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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1976:
Paul Leroy Robeson
    Paul Robeson was an African American singer and actor who became involved with the Civil Rights Movement. At Rutgers College, he was an outstanding football player, then had an international career in singing, as well as acting in theater and movies. He became politically involved in response to the Spanish Civil War, fascism, and social injustices.

    His advocacy of anti-imperialism, affiliation with communism, and criticism of the United States government caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era. Ill health forced him into retirement from his career. He remained until his death an advocate of the political stances he took.

    Robeson won an academic scholarship to Rutgers College, where he became a football All-American and the class valedictorian. He received his LL.B. from Columbia Law School while playing in the National Football League (NFL).

    At Columbia, he sang and acted in off-campus productions; and, after graduating, he became a participant in the Harlem Renaissance with performances in Emperor Jones and All God's Chillun Got Wings. Robeson initiated his international artistic résumé with a theatrical role in Great Britain, settling in London for the next several years with his wife Essie.

    Robeson next appeared as Othello at the Savoy Theatre before becoming an international cinema star through roles in Show Boat and Sanders of the River. He became increasingly attuned towards the sufferings of other cultures and peoples. Acting against advice, which warned of his economic ruin if he became politically active, he set aside his theatrical career to advocating the cause of the Republican forces of the Spanish Civil War. He then became active in the Council on African Affairs (CAA).

    During World War II, he supported America's war efforts and won accolades for his portrayal of Othello on Broadway. However, his history of supporting pro-Soviet policies brought scrutiny from the FBI. After the war had ended, the CAA was placed on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations, and Robeson was investigated during the age of McCarthyism.

    Due to his decision not to recant his public advocacy of pro-Soviet policies, he was denied a passport by the U.S. State Department, and his income, consequently, plummeted. He moved to Harlem and published a periodical critical of United States policies. His right to travel was eventually restored by the 1958 United States Supreme Court decision, Kent v. Dulles, but his health broke down. He retired, and he lived out the remaining years of his life privately in Philadelphia.

    Early in his life, Robeson was one of the most influential participants in the Harlem Renaissance. Few people have ever achieved his level of excellence in athletics and academics. His achievements were all the more incredible given the barriers of racism he had to surmount.

    He could have easily had a blind eye to the injustice the black person was going through like others and lived a very comfortable life free from stress, but he chose to be active in the struggle. This is why we must honor this exceptional individual with the 1976 Hamite Award which is given to those you have lived a positive life and uplifted the black community.

    On January 23, 1976, following complications from a stroke, Robeson died in Philadelphia at the age of 77. He lay in state in Harlem, and his funeral was held at his brother Ben's former parsonage, Mother AME Zion Church, where Bishop J. Clinton Hoggard performed the eulogy.

Paul Leroy Robeson
Paul Robeson,American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin peace prize laureate
photo #111-yr-1898



Paul Robeson
Paul Robeson, world famous Negro baritone, leading Moore Shipyard [Oakland, CA] workers
in singing the Star Spangled Banner, here at their lunch hour recently, after he told them:
`This is a serious job---winning this war against fascists. We have to be together.'
Robeson himself was a shipyard worker in World War I.", 09/1942

photo #107-yr-1942



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How were blacks feeling in 1976?
happy mood of blacks



Did our Civil Rights leaders struggle in vain?

Hell No! Check this stat out.

In 1966 there were 282,000 blacks enrolled in college.

10 years later that figure rose a whopping 1,062,000.

Now that's what I'm talkin bout.

Keep up the good work people.

Who knows, in time one of you might become President.

Our ancestors would be so proud.
black college grads



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african american first

 For the year 1976:
  • 1976 - Janie L Mines was the first African American woman to enter The United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

  • 1976 - Clara Stanton Jones was the first African-American president of the American Library Association, serving from 1976 to 1977.



