Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1970:
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson was an American blues and jazz singer/guitarist, violinist and songwriter who pioneered the role of jazz guitar and jazz violin and is recognized as the first to play an electrically amplified violin.
Johnson was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and raised in a family of musicians. He studied violin, piano, and guitar as a child, and learned to play various other instruments including the mandolin, but concentrated on the guitar throughout his professional career. "There was music all around us," he recalled, "and in my family, you'd better play something, even if you just banged on a tin can."
Lonnie Johnson pioneered the single-string solo guitar styles that have become custom in modern rock, blues and jazz music.
In 1917, Johnson joined a revue that toured England, returning home in 1919 to find that all of his family, except his brother James, had died in the 1918 influenza epidemic.
He and his brother settled in St. Louis in 1921. The two brothers performed as a duo, and Lonnie also worked on riverboats, working with the orchestras of Charlie Creath and Fate Marable. In 1925 Lonnie married, and his wife Mary soon began to pursue a blues career in her right, performing as Mary Johnson and pursuing a recording career from 1929 to 1936. They had six children before their divorce in 1932.
In 1925, Johnson entered and won a blues contest at the Booker T. Washington Theatre in St. Louis, the prize being a recording contract with Okeh Records. To his regret, he was then tagged as a blues artist and later found it difficult to be regarded as anything else. He then said, "I guess I would have done anything to get recorded – it just happened to be a blues contest, so I sang the blues."
Johnson was "undeniably the creator of the guitar solo played note by note with a pick, which has become the standard in jazz, blues, country, and rock."
After touring with Bessie Smith in 1929, Johnson moved to Chicago and recorded for Okeh with stride pianist James P. Johnson. However, with the temporary demise of the recording industry in the Great Depression, Johnson was compelled to make a living outside music, working at one point in a steel mill in Peoria, Illinois.
After World War II, Johnson made the transition to rhythm and blues, recording for King Records in Cincinnati, and having a major hit in 1948 with "Tomorrow Night," written by Sam Coslow and Will Grosz. This topped the Billboard "Race Records" chart for seven weeks, also made # 19 on the pop charts, and had reported sales of three million copies.
Johnson moved to Philadelphia. His career had been a roller coaster ride that sometimes took him away from music. In between great musical accomplishments, he had found it necessary to take menial jobs that ranged from working in a steel foundry to mopping floors as a janitor. He gradually dropped out of music again in the 1950s, and took menial janitorial jobs; he was working at Philadelphia's Benjamin Franklin Hotel in 1959 when WHAT-FM disc jockey Chris Albertson happened upon him and produced a comeback album, for the Prestige Bluesville Records label, Blues by Lonnie Johnson.
This was followed by other Prestige albums, including one (Blues & Ballads) with former Ellington boss, Elmer Snowden, who had helped Albertson locate Johnson. There followed a Chicago engagement for Johnson at the Playboy Club, and this succession of events placed him back on the music scene at a fortuitous time: young audiences were embracing folk music, and many veteran performers were stepping out of obscurity. In short order, Lonnie Johnson found himself reunited with Duke Ellington and his orchestra, and appearing as special guest at an all-star folk concert in New York City.
We honor Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson with the 1970 Hamite Award for his enduring quality of not giving up. There were times in this man's career when he couldn't find work, and what did he do? Well I can tell you one thing he didn't do, and that was to bow his head in defeat, no, but he took on menial jobs to keep a check coming. He realized there was more honor in working than trying to hustle or run a game on someone. A valuable life choice many of us can imitate today. Thanks Lonnie.
In March 1969, he was hit by a car while walking on a sidewalk in Toronto. Johnson has been severely injured, suffering a broken hip and kidney injuries. A benefit concert was held on May 4, 1969, featuring two dozen acts, including Ian and Sylvia, John Lee Hooker and Hagood Hardy. Johnson never fully recovered from his injuries and suffered what was described as a stroke in August. He died on June 16, 1970.
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson |
|How were blacks feeling in 1970?
What the year 1970 was! This was the year that the Kansas City Chiefs beat the Minnesota Vikings, 23-7 in New Orleans Super Bowl IV, the NBA championship basketball, Knicks win over the Lakers, 113-99 to continue their rivalry.
We don't hear much in the biased media about the great Hammering Hank Aaron, but he becomes the 9th player to get 3,000 hits in MLB.
This was the year that Angela Davis and Huey Newton's Black Panthers were in the news, this was the era of "BLACK POWER." We went to the movies to watch Cotton Comes to Harlem in this year with crazy Redd Foxx who kept up laughing.
This was the year that Nia Long and Taraji P. Henson were born, extra fine brown sugar! It was a year of sadness with the death of young soul singer Tammi Terrell and the great Jimi Hendrix.
If dancing were your thang you were grooving to Bump and the Funky Chicken. The list goes on and on for the fantastic year of 1970.
A new and exciting year for blacks. Hope we're all taking advantage of our newly implemented Civil Rights. It's time to get down to business and build that beautiful black family up. But a word of caution in the black community because this is the era of Law and Order from the White House and we are wondering how this will affect black people.
DID YOU KNOW?
Ever wonder how the soul-food revolution began? It became a popular term in the 1960's.
