yr-1969

     Political Scene in 1969
  • 1969 - Richard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when becaue of the Watergate scandal became the only U.S. president to resign the office. Nixon had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Note: This website has judged the performance of every U.S. president in regards to the Civil Rights of African Americans. We started in the year 1863 with Abraham Lincoln all the way to 1969 with the out-going president Lyndon Baines Johnson.

    It's weird because these two men shared many of the same American qualities.

    The 50s-60s marked the beginning of a new era for blacks with victories (FINALLY) in the Supreme Courts for African American citizens.( Which is all the Negro ever wanted, was a level playing field) Sadly many of our fellow Americans were participants in illegal activities with Jim Crow laws throughout our great nation, and most ignored and disobeyed the law of the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence in regards to the citizenship rights of the Negro for their own advancement and enjoyment of American success. With each US president, this website always thought positive and hoped for the best that we would find one leader who would exercise his duties as Commander in Chief in enforcing our rights. We were looking for a courageous and brave person to set the moral tone of our great nation for all Americans, because like it or not we are all in this together. Now with our successes with Civil Rights and with blacks being so far behind socially, educationally and mentally, will a new movement be started to lift ourselves up? We have the level playing field now, and we can see the goal line, but there are still small lumps along the way that must be worked out in the courts. How will the black community stand up to this challenge? Each president was rated at the end of his term from 1863 to the year 1969 on how he performed which you will find on this site.

  • 1969 - Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–69), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–63). Johnson, a Democrat from Texas, served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961, including six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader and two as Senate Majority Whip. Analysis: Lyndon Baines Johnson was quite the man, probably the closest to Abraham Lincoln than anybody. When he first hooked up with John Kennedy to run for president, he was already known for his abrasive style of politics. He didn't have a problem telling you like it was. Kennedy chose him as a running mate because of Johnsons high southern support, and it would later pay off big time for the American Negro. Historians say that Johnson was more gung-ho about civil rights than Kennedy was, and wanted to push up the pace while Kennedy was content on going slow. John's brother, Robert Kennedy and LBJ hated each other, so there was a lot of animosity in the White House during those days, but they all needed each other, so they worked it out. After Kennedy was shot, LBJ quickly assumed control and one of the first things on his list were the Civil Rights bill that Kennedy had started. The southern politicians would always play games when a bill came their way they didn't like, and LBJ was very familiar with each and every one of them. He maneuvered the Civil Rights bill in a way that it reached the floor for a vote and guess what, SUCCESS! I wonder if Kennedy would have had the same success if he were alive to try? He used similar tactics with the Voting Rights Act also with success. He was a master politician. Riots would break out later in his administration with the American public turning against him. People blamed him that the blacks were rioting because of the bills he helped pass on their behalf. Johnson was unsurprised by the riots, and made the following comment:

    "What did you expect? I don't know why we're so surprised. When you put your foot on a man's neck and hold him down for three hundred years, and then you let him up, what's he going to do? He's going to knock your block off."

    President Johnson was a good president for the Negro and all other citizens. He understood without a doubt what true America stood for, and it's weird because he was from the south and once used to fight Harry Truman when he attempted to send his Civil Rights bill for a vote. People change sometimes. Thanks LBJ.

  • January 3, 1969 - Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr. is seated by the United States Congress.

  • June 16, 1969 - Representative Adam Clayton Powell Jr. is suspended from house by the Surpreme Court.

  • April 17, 1969 - Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Sen Robert F Kennedy.

  • 1969 - Howard N. Lee becomes the first African American mayor of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. At the time he is the first African American mayor of a predominately white Southern city.

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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up

For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.

Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans

Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans

Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool

By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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presidents rating guide
filler presidents rating guide
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.

The Declaration in part states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.

But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.

The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.

filler greedy green monster
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so

 Presidential Ratings

Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.

Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.

Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.

During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.

What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?


Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.

But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.

What was the result?

After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.

The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.

There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?