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blacks and basketball

Garry Lee Maddox
Garry Lee Maddox
photo #104-yr-1949

Oscar Charleston
Oscar Charleston
photo #105-yr-1896

Theodore Tiger Flowers
Theodore "Tiger" Flowers
photo #109-yr-1927

Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
photo #106-yr-1936

Joe Morgan
Joe Morgan
photo #108-yr-1976

Ron Lyle
Ron Lyle
photo #109-yr-1976

     Sports in 1976
  • Contemporary observers compared Oscar Charleston, who was a center fielder and manager in baseball's Negro leagues from 1915 to 1945 to that of Tris Speaker and Babe Ruth. Some baseball historians consider him one of the greatest players in history. Oscar was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1976.

  • Garry Maddox aka (Secretary of Defense) wins the 1976 National League Gold Gloves.

  • Tiger Flowers was inducted into the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame in 1976.

  • Jesse Owens was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Gerald Ford.

  • January 24, 1976 - Puncher George Foreman knocks out Ron Lyle in 5th round of a real brawl.

  • April 30, 1976 - Muhammad Ali defeats Jimmy Young in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • July 23, 1976 - Baltimore Oriole's Reggie Jackson homers in his 6th straight baseball game.

  • November 24, 1976 - Cincinnati Reds Joe Morgan wins his 2nd straight National League MVP Award.

  • November 25, 1976 - Buffalo Bill, OJ Simpson gains 273 yards agianst the Detroit Lions.



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What Was The Jonestown Massacre?


cult leader jim jones

The Peoples Temple, the organization at the center of the Jonestown incident, was headquartered in San Francisco, California, from the early to mid-1970s until the Temple's move to Guyana.

While the Temple originated in Indiana in the 1950s, after leader Jim Jones predicted an apocalypse that would create a socialist Eden on earth, it moved to Redwood Valley, California in the late 1960s. Its headquarters later moved into San Francisco, where Jones remained until July 1977, when Jones fled with almost 1,000 Temple members to Jonestown, Guyana following investigations by local media.

On the evening of November 18, 1978 in Jonestown, Jones ordered his congregation to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. In all, 918 people died, including over 270 children, resulting in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001. Congressman Leo Ryan was among those killed at the airstrip.




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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s, and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American


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blacks and education

     Education in 1976
  • There was a sharp increase in college enrollment from 282,000 in the year 1966 to 1,062,000 in 1976.

  • Clara Stanton Jones was the first African-American president of the American Library Association, serving from 1976 to 1977. She was also appointed the director of the Detroit Public Library (1970–1978), becoming the first African-American director of a major city public library in the United States.



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Carter and Ford in a debate
President Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter meet at the Walnut Street Theater in Philadelphia
to debate domestic policy during the first of the three Ford-Carter Debates.

photo #111-yr-1976

ballot box

Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
photo #107-yr-1973

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
photo #110-yr-1976

Black Liberation Army


Weather Underground

     Political scene in 1976
  • 1976 - Gerald Ford was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977. Before this, he was the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 until President Richard Nixon's resignation in 1974. He was the first person appointed to the Vice Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, following the October 10, 1973, Spiro Agnew resignation. Analysis: Richard Nixon was facing impeachment from office, so he arranged to find someone who would take over his presidency and grant him a full pardon in return. Gerald Ford did just that and would later take much heat for this decision to give Nixon the get out of jail free card.


  • November 1976 - Jimmy Carter was elected the 39th President of the United States.


  • 1976 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the organization's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.

  • 1976 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization". Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid seventies.



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black women empowerment


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get your drink on
Getting Faded in the 70s


Long Islands Iced Tea
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea.
photo #101-yr-1979

The Manhattans
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans
photo #105c-yr-1979

having fun in the 70s
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s
photo #library

     Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1976
    For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:

    Wines:
  • Ripple
  • TJ Swan
  • Cisco
  • Wild Irish Rose
  • Boone's Farm

  • Thunderbird -- "What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."

  • Tingle
  • MD 20/20
  • Night Train
  • Tango
  • Cold Duck

  • MD 20/20
    photo#112

    Beers:
  • Colt 45
  • Rainier
  • Old English
  • Schlitz Malt


  • Hard Liquor:
  • Korbel Brandy
  • E & J Brandy
  • Gin and Grapefruit Juice
  • Tequila Sunrise
  • Screwdrivers
  • Bacardi Cocktail
  • Daiquiri
  • Pina Colada


  • Cigarettes:
  • Kool
  • Salem


  • Tequila Sunrise
    Tequila Sunrise garnished
    with orange & cherry
    photo#114a


    I still have a headache, but had a blast!


    Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:

    dominoes
    Dominoes
    photo#library


  • HEY! hit me five times
  • Who dat knocking at my door?
  • Fish and bread keep po' men fed
  • All money ain't good money
  • Beef steak and gravy
  • Ten keys, come and get some of these
  • 4 hoes and a pimp
  • 3 switchin bitches
  • Rock and I'm out


  • Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1976 while enjoying ourselves:

    music in the 70s
    Beats in the 70s   - photo#library

  • Disco Lady, Johnnie Taylor
  • Play That Funky Music, Wild Cherry
  • Kiss and Say Goodbye, The Manhattans
  • Love Machine, Pt. 1, The Miracles
  • Love Hangover, Diana Ross
  • You Sexy Thing, Hot Chocolate
  • Sweet Love, The Commodores
  • Love Rollercoaster, Ohio Players
  • Never Find Another Love, Lou Rawls
  • Love to Love You Baby, Donna Summer
  • Sweet Thing, Rufus
  • That's the Way I Like It, K.C. Sunshine Band
  • I Love Music, The O'Jays
  • Sing a Song, Earth, Wind and Fire
  • I'll Be Good to You, The Brothers Johnson
  • This Masquerade, George Benson
  • Let's Do It Again, The Staple Singers
  • Give Up the Funk, Parliament
  • Walk Away from Love, David Ruffin


  • WOW! I miss 1976



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hip hop
The Civil Rights movement of the 60s was a total success. Now the second part of our journey begins.

Now here's the problem.

For the last hundred years or so, white Americans have had every privilege simply for being white. Unconstitutional Jim Crow laws instituted in the past had restricted blacks in every sense of the word.

Blacks were routinely treated as second-class citizens even after fighting courageously in every single American war, Revolutionary war included.

During this Jim Crow period, whites created a humongous stronghold and power structure for their families in America that still stands today. They completely understand how to navigate this power structure, and do it very well.

But after the 60s, blacks, on the other hand, found it difficult to penetrate and become a part of this American structure and ones that attempted were generally fought every step of the way, not by outright in your face racism, but a new one called casual racism which is just as harmful.

Ever since slavery ended, blacks who are of African culture didn't get much help assimilating into an American (European) way of life. After victory with our Civil Rights in the 60s, many didn't understand how to challenge this power structure in a productive and intelligent way growing frustrated and angry. Many were resorting to violence until an amazing man named DJ Kool Herc steps onto the scene to save the day!


DJ Kool Herc spinning records
photos#118-yr-1980


DJ Kool Herc was the beginning of Hip Hop and gave many a positive outlet instead of violence, and whether older blacks liked it or not for our younger people would replace the guidance of influential civil rights leaders of past and become the voice they listened to for knowledge and help.

The media began to portray Hip hop/rapper figures as the brains of the black race. They are treated as wise ones and royalty. But they forgot or just ignored the many blacks who achieved with brainpower as college graduates, as opposed to artistic ability. Because of this portrayal, Hip-hop/Rap artist have without a doubt become an influential voice in the black community.

rapper



Many older blacks who were trained by our past Civil Rights leaders excellent moral guidance and teachings liked their beats but not the messages because it was filled with much hate and violence, especially on our people.

So when a younger black person who has been trained by these lyrics attempt to enter the white power structure workforce, they very seldom get through the front door, and it has nothing to do with racism, and if they are lucky enough to get that far they usually don't last, because they don't understand how to deal and work with people.

Don't get it wrong; Hip hop/rap music is a part of who we are, and we are all so proud of our ability to create something out of nothing that the entire world loves and imitates. But it also comes with a tremendous responsibility when possessing such great power and influence to help people and especially our own. Don't forget to teach our young that beats are good, but books are better!