Slave ships with their cargo of slaves traveled from West Africa to North America with foods that were native to African soil. It was the ship's captain best interest to keep slaves alive and healthy by feeding them these foods for their long transatlantic voyage. Some of these foods native to Africa are black-eyed peas, rice, yams, peanuts and don't forget the infamous watermelon. Once here in America, slaves were allowed to grow these foods and along with the scraps the master would give them during 'ration times' (sometimes meat) is what laid the foundation for soul-food.
For the year 1970:
- Gail Fisher was the first African-American actress to win an Emmy award for acting, when she received the Emmy for Oustanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for her role as Peggy Fair in "Mannix".
- Jayne Kennedy was the first African-American woman to be crowned Miss Ohio USA.
- Clifton R. Wharton, Jr. was elected president of Michigan State University thereby becoming the first African American president of a major U.S. university.
Smokin Joe Frazier
| Sports in 1970 |
- January 1, 1970 - The very popular African-American Historical Calendar Series begins.
- January 4, 1970 - The Kansas City Chiefs defeats the Oakland Raiders 17-7 in the AFC championship game.
- January 11, 1970 - In Super Bowl IV: The Kansas City Chiefs defeats the Minnesota Vikings, 23-7 in New Orleans. The Super Bowl MVP was the great Kansas City, QB Lenny Dawson.
- January 16, 1970 - Baseball's Curt Flood files a civil lawsuit challenging the baseball's reserve clause.
- January 17, 1970 - The Sporting News names talented Willie Mays as Player of the Decade for the 1960s.
- January 20, 1970 - The 20th NBA All-Star Game: East wins over the West by a score of 142-135 in Philadelphia.
- February 16, 1970 - Smokin Joe Frazier knocks out Jimmy Ellis in 5 rounds for the heavyweight boxing crown.
- May 12, 1970 - Baseball's Ernie Banks hits his 500th home run on this date.
- May 17, 1970 - Baseball's Hammering Hank Aaron becomes the 9th player to record 3,000 hits.
- June 12, 1970 - Dock Ellis of the Pittsburgh Pirates throws a no-hitter against the San Diego Padres while under the influence of LSD.
- June 26, 1970 - Baseball's Frank Robinson hits 2 grand slams in a game against the Senators.
- July 18, 1970 - The say hey kid, Willie Mays becomes 10th baseball player to record 3,000 hits.
- August 1, 1970 - Baseball's Willie Stargell of the Pittburgh Pirates ties record of 5 extra base hits in a game.
- August 12, 1970 - Baseball's Curt Flood loses his $41 million antitrust suit against Major League Baseball.
- September 21, 1970 - The great Oakland A's Vida Blue no-hits the Minnesota Twins by a score of 6-0.
- October 15, 1970 - The Baltimore Orioles defeated the Cincinnati Reds, 4 games to 1 in the 67th World Series.
- November 3, 1970 - Talented pitcher Bob Gibson wins thr NL Cy Young Award
- November 18, 1970 - Smokin Joe Frazier knocks out Bob Foster in round 2 for the heavyweight boxing crown.
- December 5, 1970 - Los Angeles Rams Willie Ellison sets the NFL record of 247 yards rushing in a game.
- December 30, 1970 – Former heavyweight champion Sonny Liston dies at only 38 years old.
- Tom Dempsey, who was born with a deformed right foot and right hand, sets a NFL record by kicking a 63-yard field goal.
- Robert W. Peterson's book Only the Ball was White is published. The book brings pressure on Major League Baseball to recognize the African-American players from Negro league baseball by honoring its stars in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
- Alex Johnson is an American League All-Star and batting champion in 1970. Trivia: After being replaced by Tony González in left field, Johnson intimated that some of his battles with teammates and management were racially motivated: "Hell yes, I'm bitter. I've been bitter ever since I learned I was black. The society into which I was born and in which I grew up and in which I play ball today is anti-black. My attitude is nothing more than a reaction of their attitude."
- 1970 - Jesse Owens was inducted to the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame.
What Was The Jonestown Massacre?|
The Peoples Temple, the organization at the center of the Jonestown incident, was headquartered in San Francisco, California, from the early to mid-1970s until the Temple's move to Guyana.
While the Temple originated in Indiana in the 1950s, after leader Jim Jones predicted an apocalypse that would create a socialist Eden on earth, it moved to Redwood Valley, California in the late 1960s. Its headquarters later moved into San Francisco, where Jones remained until July 1977, when Jones fled with almost 1,000 Temple members to Jonestown, Guyana following investigations by local media.
On the evening of November 18, 1978 in Jonestown, Jones ordered his congregation to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. In all, 918 people died, including over 270 children, resulting in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001. Congressman Leo Ryan was among those killed at the airstrip.
|WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS |
The more things change, the more they stay the same
Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.
It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.
This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.
Is the criminal justise system much different today?
President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration, and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.
Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other, but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.
While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.
Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the Watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:
“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”
Check these statistics out
One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.
These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010
1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
We have to help our black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are always pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.
At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.
A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we believed it.
Education plays the significant role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc. that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.
When one of us climbs the very challenging and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.
Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to humankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.
| Education in 1970 |
- 1970 - Clifton R. Wharton, Jr. was elected president of Michigan State University thereby becoming the first African American president of a major U.S. university.
WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT? |
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed!
My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.
Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr. |
I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.
My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)
Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.
Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.
During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.
I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914.
I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.
I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.
I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.
Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering
I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.
I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.
It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.
The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.
I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.
Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.
In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.
Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!
Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)
Chairwoman of the Soviet Women's Committee Valentina Tereshkova handing a memento to member
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the United States Angela Davis.
Richard M. Nixon
| Political Scene in 1970 |
- 1970 - Richard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when becaue of the Watergate scandal became the only U.S. president to resign the office. Nixon had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Note: This website has judged the performance of every U.S. president in regards to the Civil Rights of African Americans. We started in the year 1863 with Abraham Lincoln all the way to 1969 with the out-going president Lyndon Baines Johnson.
It's weird because these two men shared many of the same right American qualities.
The 50s-60s marked the beginning of a new era for blacks with victories (FINALLY) in the Supreme Courts for African American citizens.( Which is all the Negro ever wanted, was a level playing field) Sadly many of our fellow Americans were participants in illegal activities with Jim Crow laws throughout our great nation, and most ignored and disobeyed the law of the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence in regards to the citizenship rights of the Negro for their own advancement and enjoyment of American success. With each US president, this website always thought positive and hoped for the best that we would find one leader who would exercise his duties as Commander in Chief in enforcing our rights. We were looking for a courageous and brave person to set the moral tone of our great nation for all Americans, because like it or not we are all in this together. Now with our successes with Civil Rights and with blacks being so far behind socially, educationally and mentally, will a new movement be started to lift ourselves up? We have the level playing field now, and we can see the goal line, but there are still small lumps along the way that must be worked out in the courts. How will the black community stand up to this challenge? Each president was rated at the end of his term on how he performed which you will find on this site. (We stopped rating in 1969 because blacks achieved significant victories with the Civil Rights Movement)
- January 19, 1970 - Black activist Angela Davis of UCLA fired for being a communist.
- March 12, 1970 - The United States lowers the voting age from 21years to 18 years of age.
- June 23, 1970 - Charles Rangel wins over Adam Clayton Powell in thre Democratic primary.
- 1970 - Kenneth Allen Gibson an American Democratic Party politician, who was elected in 1970 as the 34th Mayor of Newark, New Jersey, the largest city in the state. He was the first African American elected mayor of any major Northeastern U.S. city. He served from 1970 to 1986.
- 1970 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the agency's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.
- 1970 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization." Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid-seventies.
Who is this man? |
His name was George Kennan, who was an American diplomat and historian, who served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. He was known best as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War on which he later reversed himself. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between USSR and the United States. He was also one of the groups of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men."
If you've ever wondered how the world became such a hateful and dangerous place, this man George Kennan explains it for us. Kennan didn't have any great powers to implement his ideas and was a Cold War strategist to various leaders in American history who obviously listened to much of what he had to say.
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population. This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia.
In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism.
We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Do you think leaders of America are overstepping their boundaries with these strategies?
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown
DID YOU KNOW?
Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.
The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.
Acts of Goodness is Colorblind
The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.
The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.
What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?
Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.
The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.
So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.
It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.
So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.
Black Panther Rally
June 19, 1970
| Race in 1970 |
- February 18, 1970 - Black Panther, Bobby Seale was among seven defendants (Chicago Seven) found not guilty of conspiracy.
- May 12, 1970 - There were race riots in Augusta Georgia. A total of 6 blacks were killed with 5 of them by police.
- May 15, 1970 - 2 people were killed (Philip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green) and 12 injured when police In Jackson, Mississippi, fire into demonstrators.
- June 16, 1970 - There were race riots in Miami, Florida.
- July 29, 1970 - There were 6 days of race rioting that occured in Hartford, Connecticut.
- August 5, 1970 - Black Panther leader Huey Newton is freed from jail.
- August 7, 1970 - A presiding judge along with 4 others were killed in a courthouse shootout in San Rafael, California.
- August 29, 1970 - Black Panthers and police in Philadelphia engage with one cop being killed.
- October 13, 1970 - Black activist Angela Davis is arrested in New York City, New York.
- November 7, 1970 - There were race riots in Daytona Beach, Florida.
- August 7, 1970, - Jonathan Jackson, a heavily armed 17-year-old African-American high-school student, gained control over a courtroom in Marin County, California. Once in the courtroom, Jackson armed the black defendants and took Judge Harold Haley, the prosecutor, and three female jurors as hostages.
- August 14, 1970, - a massive attempt to arrest Angela Davis began. Four days after the initial warrant was issued, the FBI director J. Edgar Hoover made Angela Davis the third woman and the 309th person to appear on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitive List.
- October 13, 1970 - Angela Davis was arrested, charged, tried, and acquitted of conspiracy in the 1970 armed take-over of a Marin County courtroom, in which four persons died.
Getting Faded in the 70s
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea.
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s
| Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1970 |
For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:
- TJ Swan
- Wild Irish Rose
- Boone's Farm
- Thunderbird --
"What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."