We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents would have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course it would.

abe lincoln Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for. happy former slave
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution. sad former slave
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution. happy former slave
Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes was an opportunist and sold out the Negro big time with the 1877 Compromise. He didn't understand what his country stood for. sad former slave
James A Garfield James A Garfield was a strong defender of Civil Rights, and wanted the Negro to progress through education. Sadly he didn't get a chance to fufill his intentions because he was assassinated, but we give him the benefit of the doubt. We believe he understood the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Chester Arthur Chester Arthur wasn't really ever concerned with the negro issue. but he didn't make this humongous Negro problems his priority but chose to ignore it and pass it on to the next admin. He did not understand the principles of the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland actually sided with the white terrorist in the Chinese race riots and felt it was the Chinese fault. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, he only believed in it as far as it would benefit him, just like typical America. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans' civil rights. Nice words he had for blacks but in all honesty, we need something more concrete to hold on too. But we believe that this president understood the principles of the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland second term wasn't any better than the first. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, and was a no-show for the American Negro. sad former slave
William McKinley William McKinley didn't care much for the Civil Rights of Negroes. he failed to enforce the Constitution, because there were many abuses nationwide and he didn't act. He didn't understand or just didn't care. sad former slave
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt glazed over the Negroes problems with beautiful speeches, but no action. I was pulling for this president to be fair, mainly because he was loved by many in his day, blacks included, but history shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. Sorry Teddy. sad former slave
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft wasn't in touch with the humongous Negro problem that was left festering since the emancipation. History shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson was a typical no-show as president for the Negro poplualtion. He instigated segregation in U.S. If you're claiming to the world as being a great democracy and not living up to that boast at home is a falsehood. sad former slave
Warren G. Harding Warren G. Harding same old story. He spoke of the development of Negro, just didnt make it a priority and nothing was accomplished. Good intentions won't make a plant grow, you have to water it. The negro had hopes in this president, but another no-show. sad former slave
Calvin Coolidge  Calvin Coolidge didn't talk much but made wonderful speeches that had impact and just what the lowly Negro wanted to hear, but that's as far as it went. A true America is more than just hollow words, Abe Lincoln understood that. Why can't others? sad former slave
Herbert C. Hoover   Herbert C. Hoover rarely talked about civil rights during his administration. Blacks had to make do the best way they could. He was a very weak president for the Negro, as far as getting our civil rights restored and enforced as stated in the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt had the best first lady ever, and we think without her the Negro would have suffered more. Everybody loved FDR. He was a courageous president in world events who started the talk for Human Rights which will soon force America to face it's moral injustices. sad former slave
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman wanted to make the Negro issues a moral priority. He witnessed blacks fighting and dying in the wars and had much respect. Harry Truman & former first lady (Eleanor) got the ball rolling for blacks with our Civil Rights. Thanks Eleanor & Harry! happy former slave
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower agressively ended segregation in Armed Forces. The Navy complained and he made the comment "We shall not take a single backward step. There must be no second class citizens in this country" This site believes it was motivated by Communism. happy former slave
 John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy avoided Civil Rights issue. He made call to King while in jail to win black support for his presidency and then forgot blacks. His brother Robert made comment to keep his brother out of civil rights mess. King made good comment about him is why he gets happy face. happy former slave
 Lyndon Baines Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson was loved by this website for his abiding by the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence. Didn't like his use of the N-word so much though. Well, can't have everything. Thanks LBJ, RIP happy former slave

Whew! what a horrible journey. People aren't very civilized and downright barbarian in most cases. By studying each and every year of American history, this website was better able to draw an honest appraisal what happened in regards to blacks and their Civil Rights in America since emancipation.

Our journey began with Abraham Lincoln. He was one of the best Presidents for blacks. Abraham was just as prejudiced as the next white man of his day and wouldn't have blacks over to his house socially feeling they weren't equal to whites.

But do you know what made him great and set him apart from other Presidents in America?

It was because even though Abraham Lincoln had negative views of former slaves of that day, he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his duties as President of our country which meant obeying and enforcing the US Constitution and setting an example for the principles of the Declaration Of Independence. He gave his life for real American ideals. In other words, he wasn't a phony like Presidents after him. He really believed in America.