There are many who keep the entertainment value of Hip hop/rap in perspective and understand how to maintain a balance, but there are also many easily influenced ones who fail and don't have a clue. So an important question arises. Will Hip-Hop lead the weaker one's in learning to live in the real world so we all can achieve and soar like the eagles or will it sell us out for the love of fame and money?



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slang and memorable quotes
slang african americans      sLANG tALK in 1976
  • Do Your Own Thing!  - whatever pleases you
  • Be yourself!  - don't be a fake
  • Do what you want to do  - whatever pleases you
  • Laid Back  - taking it easy, relaxed
  • Psyche  - excited, energized
  • The Crib and going to the Gig  - home
  • The Gig  - job
  • Dream On  - hopeful
  • Kicks   - shoes
  • Mackin   - gettin the girls
  • Off The Hook  - extra cool
  • Old School   - old fashioned
  • Pad  - home
  • In Your Face!  - victory
  • That's Sick!  - awesome
  • The Man  - police
  • To The Max  - maximum
  • Yo Mama  - term of endearment, joking around
  • Chill   - take it easy
  • Feel Tha Funk   - groove and feel the music
  • Catch My Drift   - do you understand?
  • Chillaxin   - relaxing
  • Chump  - punk
  • Copasetic   - something cool, hip
  • Don't Bogart  - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
  • Doobie   - a joint
  • Dude   - a guy
  • For Rizzle   - I didn't know that
  • Foxy   - sexy girl
  • Gimme Five  - cool handshake
  • Hood   - a ghetto person
  • Trippin   - going wacko
  • Pig  - police
  • Pimpin   - a guy good with the ladies
  • Dig It  - understand
  • Backatcha!   - you too
  • Brick House  - super fine woman
  • Can You Dig It  - you understand?
  • Right On   - agree
  • Stone Groove  - extra cool and fun


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black Movies in America

 Sanford and Son
Sanford and Son
photo #107-yr-1972

Isabel Sanford
Isabel Sanford with The Jeffersons co-stars, Sherman Hemsley and Mike Evans
photo #105-yr-1917

Tony Orlando and Dawn
Tony Orlando and Dawn
photo #108-yr-1974

Paula Kelly
Paula Kelly
photo #104-yr-1976

 Danielle Spencer
Danielle Spencer of What's Happening!!
photo #106-yr-1965

Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs
Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs from Welcome back Kotter
photo #106-yr-1975

     Television / Movies in 1976
    Movies:
  • Norman... Is That You? - Redd Foxx (as Ben Chambers)

  • Adios Amigo - is an American comedy-Western starring Fred Williamson and Richard Pryor.

  • Car Wash - an episodic comedy about a day in the lives of the employees and the owner, Mr. B (Sully Boyar), of a Los Angeles, California car wash.

  • The Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings - a comedic sports film about a team of enterprising ex-Negro League baseball players in the era of racial segregation.

  • Silver Streak - a 1976 comedy-thriller film about a murder on a Los Angeles-to-Chicago train journey



  • Television:
  • Sanford and Son which aired from 1972-1977 was a show we could go to to get our laugh on. We grew up with Redd Foxx, so we knew of his reputation and raw delivery with comedy. Poor Lamont, always getting the worst hand when dealing with his dad, but dad did it all with love. In 2007, Time magazine included the show on their list of the "100 Best TV Shows of All Time". The Sanford and Son show is dearly missed.

  • Tony Orlando and Dawn variety show which aired from 1974-1976 was a feel good show. Their signature hits include "Candida", "Knock Three Times", "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree", and "He Don't Love You (Like I Love You)". The show primarily featured sketches sarcastic back-and-forth banter between Orlando, Hopkins, and Vincent. After the show had ended, Telma Hopkins ended up doing very becoming a familiar face on the tv screen, acting in different shows. Joyce Vincent continues to tour and perform to audiences all over the world.

  • The Jeffersons - is an black sitcom that was broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975, through July 2, 1985. The show focuses on George and (weezy) Louise Jefferson, an affluent African-American couple living in New York City. Proud George loved his family, a little man carried a big stick and wasn't afraid of anybody. Movin on Up!