- MD 20/20
- Night Train
- Cold Duck
- Colt 45
- Old English
- Schlitz Malt
- Korbel Brandy
- E & J Brandy
- Gin and Grapefruit Juice
- Tequila Sunrise
- Bacardi Cocktail
- Pina Colada
Tequila Sunrise garnished
with orange & cherry
I still have a headache, but had a blast!
Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:
- HEY! hit me five times
- Who dat knocking at my door?
- Fish and bread keep po' men fed
- All money ain't good money
- Beef steak and gravy
- Ten keys, come and get some of these
- 4 hoes and a pimp
- 3 switchin bitches
- Rock and I'm out
Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1970 while enjoying ourselves:
Beats in the 70s - photo#library
- Didn't I (Blow Your Mind This Time) - Delfonics
- War, Edwin Starr
- Ain't No Mountain High Enough, Diana Ross
- I'll Be There, The Jackson 5
- Band of Gold, Freda Payne
- Abc, The Jackson 5
- The Love You Save, The Jackson 5
- Candida, Dawn
- Ball of Confusion, The Temptations
- Signed, Sealed, Delivered, Stevie Wonder
- Patches, Clarence Carter
- Turn Back the Hands of Time, Tyrone Davis
- Express Yourself, Charles Wright
- Still Water (Love), The Four Tops
- Love or Let Me Be Lonely, Friends Of Distinction
- Evil Ways, Santana
- Up the Ladder to the Roof, The Supremes
- Psychedelic Shack, The Temptations
- I'll Never Fall In Love Again, Dionne Warwick
- The Thrill Is Gone, B.B. King
- Call Me, Aretha Franklin
WOW! I miss 1970
|| sLANG tALK in 1970 |
- Do Your Own Thing! - whatever pleases you
- Be yourself! - don't be a fake
- Do what you want to do - whatever pleases you
- Laid Back - taking it easy, relaxed
- Psyche - excited, energized
- The Crib and going to the Gig - home
- The Gig - job
- Dream On - hopeful
- Kicks - shoes
- Mackin - gettin the girls
- Off The Hook - extra cool
- Old School - old fashioned
- Pad - home
- In Your Face! - victory
- That's Sick! - awesome
- The Man - police
- To The Max - maximum
- Yo Mama - term of endearment, joking around
- Chill - take it easy
- Feel Tha Funk - groove and feel the music
- Catch My Drift - do you understand?
- Chillaxin - relaxing
- Chump - punk
- Copasetic - something cool, hip
- Don't Bogart - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
- Doobie - a joint
- Dude - a guy
- For Rizzle - I didn't know that
- Foxy - sexy girl
- Gimme Five - cool handshake
- Hood - a ghetto person
- Trippin - going wacko
- Pig - police
- Pimpin - a guy good with the ladies
- Dig It - understand
- Backatcha! - you too
- Brick House - super fine woman
- Can You Dig It - you understand?
- Right On - agree
- Stone Groove - extra cool and fun
Season 5 1970-1971 cast from left:
Leonard Nimoy, Greg Morris, Lesley Ann Warren, Peter Lupus, and Peter Graves
Sammy Davis, Jr.
was always a great presence on television
Mr. T in the year 1970
Rodney Allen Rippy who starred in Jack in the Box television commercials in the 1970s.
- photo #116-yr-1970
Clarence Williams III of Mod Squad fame
The Flip Wilson Show
Actress Diahann Carroll and Sammy Davis, Jr. from the television program The Hollywood Palace.
Gail Fisher as Peggy Fair and Mark Stewart as her son, Toby, from the television program Mannix.
Lloyd Haynes and Michael Constantine from the television program Room 222
Freda Payne performing on The Ed Sullivan Show, 1970
Jim Brown & Janet MacLachlan in ...tick...tick...tick... (1970)
|Television / Movies in 1970 |
- Cotton Comes to Harlem - Redd Foxx, Godfrey Cambridge, Raymond St. Jacques Comedy
- The Great White Hope - James Earl Jones, Jane Alexander Biography
- The Liberation of L.B. Jones - Roscoe Lee Browne, Lee J. Cobb, Lola Falana Drama
- One More Time - Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford Comedy
- They Call Me MISTER Tibbs! - Gordon Douglas Sidney Poitier, Martin Landau, Barbara McNair Drama
- ...tick...tick...tick... - Ralph Nelson Jim Brown, George Kennedy, Fredric March Action, Drama
- January 27, 1970 - The movie rating system modifies "M" rating to "PG"
- What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? - Allen Funt Richard Roundtree Comedy
- Black Brigade AKA Carter's Army - Richard Pryor (as as Pvt. Jonathan Crunk)
- Deadly Vengeance AKA "Sweet Vengeance" AKA "Dirty Trick"
- The Grasshopper
- Halls Of Anger
- Soul Soldier
- Woodstock - Michael Wadleigh Jimi Hendrix, The Who, Jefferson Airplane, Santana, Joe Cocker, Janis Joplin, Arlo Guthrie, Joan Baez, Sly and the Family Stone Documentary
- The Phynx - Richard Pryor
- The Mod Squad which aired from 1968-1973 was a show we wouldn't dare to miss. It felt good to see a cool black character such as undercover cop, Linc Hayes taking care of business. It was also pretty cool the way Julie (Peggy Lipton) and Pete (Michael Cole) included him in all of their adventures. It made us feel like maybe one day racism would be stamped out and we could all work and live together peacefully because of this show.