This is what makes him a superior President to others because not one single President after him with the exception of Lyndon Baines Johnson (who was kinda forced to help blacks with Civil Rights) would practice the same ideals. Some of the Presidents after Lincoln would attempt to help blacks but always ended up bowing to the racist element of this country.

 Abraham Lincoln

The first major blow for Blacks was the 1877 Compromise which white southerners instigated to stop Reconstruction Aid to the newly freed slaves. When this website first learned about the Compromise, (stopping schooling/housing aid for illiterate slaves) it was shocking and explained much, even though it happened many years ago this website believes the effects still cripple many blacks today.

It was like one big blow after another for these former slaves, with the next blow being the worse with stupid un-American and illegal Jim Crow laws.

The US government once again bowed down to this divisive element in America. Earlier during the Civil War, these racist southerners even acknowledged they didn't love American ideals but believed in white superiority by attempting to secede from the union. Decades would go by with much suffering for the average black person with restrictions (Jim Crow laws) each and every day.

This website had the marvelous pleasure of reading the biographies of many brave, amazing blacks during this period in history, and just about all shared the same old story of racism and how hurtful it was and made it tough if not impossible to attain American success like their white American counterparts.

It was a horrible way to live in a free country such as America. These laws were demoralizing, dangerous and illegal. Whites had little contact with blacks, so many assumed they were just happy as a lark living as second class citizens. Good white Americans did nothing to help and aided in compromising democracy.

America was living a lie and it became manifest when Communism started to take hold in Russia. The Russians made bold taunts about how Democracy was a failure because of the way America treated its black citizens.

This is the time in history we notice some movement involving civil rights, and blacks making advancements in certain administrations. America could not lead the world and have second-class citizens at home at the same time. It would spoil their pristine image of being on the side of liberty and justice.

This is actually the main reason blacks won their Civil Rights and of course with the steady persistence of black leaders and many marches, but if it weren't for Communism and the world watching, the US government would not have given in so quickly, and would have continued in being blissfully ignorant that blacks even existed.

But now a little trouble lies ahead because every President after Abe Lincoln kept putting off this issue only to pass it to the next generation, but now it must be faced. The result were many riots in different cities across America when whites were officially introduced to blacks as equals.

But at least now the black person has his full Civil Rights and a somewhat level playing field. The only problem is blacks are far behind and need help assimilating into American culture.

Will blacks rise and take charge to the next phase of our American journey?

don't weep

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Mauthausen concentration camp
Naked Soviet POWs in Mauthausen concentration camp. Between June 1941 and January 1942, the Nazis killed an estimated 2.8 million Red Army POWs, whom they viewed as "subhuman".
photo #105- in year 1939

     Race in 1969
  • April 14, 1969 - The Student Afro-American Society was seized at Columbia College.

  • June 5, 1969 - There was a race riot in Hartford, Connecticut.

  • October 14, 1969 - There were race riots in Springfield Massachusetts.

  • October 31, 1969 - There was a race riot in Jacksonville, Florida.

  • December 4, 1969 - Black Panther Fred Hampton was murdered while sleeping at his apartment during a raid by a tactical unit of the Cook County, Illinois State's Attorney's Office, in conjunction with the Chicago Police Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

  • December 4, 1969 - Black Panther Mark Clark was was killed with Fred Hampton during a Chicago police predawn raid on December 4, 1969.

  • 1969 - African American studies at colleges are going to be taught, courtesy of a one million donation to Morgan State University, Howard University, and Yale University from the The Ford Foundation.

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green door to success

Did you know you came from an amazing race of people who cared for you? It's true. The amazing accomplishments of our ancestors are recorded on this website. Years ago as slaves it was illegal for slaves to read and write, and a felony for anyone caught teaching them.

The slavemaster wanted to keep them ignorant so they wouldn't organize and rebel against their authority. He was able to dominate blacks in this way. The slavemaster understood the power of education.

Sadly today too many of our own have not learned how truly important it is to learn. Some may look at education as a white thing and to pick up a book as a sellout. Has any ignorant person ever made you feel that way? If so, you should run away as fast as you can from a person like this. You will meet him in a few years while he's pushing a shopping cart around town.