  • Welcome Back Kotter - Who could forget those crazy "Sweathogs" always into something bad? Their wisecracking teacher Mr. Kotter, played by Gabe Kaplan would have us dying laughing with his corny sense of humor. Vinnie Barbarino played by (John Travolta) went on to become an excellent actor. The rest of the characters were Arnold Horshack (Ron Palillo), Juan Luis Pedro Felipo de Huevos Epstein, played by (Robert Hegyes), Julie Kotter played by (Marcia Strassman), The vice-principle Michael Woodman played by (John Sylvester White) and last but not least Mr. Soul Brother himself, Freddie "Boom Boom" Percy Washington, played by Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs. The show aired 1975-1979. (Welcome Back Kotter Trivia)   Local ABC affiliate in Boston didn't want to air the show because the city was going through a period of school busing and there was a lot of rioting and protest going on. As you know, Welcome back Kotter had an integrated classroom, and they didn't want to make the white public feel like they were rubbing this in their faces. But after early success from the show, the affiliate jumped aboard around the 5th episode.

  • What's Happening!! - was a television show that aired from 1976-1979. It was a show everyone could relate. Roger, Dwayne and Rerun were your typical teenagers getting themselves in a jam most of the time about something, and smart mouth Dee always saying I'm gonna tell my mama! Most episodes focused on the goals of teenage males: meeting girls, finding afterschool jobs, and planning for the future.

  • Police Woman is an American television police drama starring Angie Dickinson that ran on NBC for four seasons, from September 13, 1974, to March 29, 1978. Paula Kelly starred in an episode of the NBC television series Police Woman, in 1976.

  • Lena Horne - The Muppet Show (as herself, 1976)

  • Lena Horne - Sesame Street (as herself, Episode #7.76, March 15, 1976)

  • 1976 - The Family Viewing Hour was a policy established by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States in 1975. Under the policy, each television network in the U.S. had a responsibility to air "family-friendly" programming during the first hour of the prime time lineup (8 to 9 p.m. Eastern Time). The hour disappeared in 1977 after the policy was declared unconstitutional and overturned in court. Analysis: and it's been downhill for America ever since.



  • Blaxploitation Films:
    movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
  • Ebony, Ivory & Jade:  Three female athletes are kidnapped during an international track meet in Hong Kong and fight their way to freedom.

  • The Muthers: Jeanne Bell and Jayne Kennedy rescue prisoners held at an evil coffee plantation.

  • Passion Plantation:  A blend of the Mandingo, and Emmanuelle are erotic films with interracial sex and savagery.

  • Velvet Smooth:  a female private detective hired to infiltrate the criminal underworld.

  • Human Tornado: Rudy Ray Moore plays in the sequel to the 1975 film Dolemite.





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famous african american birthdays


     Famous Birthdays in 1976
  • January 19, 1976 - VL Mike was an American rap artist from New Orleans, Louisiana.

  • February 4, 1976 - Cam'ron singer/actor born in Harlem, Manhattan, New York.

  • March 19, 1976 - De'aundre M. Bonds is an American actor. The actor Samuel Monroe Jr. is his godbrother.

  • August 9, 1976 - Texas Quency Battle is an American film and television actor.

  • August 25, 1976 - Jensen Atwood  is an American actor who was raised and currently resides in South Central, Los Angeles.

  • November 7, 1976 - Melyssa Savannah Ford, Canadian model and actress.

  • November 12, 1976 - Tevin Jermod Campbell, singer, songwriter and actor.

  • November 20, 1976 - Dominique Margaux Dawes, retired artistic gymnast. Known in the gymnastics community as 'Awesome Dawesome.'

  • November 29, 1976 - Chadwick Aaron Boseman is an American actor, playwright, and screenwriter.



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black american deaths

Mordecai Wyatt Johnson
Mordecai Wyatt Johnson
photo #107-yr-1890

Paul Leroy Robeson
Paul Robeson, American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin peace prize laureate
photo #111-yr-1898

Dean Dixon
Conductor Dean Dixon
Photography by William P. Gottlieb

photo #109-yr-1948

     Famous Deaths in 1976
  • January 23, 1976 - Paul Leroy Robeson was an American singer and actor who became involved with the Civil Rights Movement. At Rutgers College, he was an outstanding football player, then had an international career in singing, as well as acting in theater and movies.