- Mission: Impossible series aired on the CBS network from September 1966 to March 1973. It chronicles the missions of a team of secret government agents known as the Impossible Missions Force (IMF). Barnard "Barney" Collier (Greg Morris), a mechanical and electronics genius and owner of Collier Electronics was a true inspiration to blacks back in the 70s, finally a black man that used his brains in a television role.
- The Flip Wilson Show was so funny. The show aired from 1970-1974 and won numerous awards. Flip made the black community feel proud that a person of color could be so successful. He inspired many. He was a truly talented comedian. He had us in tears with his character Geraldine Jones, who would actually dress up like a woman and brag about her boyfriend Killa, and whose line "The devil made me do it" became a national catchphrase. Older people in the community especially got a big laugh from this character, he was very funny and convincing!
- Room 222 was a comedy-drama television series which aired on ABC from September 17, 1969 until January 11, 1974. The series focused on an American history class at the fictional Walt Whitman High School in LA, California. The class was taught by Pete Dixon (Lloyd Haynes), an idealistic African-American schoolteacher. Other characters featured in the show were the school's compassionate guidance counselor, Liz McIntyre (Denise Nicholas), who was also Pete's girlfriend; the dryly humorous school principal, Seymour Kaufman (Michael Constantine); and the petite and enthusiastic Alice Johnson (Karen Valentine), a student teacher.
- The Barbara McNair Show which aired from 1969 - 1972 starred Barbara McNair in her own 1969 television variety series, one of the first black women to host her own musical variety show. The show was produced in Canada by CTV (at CFTO/Toronto).
- Mannix was an American television detective series that ran from 1967 to 1975 on CBS. Gail Fisher
was best known for playing the role of secretary "Peggy Fair" on the television detective series, a role for which she won two Golden Globe Awards and an Emmy Award.
- The Hollywood Palace was an hour-long American television variety show that was broadcast weekly (generally on Saturday nights) on ABC from January 4, 1964 to February 7, 1970. The series used a different host each week.
- Remember the kid that was trying to wrap his mouth around the super-sized Jumbo Jack hamburger? His name is Rodney Allen Rippy who appeared in TV commercials for the fast-food chain Jack in the Box in the early 1970s, as well as in numerous roles in television and movies.
movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
- On May 27, 1970, the film Watermelon Man is released, directed by Melvin Van Peebles and starring Godfrey Cambridge. The first blaxploitation film
- The Black Angels was about a black motorcycle gang; also part of the outlaw biker film genre.
- Cotton Comes to Harlem features two black NYPD detectives: Coffin Ed (played by Raymond St. Jacques) and Gravedigger Jones (played by Godfrey Cambridge). They are on the hunt for a money-filled cotton bale stolen by a corrupt reverend named Deke O’Malley.
Smokey Robinson (center) and The Miracles performing on a
1970 Smokey Robinson television special.
Taraji P. Henson
| Famous Birthdays in 1970 |
- January 7, 1970 - Doug E Doug an American actor, comedian, screenwriter, producer, and film director.
- January 12, 1970 - Raekwon an American rapper and a member of the Wu-Tang Clan.
- January 13, 1970 - Shonda Rhimes an African-American screenwriter, director, and producer.
- January 18th, 1970 - DJ Quik an American rapper, actor, and record producer.
- January 20, 1970 - Roy "Reno" Wilson an American actor, comedian and voice artist.
- January 26, 1970 - Kirk Franklin an American gospel musician, choir director, and author.
- February 8, 1970 - Alonzo Mourning is an American retired professional basketball player, who played most of his 15-year NBA career for the Miami Heat.
- February 23, 1970 - Niecy Nash is an American comedian, actress and producer, best known for her performances on television.
- March 18, 1970 - Queen Latifah an American rapper, songwriter, singer, actress, model, television producer, record producer, comedienne, and talk show host.
- March 27, 1970 - Mariah Carey an American singer, songwriter, record producer and actress.
- April 10, 1970 - Q-Tip is an American rapper and record producer from St. Albans, Queens, New York.
- April 15th, 1970 - Flex Alexander is an American actor, comedian and dancer.
- April 17, 1970 - Tami Roman is an American Television personality, model, businesswoman and actress.
- April 17, 1970 - Redman rapper and actor.
- April 20, 1970 - Shemar Moore is an American actor and former fashion model.
- April 26, 1970 - Tionne "T-Boz" Watkins is an American singer, songwriter, model, dancer, actress, author, and executive producer.
- May 22, 1970 - Naomi Campbell is an English model. Scouted at the age of 15, she established herself among the top three most recognizable and in-demand models of the late 1980s and the 1990s.
- June 2, 1970 - B-Rea rapper (Cypress Hill)
- June 26, 1970 - Irv Gotti is an American hip hop and R&B record producer and is the founder of The Inc record label.
- July 1, 1970 - Henry Oswald Simmons, Jr. an American actor. He is well known for playing Detective Baldwin Jones on the ABC police drama, NYPD Blue.
- July 5, 1970 - Eric "O.G. Style" Woods was a Houston, Texas based rapper.