Education and learning are not white; it's a gift for all humankind. Read at all cost; it will add a new dimension to your life, bringing a whole new world you never knew existed. Your ancestors made it all possible for you.

green door to success

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Mission Impossible
The Season 5 1970-1971 cast from left:
Leonard Nimoy, Greg Morris, Lesley Ann Warren, Peter Lupus, and Peter Graves

photo #102-yr-1966

black Movies in America
Movies in America

Otis Young
Otis Young as Jernal David from the short-lived television program The Outcasts. The show is significant in that it was the first Western television program to feature an African-American co-star (Young).
photo #111-yr-1968

Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad
Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad fame
photo #110-yr-1968

Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr.
Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr. from the television program The Hollywood Palace.
photo #104-yr-1964

Barbara McNair
Barbara McNair, was always a great presence on television
photo #105-yr-1934

Gail Fisher
Gail Fisher as Peggy Fair and Mark Stewart as her son, Toby, from the television program Mannix.
photo #113-yr-1968

Room 222
Lloyd Haynes and Michael Constantine from the television program Room 222
photo #103-yr-1969

     Theater / Television / Movies in 1969
  • Death of a Gunfighter - Lena Horne (Lena Horne as Claire Quintana)

  • Theater:
  • January 2, 1969 - Lorraine Hansberry's "To be Young, Gifted & Black," premieres in New York City.

  • Television:
  • The Mod Squad which aired from 1968-1973 was a show we wouldn't dare to miss. It felt good to see a cool black character such as undercover cop, Linc Hayes (Clarence Williams III) taking care of business. It was also pretty cool the way Julie (Peggy Lipton) and Pete (Michael Cole) included him in all of their adventures. It made us feel like maybe one day racism would be stamped out and we could all work and live together peacefully because of this show.

  • The Barbara McNair Show which aired from 1969 - 1972 starred Barbara McNair in her own 1969 television variety series, one of the first black women to host her own musical variety show. The show was produced in Canada by CTV (at CFTO/Toronto).

  • The Outcasts appeared on ABC in the 1968-69 season. The series stars Don Murray and Otis Young. It is most notable for being the first television Western with an African American co-star.

  • The Hollywood Palace was an hour-long American television variety show that was broadcast weekly (generally on Saturday nights) on ABC from January 4, 1964 to February 7, 1970. The series used a different host each week.

  • Room 222 was a comedy-drama television series which aired on ABC from September 17, 1969 until January 11, 1974. The series focused on an American history class at the fictional Walt Whitman High School in LA, California. The class was taught by Pete Dixon (Lloyd Haynes), an idealistic African-American schoolteacher. Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre (Denise Nicholas), who was also Pete's girlfriend; the dryly humorous school principal, Seymour Kaufman (Michael Constantine); and the petite and enthusiastic Alice Johnson (Karen Valentine), a student teacher.

  • Mission: Impossible series aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973. It chronicles the missions of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force (IMF). Barnard "Barney" Collier (Greg Morris), a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics was a true inspiration to blacks back in the 70s, finally a black man that used his brains in a television role.

  • Mannix was an American television detective series that ran from 1967 to 1975 on CBS. Gail Fisher was best known for playing the role of secretary "Peggy Fair" on the television detective series, a role for which she won two Golden Globe Awards and an Emmy Award.

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famous african american birthdays

Morris Chestnut
Morris Chestnut
photo #101-yr-1969 (Gage Skidmore)

Erika Alexander
Erika Alexander
photo #102-yr-1969

     Famous Birthdays in 1969
  • January 1, 1969 - Morris L. Chestnut  is an American film and television actor.

  • January 18, 1969 - Jesse L. Martin  is an American actor and singer.

  • February 5, 1969 - Bobby Brown  is an American R&B singer-songwriter, occasional rapper and dancer.

  • February 10, 1969 - Jazzmun an American actor and nightclub performer specializing in female impersonation in the Los Angeles area.

  • March 11, 1969 - Terrence Howard   is an American actor and singer.