  • April 14, 1976 - William Henry Hastie, Jr., lawyer, judge, educator, public official, and advocate for the civil rights of African Americans.

  • September 10, 1976 - Mordecai Wyatt Johnson was an American educator and pastor. He served as the first black president of Howard University, from 1926 until 1960. Johnson has been considered one of the three leading African-American preachers of the early 20th-century, along with Vernon Johns and Howard Thurman.

  • October 3, 1976 - Victoria Spivey   was an American blues singer and songwriter. During a recording career that spanned forty years, from 1926 to the mid-1960s.

  • November 3, 1976 - Dean Dixon  formed his own orchestra and choral society in 1931. In 1941, he guest-conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra, and the New York Philharmonic during its summer season. He later guest-conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra and Boston Symphony Orchestra.



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famous african american weddings

Freda Payne
Freda Payne
photo #118-yr-1970

Bill Withers
Bill Withers
photo #106-yr-1999

     Famous Weddings in 1976
  • April, 1976 - David Ruffin  married Joy Hamilton.

  • December 31, 1976 - Redd Foxx  married Yun Chi Chung.

  • July 11, 1976 - Mel Stewart  married Annie Dong.

  • July 31, 1976 - Natalie Cole  married Marvin Yancy.

  • 1976 - Walter Payton  married Connie Payton.

  • 1976 - Avery Brooks  married Vicki Lenora Brooks.

  • 1976 - Curley Neal  married Rose Ponedel.

  • 1976 - Freda Payne  married Gregory Abbott.

  • 1976 - Bill Withers  married Marcia Withers née Johnson.



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famous african american divorces

Barbara McNair
Barbara McNair
photo #107-yr-1934

     Famous Divorces in 1976
  • 1976 - David Ruffin and Joy Hamilton were divorced.

  • 1976 - Tim Reid and Rita Reid were divorced.

  • 1976 - Barbara McNair and Rick Manzie were divorced.



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soul music orgin


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 Rose Royce
Rose Royce
photo #105-yr-1976

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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Barry White
Barry White
photo #109-yr-1973

The Manhattans
The Manhattans
photo #105c-yr-1979

Johnnie Taylor
Johnnie Taylor
photo #108-yr-1973

 Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
photo #110-yr-1975

Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin
photo #100-yr-1971

  Gladys Knight and the Pips
Gladys Knight and the Pips
photo #108-yr-1967

Tyrone Davis
Tyrone Davis
photo #106-yr-1976

 Lou Rawls
Lou Rawls
photo #107-yr-1976

The Temptations
The Temptations
photo #110-yr-1965

     Music in 1976

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Walk Away from Love"   David Ruffin

  • "Sing a Song"   Earth, Wind & Fire

  • "Wake Up Everybody (Part 1)"   Harold Melvin & The Blue Notes

  • "Turning Point"   Tyrone Davis

  • "Inseparable"   Natalie Cole

  • "Sweet Thing"   Rufus featuring Chaka Khan

  • "Boogie Fever"   The Sylvers

  • "Disco Lady"   Johnnie Taylor

  • "Livin' for the Weekend/Stairway to Heaven"   The O'Jays

  • "Movin'"   Brass Construction

  • "Love Hangover"   Diana Ross

  • "Kiss and Say Goodbye"   The Manhattans

  • "I Want You"   Marvin Gaye

  • "Young Hearts Run Free"   Candi Staton

  • "I'll Be Good to You"   The Brothers Johnson

  • "Sophisticated Lady (She's a Different Lady)"   Natalie Cole

  • "Something He Can Feel"   Aretha Franklin

  • "You'll Never Find Another Love Like Mine"   Lou Rawls

  • "Getaway"   Earth, Wind & Fire

  • "Who'd She Coo?"   The Ohio Players

  • "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty"   KC & the Sunshine Band

  • "Play That Funky Music"   Wild Cherry

  • "Just to Be Close to You"   The Commodores

  • "The Rubberband Man"   The Spinners

  • "Message in Our Music"   The O'Jays

  • "Love Ballad"   L.T.D.