- July 5, 1970 - Mac Dre late rapper out of Vallejo California
- July 26, 1970 - Cress Williams a German-born American film and television actor, best known for playing the hitman Wyatt in Prison Break.
- July 30, 1970 - MC Trouble was a rap artist, and the first female rapper signed to Motown Records.
- July 30, 1970 - Dean Edwards an American stand-up comedian, actor, singer, writer, musician and voice artist.
- August 15, 1970 - Anthony Anderson is an American actor and writer.
- August 18, 1970 - Malcolm-Jamal Warner is an African-American television actor, television director, and musician.
- August 19, 1970 - Fat Joe is an African-American rapper.
- September 8, 1970 - Latrell Sprewell is a former American professional basketball player; he played for the Golden State Warriors, the New York Knicks, and the Minnesota Timberwolves.
- September 11, 1970 - Taraji P. Henson an African-American actress and singer.
- September 15, 1970 - Rodney Perry an American comedian, actor and writer.
- September 19, 1970 - Victor L. Williams an American actor best known as Doug Heffernan's (Kevin James) best friend Deacon Palmer on The King of Queens.
- September 21, 1970 - James Lesure an American actor.
- September 22, 1970 - Mystikal is an American rapper and actor from New Orleans.
- October 11, 1970 - MC Lyte an American rapper who first gained fame in the late 1980s, becoming the first solo female rapper to release a full album.
- October 12, 1970 - Charlie Ward is a retired American professional NBA basketball player, college football Heisman Trophy winner, Davey O'Brien Award winner and a Major League Baseball draftee.
- October 13, 1970 - Mel Jackson an African-American actor, producer, spoken word artist and R&B musician.
- October 15, 1970 - Eric Benét is an American R&B and neo soul singer-songwriter.
- October 28, 1970 - Greg Eagles an American voice actor, writer and producer.
- October 30, 1970 - Nia Long is an American actress. She is best known for her roles in the television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and Third Watch, and the films In Too Deep, Boyz n the Hood, Friday.
- November 9, 1970 - Scarface is an American rapper.
- November 14, 1970 - Dana William Stubblefield former American football defensive tackle in the National Football League.
- November 18, 1970 - Mike Epps an African-American stand-up comedian, actor, film producer, writer and rapper.
- November 30, 1970 - Walter Emanuel Jones an American actor and dancer.
- December 2, 1970 - Treach an American rapper and actor. He is best known as the lead rapper of the hip hop group Naughty by Nature.
- December 4, 1970 - Fat Pat was an American rapper from Houston, Texas.
- December 17, 1970 - Sean Patrick Thomas an American actor.
- December 18, 1970 - DMX is an African-American rapper and actor.
- December 19, 1970 - Tyson Beckford is an American fashion model and actor, best known as a Ralph Lauren Polo model.
- December 24, 1970 - Keith Silverstein an American voice actor who works for anime series and video games.
- 1970 - Seagram Miller was an African-American rapper from Oakland, California.
Street Musicians (1939-1940), by William H. Johnson
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson
Benjamin O. Davis
| Famous Deaths in 1970 |
- January 1970 - Horace R. Cayton, Jr. was a prominent American sociologist known for his studies of working-class black Americans, particularly in mid-20th-century Chicago, Illinois.
- January 1, 1970 - William Henry Johnson was an African-American painter born in Florence, South Carolina. He became a student at the National Academy of Design in New York.
- January 4, 1970 - James Edwards was an American actor in films and television. His most famous role was as Private Peter Moss in the 1949 film Home of the Brave.
- March 16, 1970 - Tammi Terrell, soul singer
- June 16, 1970 - Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson was an American blues and jazz singer/guitarist, violinist and songwriter who pioneered the role of jazz guitar and jazz violin, and is recognized as the first to play an electrically-amplified violin.
- August 7, 1970 - James McClain, United States black activist
- August 7, 1970 - Jonathan P Jackson, United States black activist
- August 7, 1970 - William Christmas, United States black activist
- September 15, 1970 - Blue Washington was an American actor. He appeared in 74 films between 1919 and 1957.
- September 18, 1970 - Jimi Hendrix, rock guitarist
- October 4, 1970 - Janis Joplin, rock singer
- November 26, 1970 - Brigadier General Benjamin Oliver Davis, Sr. was the first African-American general officer in the United States Army. He was the father of Air Force General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
- December 30, 1970 - Sonny Liston, World heavyweight boxing champion
| Famous Weddings in 1970 |
- May 11, 1970 - Sammy Davis Jr. marries Altovise.
- May 24, 1970 - Cindy Birdsong weds Charles Hewlett.
- September 14, 1970 - Stevie Wonder weds Rita Wright.
- October 22, 1970 - James Brown weds Deidre Jenkins.
- 1970 - Rod Carew weds Marilynn Levy.
- 1970 - Jayne Kennedy weds Leon Kennedy.
| Famous Divorces in 1970 |
- 1970 - Don Mitchell and Emilie Blake Walker were divorced.
- 1970 - Nancy Wilson and Kenneth Dennis were divorced.
- 1970 - Ruth Pointer and Larry Woods were divorced.
The Civil Rights movement of the 60s was a total success. Now the second part of our journey begins. |
Now here's the problem.