  • March 23, 1969 - Kelly Perine is an American television actor and a comedian.

  • March 26, 1969 - Reginald Darnell Hunter  is an American stand-up comedian based in the United Kingdom.

  • April 14, 1969 - DJ Pooh  is an American record producer, rapper, screenwriter and film director.

  • May 15, 1969 - Victor Varnado  is an American standup comedian and actor.

  • May 24, 1969 - Carl Anthony Payne II is a stage and television actor, producer, and director.

  • May 27, 1969 - Dondré Terrell Whitfield  is an American television and film actor.

  • June 15, 1969 - Ice Cube  is an American rapper, record producer, actor, screenwriter, film producer, and director.

  • June 16, 1969 - MC Ren  is an American rapper from Compton, California.

  • June 21, 1969 - Lloyd Avery   was an American actor. He is best known for his character in John Singleton's Oscar-nominated film Boyz n the Hood.

  • June 28, 1969 - Tichina Arnold is an American actress and singer. She is known for having portrayed the roles of Pamela James on the FOX comedy sitcom Martin (1992-97)

  • July 3, 1969 - Mykel Shannon Jenkins is an American actor, perhaps best known as the winner of the first season of the SOAPnet reality television series I Wanna Be a Soap Star.

  • July 12, 1969 - Lisa Nicole Carson  is an American actress. She is known for her work on U.S. television, including supporting roles in NBC's ER and Fox's Ally McBeal.

  • July 15, 1969 - Reggie C. Hayes is an American actor, screenwriter, and director.

  • July 25, 1969 - D.B. Woodside  is an American actor. He is perhaps best known for his portrayal of White House Chief of Staff (and later President) Wayne Palmer on the FOX action/drama series 24.

  • August 14, 1969 - DJ Uncle Al   was an American DJ.

  • August 19, 1969 - Nate Dogg was an American singer, rapper, and actor.

  • September 13, 1969 - Tyler Perry  is an American actor, director, screenwriter, playwright, producer, author, and songwriter, specializing in the gospel genre.

  • September 21, 1969 - Billy Porter  is a Broadway performer, pop singer, film and television actor and vocal coach.

  • October 4, 1969 - Jerry C. Minor   is an American actor, comedian and writer known for his comedic roles in numerous television programs.

  • October 17, 1969 - Wood Harris  is an American actor.

  • November 4, 1969 - Sean John Combs also known by his stage names Puff Daddy, Diddy, and P. Diddy, is an American rapper, record producer, actor, and entrepreneur.

  • November 15, 1969 - H.A.W.K   was an American rapper from Houston, Texas.

  • November 19, 1969 - Erika Alexander is an American actress, best known for her roles as Pam Tucker on the NBC sitcom The Cosby Show (1990-1992), and as the strong-willed attorney Maxine Shaw on the FOX sitcom Living Single (1993-1998)

  • November 21, 1969 - Ken Griffey, Jr. nicknamed "Junior" and "The Kid", is an American former professional baseball outfielder who played 22 years in Major League Baseball.

  • November 28, 1969 - Colman Domingo is a stage, film and television actor, playwright and director.

  • December 7, 1969 - Patrice O'Neal was an American stand-up comedian, radio personality, and actor.

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black american deaths

 singer Hazel Harrison
Hazel Harrison
photo #110-yr-1904

 Wynonie Harris
Wynonie Harris
photo #111-yr-1948

Skip James
The only known photo of Blues musician Skip James in his youth
photo #107-yr-1992

 Ahmet Ali Celikten
Ahmet Ali Çelikten
photo #107-yr-1883

     Famous Deaths in 1969
  • April 29, 1969 - Hazel Harrison was an African American concert pianist. She was the first fully American-trained musician to appear with a European orchestra.

  • May 11, 1969 - Amy Ashwood Garvey  was a Jamaican Pan-Africanist activist and the first wife of Marcus Garvey.

  • June 14, 1969 - Wynonie Harris  was an American blues shouter and rhythm and blues singer of upbeat songs, featuring humorous, often ribald lyrics.