  • "You Don't Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)"   Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis Jr.

  • "Dazz"   Brick

  • "Car Wash"   Rose Royce




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Bump

  • Walking the dog

  • The Worm

  • The Rock Steady

  • The Breakdown

  • The Funky Chicken

  • Electric Slide

  • Locking - Roboting - Popping

  • Breakdancing - B-boying



  Musical Happenings in 1976:
  • Afrika Bambaataa emerges as a major competitor to DJ Kool Herc, who had long been by far the single most prominent individual in hip hop culture.

  • Tenor saxophonist Dexter Gordon performs in New York and New Orleans, inspiring a wave of interest in bebop, leading to a revival of that style.

  • Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.

 American Music Awards winners in 1976:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Barry White


  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Aretha Franklin


  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Gladys Knight & The Pips


  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • A Song for You - The Temptations


  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Get Down Tonight" - KC & The Sunshine Band



 Grammy winners in 1976:
    The 18th Annual Grammy Awards were held February 28, 1976, and were broadcast live on American television. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1975.

    Best New Artist
  • Natalie Cole


  • Best Comedy Recording
  • Richard Pryor for Is It Something I Said?


  • Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording
  • Muddy Waters for The Muddy Waters Woodstock Album


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance
  • Andrae Crouch for Take Me Back performed by Andrae Crouch & the Disciples


  • Best Jazz Performance by a Soloist
  • Dizzy Gillespie for Oscar Peterson and Dizzy Gillespie


  • Best Cast Show Album
  • Charlie Smalls (composer), Jerry Wexler (producer) & the original cast with Stephanie Mills & Dee Dee Bridgewater for The Wiz


  • Best Album Package
  • Jim Ladwig (art director) for Honey performed by the Ohio Players Best Album Notes


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Natalie Cole for "This Will Be"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Ray Charles for "Living for the City"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus
  • Earth, Wind & Fire for "Shining Star"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Harry Wayne Casey, Willie Clarke, Richard Finch & Betty Wright (songwriters) for "Where Is the Love" performed by Betty Wright




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recipe for dissater


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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s

hot pants of 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s


billy preston afro
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
photo #122-yr-1970


afro hairstyle
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s photo - pixabay.com


billy preston afro
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women.
photo #123-yr-1970


mini skirt
Fashionable miniskirt


graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s


men fashion
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s


     Fashions and Styles in 1976

  Popular Fashions:

    Overview:
    The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.

    In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.

    Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.


    Women:
    Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.

    Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.

    Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.

    Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.

    In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.

    Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.


    Men:
    The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.

    Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.

    Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.

    Hairstyles:
    In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes. In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1970s

Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
photo #101-yr-1899

mood ring
Mood ring of the 70s
photo #110-yr-1960

Our Community in 1976
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • 1976 - Scott Joplin was posthumously awarded a Pulitzer Prize.

  • 1970s - A mood ring is a ring that changed colors based upon the temperature of the finger of the wearer. The ring included a color chart indicating the supposed mood of the wearer based upon the colors indicated on the ring. The mood ring was a big fad in the 1970s.

  • 1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   By Newtown graffiti CC-BY-2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   By Caartic (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   By AlMare (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   By Philosophygeek [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#105c -   By Starday-King Records (Billboard, page 81, 26 August 1972) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#114a -   By Evan Swigart from Chicago, USA (Tequila Sunrise) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By NBC Television. The photo ran in the paper on January 2 1977, with credit to NBC for the photo, as seen in news clipping on back. (ebay item frontback) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Dwight McCann/Chumash Casino Resort/www.DwightMcCann.com [CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   By Dakar Records (Billboard, page 31, 10 October 1970) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#107 -   By «Marylandstater» «reply»Marylandstater at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#108 -   By ?Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots?.Baseball Bugs at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

#109 -   By Cliff Mattax (June Mattax) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#110 -   By Department of Defense. Department of the Navy. Naval Photographic Center [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#111 -   David Hume Kennerly [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#112 -   https://pixabay.com/en/graduate-graduation-school-student-150374/


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