For the last hundred years or so, white Americans have had every privilege simply for being white.
Unconstitutional Jim Crow laws instituted in the past had restricted blacks in every sense of the word.
Blacks were routinely treated as second-class citizens even after fighting courageously in every single American war, Revolutionary war included.
During this Jim Crow period, whites created a humongous stronghold and power structure for their families in America that still stands today. They completely understand how to navigate this power structure, and do it very well.
But after the 60s, blacks, on the other hand, found it difficult to penetrate and become a part of this American structure and ones that attempted were generally fought every step of the way, not by outright in your face racism, but a new one called casual racism which is just as harmful.
Ever since slavery ended, blacks who are of African culture didn't get much help assimilating into an American (European) way of life. After victory with our Civil Rights in the 60s, many didn't understand how to challenge this power structure in a productive and intelligent way growing frustrated and angry. Many were resorting to violence until an amazing man named DJ Kool Herc steps onto the scene to save the day!
DJ Kool Herc spinning records
DJ Kool Herc was the beginning of Hip Hop and gave many a positive outlet instead of violence, and whether older blacks liked it or not for our younger people would replace the guidance of influential civil rights leaders of past and become the voice they listened to for knowledge and help.
The media began to portray Hip hop/rapper figures as the brains of the black race. They are treated as wise ones and royalty. But they forgot or just ignored the many blacks who achieved with brainpower as college graduates, as opposed to artistic ability. Because of this portrayal, Hip-hop/Rap artist have without a doubt become an influential voice in the black community.
Many older blacks who were trained by our past Civil Rights leaders excellent moral guidance and teachings liked their beats but not the messages because it was filled with much hate and violence, especially on our people.
So when a younger black person who has been trained by these lyrics attempt to enter the white power structure workforce, they very seldom get through the front door, and it has nothing to do with racism, and if they are lucky enough to get that far they usually don't last, because they don't understand how to deal and work with people.
Don't get it wrong; Hip hop/rap music is a part of who we are, and we are all so proud of our ability to create something out of nothing that the entire world loves and imitates. But it also comes with a tremendous responsibility when possessing such great power and influence to help people and especially our own. Don't forget to teach our young that beats are good, but books are better!
There are many who keep the entertainment value of Hip hop/rap in perspective and understand how to maintain a balance, but there are also many easily influenced ones who fail and don't have a clue. So an important question arises. Will Hip-Hop lead the weaker one's in learning to live in the real world so we all can achieve and soar like the eagles or will it sell us out for the love of fame and money?
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.|
They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.
Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.
So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.
We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.
Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and tasty burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
A b-boy performing a head-hollowback in Union Square
The Jackson 5
| Music in 1970 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
Popular Soul Dances:
- January 3, 1970 - "Someday We'll Be Together" Diana Ross & the Supremes
- January 10, 1970 - "I Want You Back" The Jackson 5
- February 7, 1970 - "Thank You" / "Everybody Is a Star" Sly & the Family Stone
- March 14, 1970 - "Rainy Night in Georgia" Brook Benton
- March 21, 1970 - "Call Me" Aretha Franklin
- April 4, 1970 - "ABC" The Jackson 5
- May 2, 1970 - "Turn Back the Hands of Time" Tyrone Davis
- May 16, 1970 - "Love on a Two-Way Street" The Moments
- June 20, 1970 - "The Love You Save" The Jackson 5
- August 1, 1970 - "Signed, Sealed, Delivered (I'm Yours)" Stevie Wonder
- September 12, 1970 - "Don't Play That Song (You Lied)" Aretha Franklin
- October 3, 1970 - "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" Diana Ross
- October 10, 1970 - "I'll Be There" The Jackson 5
- November 21, 1970 - "Super Bad (Part 1)" James Brown
- December 5, 1970 - "The Tears of a Clown" Smokey Robinson & the Miracles
- December 26, 1970 - "Stoned Love" The Supremes
Musical Happenings in 1970:
- The Bump
- Walking the dog
- The Worm
- The Rock Steady
- The Breakdown
- The Funky Chicken
- Electric Slide
- Locking - Roboting - Popping
- Breakdancing - B-boying
Grammy winners in 1970:
- January 14, 1970 – Diana Ross & The Supremes perform farewell live concert in Las Vegas, Jean Terrell is Diana's replacement
- February 21, 1970 - The Jackson 5 make TV debut with Dick Clark on American Bandstand
- March 30, 1970 - Jazz man Miles Davis Bitches Brew released
- April 10, 1970 - The Beatles Paul McCartney officially announces their split
- May 16, 1970 - Grover Henson Feels Forgotten by Bill Cosby hits #70 on the billboards
- July 1, 1970 - Jimi Hendrix first recording session in New York City
- July 4, 1970 - American Top 40 debuts with Casey Kasem on LA radio
- The Originals often called "Motown's best-kept secret", were a successful Motown R&B and soul group during the late 1960s and the 1970s, most notable for the hits "Baby I'm for Real", "The Bells" and the disco classic "Down to Love Town". Formed in 1966, the group originally consisted of bass singer Freddie Gorman, baritone (and the group's founder) Walter Gaines, and tenors C. P. Spencer and Hank Dixon (and briefly Joe Stubbs). Ty Hunter replaced Spencer when he left to go solo in the early 1970s.