  • July 4, 1969 - Theodore "Ted" Rhodes  was an African-American professional golfer. He taught both entertainer Billy Eckstine and heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis to play the game of golf and served as Louis' personal instructor, valet and playing partner.

  • September 19, 1969 - Rex Ingram was an American stage, film, and television actor.

  • October 3, 1969 - Nehemiah Curtis "Skip" James was an American Delta blues singer, guitarist, pianist and songwriter. Born in Bentonia, Mississippi, United States, he died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  • December 13, 1969 - Spencer Williams was an African American actor and filmmaker. He was best known for playing Andy in the Amos 'n Andy television show.

  • 1969 - Stephanie St. Clair was a female gang leader who ran numerous criminal enterprises in Harlem, New York in the early part of the 20th century. St. Clair resisted the interests of the Mafia for several years after Prohibition ended; she continued to be an independent operator and never came under Mafia control.

  • 1969 - Ahmet Ali Çelikten was an Ottoman aviator who may have been the first Black pilot in aviation history and was one of the few Black pilots in World War I, like Eugene Jacques Bullard. His grandmother came from Bornu (now in Nigeria) to the Ottoman Empire as a slave.

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National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.

black relationships

But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.

Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.

After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.

Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.

They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.

No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?

It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging and harmful products which teaches our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.

These people fail to uplift our race and are always portraying negative images and imply that something is owed to us and we should feel sorry for ourselves, so why even try? What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.

Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.

No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.

In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.

Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so. There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.

These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.

Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?

black men love black women

How would you answer?

Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.

Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.

Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.

Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.

Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.

Which woman do you more associate with?

(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.

(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.

Analysis:  Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.

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famous african american weddings

Don Michael Mitchell
Don Michael Mitchell
photo #106-yr-1943

     Famous Weddings in 1969
  • July 23, 1969 - Patti LaBelle  marries Armstead Edwards.

  • 1969 - Ahmad Rashad  marries Deidre Waters.

  • 1969 - Etta James  marries Artis Mills.

  • 1969 - August Wilson  marries Brenda Burton.

  • 1969 - Marilyn McCoo  marries Billy Davis, Jr.

  • 1969 - Meshach Taylor  marries Sandra Taylor.

  • 1969 - Don Mitchell  marries model Emilie Blake.

  • 1969 - Harold Wright Cruse  marries Mara Julius.

  • 2005 - Harold Wright Cruse was an American academic who was an outspoken social critic and teacher of African American studies at the University of Michigan until the mid-1980s. The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (1967) is his best-known book.

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famous african american divorces

Richard Pryor
Richard Pryor in his Mister Kelly's appearances
photo #100-yr-1969

James Brown
James Brown
photo #103-yr-1933

     Famous Divorces in 1969
  • June 1969 - Neville Brand and  Laura Rae Araujo were divorced.

  • September 1969 - Floyd Patterson and Sandra Hicks were divorced because she wanted him to give up boxing and he wouldn't.

  • 1969 - Richard Pryor and Shelley Bonis were divorced.

  • 1969 - James Brown and Velma Warren were divorced.

  • 1969 - Miles Davis and Betty Mabry Davis were divorced.

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soul music orgin

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The Originals
The Originals
Clockwise from left: C.P. Spencer, Hank Dixon, Walter Gaines and Freddie Gorman (c. 1968)
photo #112-yr-1968

soul music

The Temptations
The Temptations
photo #110-yr-1965

The Supremes
The Supremes
photo #106-yr-1966

Jerry Butler
Jerry Butler
photo #107-yr-1969

     Music in 1969

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • January 4 "I Heard It Through the Grapevine" Marvin Gaye

  • February 1 "Can I Change My Mind" Tyrone Davis

  • February 22 "Everyday People" Sly & the Family Stone

  • March 8 "Give It Up Or Turnit a Loose" James Brown

  • March 22 "Run Away Child, Running Wild" The Temptations

  • April 5 "Only the Strong Survive" Jerry Butler

  • April 19 "It's Your Thing" The Isley Brothers

  • May 17 "The Chokin' Kind" Joe Simon

  • June 7 "Too Busy Thinking About My Baby" Marvin Gaye

  • July 19 "What Does It Take (To Win Your Love)" Jr. Walker & the All-Stars

  • August 2 "Mother Popcorn (You Got To Have a Mother For Me)" James Brown

  • August 16 "Choice Of Colors" The Impressions

  • August 23 "Share Your Love with Me" Aretha Franklin

  • September 27 "Oh, What a Night" The Dells

  • October 4 "I Can't Get Next to You" The Temptations

  • November 8 "Baby, I'm for Real" The Originals

  • December 13 "Someday We'll Be Together" Diana Ross & the Supremes

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Temptation Walk

  • The Tighten Up

  • The African Twist

  • The Pearl

  • The LA Stomp

  • The Twist

  • The Monkey

  • The Chicago Walk

  • The Stroll

  • The Dog

  • The Madison

  • The Hully Gully

  • The Camel Walk

  • The Shotgun

  • The Watusi

  • The Pony

  • The Swim

  • The Boogaloo

  • The Robot

  • The Hitch Hike

  • The Cool Jerk

  • The Hand Jive

  Musical Happenings in 1969:
  • The Originals often called "Motown's best-kept secret", were a successful Motown R&B and soul group during the late 1960s and the 1970s, most notable for the hits "Baby I'm for Real", "The Bells" and the disco classic "Down to Love Town". Formed in 1966, the group originally consisted of bass singer Freddie Gorman, baritone (and the group's founder) Walter Gaines, and tenors C. P. Spencer and Hank Dixon (and briefly Joe Stubbs). Ty Hunter replaced Spencer when he left to go solo in the early 1970s.

  • The funeral of gospel singer Roberta Martin is attended by fifty-thousand people in Chicago, without any national media coverage; this event comes to be seen as a "symbol of black gospel music's place in American life: a blend of acceptance and obscurity"

  • Edwin Hawkins' "Oh Happy Day" is a surprise crossover gospel hit, a "jolt of energy that cut through the static and the airwaves in the spring of 1969". It "ushered in the contemporary gospel era".

  • The James Cleveland Gospel Music Workshop of America is founded, the largest gospel convention of the time, with more than 20,000 annual attendees.

  • After performing at the Newport Jazz Festival with several rock bands, Miles Davis records Bitches Brew,an influential recording that fuses jazz and rock.

  • Phyl Garland's The Sound of Soul is an influential study of African American that shapes the future of academic research on soul music.

  • Recordings by Sly & the Family Stone are an innovative step in the development of funk, which used elements of rock, such as the fuzz box, wah-wah pedal, vocal distortion and the echo chamber, in soul-based music, bassist Larry Graham created a unique style on the bass guitar, using "pulling, plucking, thumping and slapping" to "produce a distinctive percussive style.

  • 1969 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix headlines the Woodstock Musical Festival to over 500,000 people.

  • June 22, 1969 - Soul singer Aretha Franklin is arrested in Detroit for creating a disturbance.

  • July 22, 1969 - Soul singer Aretha Franklin is arrested for disturbing the peace in Detroit.

  • Oct 11, 1969 - Blues artist Muddy Waters is involved in a car crash that kills 3 people.

 Grammy winners in 1969:
    The 11th Annual Grammy Awards were held on March 12, 1969. They recognized accomplishments of musicians for the year 1968.

    Best Opera Recording
  • Richard Mohr (producer), Erich Leinsdorf (conductor), Ezio Flagello, Sherrill Milnes, Leontyne Price, Judith Raskin, George Shirley, Tatiana Troyanos & the New Philharmonia Orchestra for Mozart: Cosi Fan Tutte

  • Best Comedy Performance
  • Bill Cosby for To Russell, My Brother, Whom I Slept With

  • Best Score From an Original Cast Show Album
  • Galt MacDermot, Gerome Ragni, James Rado (composers), Andy Wiswell (producer) the original cast (Ronnie Dyson, Gerome Ragni, Steve Curry, Lamont Washington, Diane Keaton, Melba Moore & James Rado) for Hair.