- Jamaican musician U-Roy becomes the first to record rhythmic speech over dubs, which is the direct ancestor of rapping, one of the elements of hip hop culture
- The first digital synthesizers are created
- Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female Aretha Franklin for Share Your Love With Me
- Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male Joe Simon for The Chokin' Kind
- Best Rhythm & Blues Performance by a Duo or Group, Vocal or Instrumental Isley Brothers for It's Your Thing
- Best Rhythm & Blues Song Richard Spencer (songwriter) for Color Him Father performed by The Winstons
- Best R&B Instrumental Performance King Curtis for Games People Play
- Record of the Year Bones Howe (producer) & The 5th Dimension for "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In"
- Best Comedy Recording Bill Cosby for Bill Cosby, aka Sports (Bill Cosby album)
- Best Soul Gospel Performance Edwin Hawkins for Oh Happy Day performed by the Edwin Hawkins Singers
- Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Small Group or Soloist With Small Group
Wes Montgomery for Willow Weep for Me
- Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Large Group or Soloist With Large Group
Quincy Jones for Walking in Space
- Best Contemporary Vocal Performance by a Group The 5th Dimension for "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In"
Clockwise from left: C.P. Spencer, Hank Dixon, Walter Gaines and Freddie Gorman (c. 1968)
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s
photo - pixabay.com
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women.
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s
| Fashions and Styles in 1970 |
The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.
In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.
Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.
Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.
Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely short, form-fitting, denim cut-off shorts worn by young women, originally in the American South) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.
Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.
Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.
In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.
Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.
The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.
Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.
Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.
In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes.
In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1970s
James Alan Bland
Asa Philip Randolph
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller
|Our Community in 1970|
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- It was during his employment as a waiter in a Greenwich Village bar that Charles Gordone found inspiration for his first major work as a playwright, No Place to be Somebody (Alexander Street Press), for which he won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for Drama.
- In the early 1970s, the American Psychiatric Association established a Solomon Carter Fuller award lecture at its annual meetings for his contributions to Alzheimer's disease research.
- Ragtime Musician Scott Joplin was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame by the National Academy of Popular Music.
Annual Median Household income of African Americans 1970
2.2% - $100k - 200k
28.9% - under $15k
33% - $15k - $35k
35.8% - $35k - $100k
- Almost 35 percent of African Americans in the South attended desegregated schools
- In the 1970s, the Black population numbered over 22 million people, which represented about 11 percent of the total U.S. population. and accounted for 90 percent of all minorities in the United States.
- In 1970, 42 percent of Blacks were under age 18, compared to 33 percent of Whites
- 7 percent of the African-American population is over the age of 65 in 1970
- There were close to 5 million African American families in 1970
- About 68 percent of all African American families were married-couple families
- In 1970, only 34 percent of Blacks over 25 had completed high school
- In 1970, only 16 percent of young Black Americans were attending college
- In 1970, college educated Blacks made about two-thirds of what college educated whites earned.
- In the 1970s, joblessness was very prevalent among Blacks. The unemployment rate for Blacks was about 10 percent, compared to 5 percent for whites.
- In 1970, whites were twice as likely as Blacks to work in white-collar occupations
- Most Black women worked in the service sector, and more than half of Black men were employed in blue-collar jobs in 1970
- In 1970, the median income for Black households was about $22,000, while for white households it was $37,000
- Iowa's Cheryl Brown, won a state title and made it to Atlantic City as a contestant in the Miss America Pageant
First African American contestant to compete at the Miss America pageant.
- Late 1800s African-American musician and song writer James Bland was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970.
- Civil Rights leader Asa Philip Randolph was named Humanist of the Year in 1970 by the American Humanist Association.
- 1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
#100 - Public Domain image - Original description: Willie Mays, standing, wearing baseball uniform, with arm around shoulders of Roy Campanella, seated / World Telegram & Sun photo by William C. Greene.
#101 - By ToonariPost – A News Mash Up (Flickr: Golden Gloves - Joe Frazier) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
#102 - Public Domain image - St. Louis Cardinals pitcher en: Bob Gibson in 1962.
#103 - Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-L0911-029 / Koard, Peter / CC-BY-SA [CC-BY-SA-3.0-de (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/de/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
#104 - Public Domain image - Photo of actress, singer and dancer Lola Falana. She had a regular role in The New Bill Cosby Show in 1972-1973.
#105 - Public Domain image - White House Photo Office. Richard Nixon meeting with Sammy Davis, Jr.
#106 - Public Domain image - Flyer for a Black Panther Rally, to be held June 19, 1970, Revolutionary People's Constitutional Convention, at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. Source Gelman Library, George Washington University. Special Collections Research Center, Radical Left-Wing Publications Collection, LAC0011, Box 5, New Left, LAC0011 Series2 Box5 Folder 26.
#107 - Public Domain image - Photo of Mr. T as a senior in high school. Date 1970
Source English: Prospectus, yearbook of Dunbar Vocational High School, Chicago, Illinois
Author English: Dunbar Vocational High School
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Years 1970 -1980 - Music image http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/browse-author.php?a=4881
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