  • Best Contemporary-Pop Vocal Performance, Female
  • Dionne Warwick for "Do You Know the Way to San Jose?"

  • Best R&B Performance, Female
  • Aretha Franklin for "Chain of Fools"

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Otis Redding for "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" (posthumously)

  • Best Rhythm & Blues Performance by a Duo or Group, Vocal or Instrumental
  • The Temptations for "Cloud Nine"

  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Otis Redding & Steve Cropper (songwriters) for "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" performed by Otis Redding

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afro hairstyle
Afro hairstyle of the 60s/70s -

children fashion
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s

photo #106-yr-1960

girls fashion
1960s Girls Fashions
photo #106-yr-1960

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1969

  Popular Fashions:
  • Long Maxi Coats

  • Bellbottoms

  • Miniskirts

  • Animal Prints

  • Tie Dye T-shirts

  • Turtlenecks

  • Men & Women Hairstyles:
    The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.

  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.

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 american standards
 american standards

"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?

Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.

Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.

The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.

Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.

the negro is a beast

Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.

The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science.

When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.

After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.

After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"

It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.

But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.

But not all were anti-American.

Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.

During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.”  William Whipple

Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.

william whipple
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American

But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.

So what does this have to do with American standards?

America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.

Now here's the problem.

With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Many wondered to themselves, "Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?"

In the following movie, great black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux created a film entitled "Birthright" which was about a well spoken black man named (Peter) who left his Southern roots to go to Harvard and obtain his education. He returned to the south with the hopes of opening up schools to teach the young black kids. He met a beautiful woman (Sissy), and both shared a mutual love interest, and while at a house he was living they had a conversation where she mentioned that since he had an education, he now lived under a different code or (standard) than the other black people in the Southern town. Sissy tells him that since he changed his code (standard) and returned to judge the residents, it wasn't fair. Blacks in the city still lived by the old Negro code or standard. This movie can be found in its entirety on Netflix under (Pioneers of African-American Cinema) There are still many blacks today who live by this old Negro code or standard.

What's a Negro standard?

Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white people just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.

 american standards

Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?

After the 60s, it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.

These people were wise because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.

Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.

So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.

After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.

We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.

But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.

 american standards

We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.

We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.

So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.

I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.


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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s

 dogs chasing kids

Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
photo #107-yr-1960

Curt  Flood
Curt Flood
photo #102-yr-1938

William  Handy
US postage stamp: 6-cent stamp honoring W. C. Handy was issued on May 17, 1969
photo #107-yr-1958

Our Community in 1969
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • March 10, 1969 - James Earl Ray pleads guilty to the murder of Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.

  • May 17, 1969 - the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp in W. C. Handy's honor.

  • July 21, 1969 - Neil Armstrong is the first man to step on the Moon.

  • 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.

  • Moneta J. Sleet, Jr. won the 1969 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography for his photograph of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s widow, Coretta Scott King, at Dr. King's funeral. Sleet is the first African-American man to win the Pulitzer, and the first African American to win award for journalism.

  • Baseball's Curt Flood became one of the pivotal figures in the sport's labor history when he refused to accept a trade following the 1969 season, ultimately appealing his case to the U.S. Supreme Court. Although his legal challenge was unsuccessful, it brought about additional solidarity among players as they fought against baseball's reserve clause and sought free agency.

  • 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.

  • 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.

  • The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.

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african americans and religion

How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?

 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.

Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.

Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.

The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:

Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.

The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.

A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.

Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.

Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.

Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.

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#100 -   Public Domain image - By GAC=General Artists Corporation (management)/Photographer:Berk Costello, New York City/Mister Kelly's, who sent the photo and release to the press. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Gage Skidmore [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   By cmjcool (Chris Jackson) [CC-BY-2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   By ABC Television (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By Howard Lee [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   By Ira Rosenberg [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   By Unknown or not provided (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   By Mercury Records (Billboard, page 19, 10 October 1970) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


#108 -   By NASA (Great Images in NASA Description) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By NASA [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By Photographer from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (, not named at the NASA website. -, Public Domain,

By NASA photo As11-40-5886, Public Domain,

By NASA/Bill Ingalls [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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