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annual hamite award

Asa Philip Randolph




    Asa Philip Randolph was a leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the American labor movement, and socialist political parties.

    From his father, Randolph learned that color was less important than a person's character and conduct. From his mother, he learned the importance of education and of defending oneself physically against those who would seek to hurt one or one's family, if necessary Randolph remembered the night vividly his mother sat in the front room of their house with a loaded shotgun across her lap, while his father tucked a pistol under his coat and went off to prevent a mob from lynching a man at the local county jail.

    Asa and his brother, James, were excellent students. They attended the Cookman Institute in East Jacksonville, the only academic high school in Florida for African Americans. Asa excelled in literature, drama, and public speaking; he also starred on the school's baseball team, sang solos with the school choir, and was valedictorian of the 1907 graduating class.

    After graduation, Randolph worked odd jobs and devoted his time to singing, acting, and reading. Reading W. E. B. Du Bois' The Souls of Black Folk convinced him that the fight for social equality was most important. Barred by discrimination from all but manual jobs in the South, Randolph moved to New York City in 1911, where he worked at odd jobs and took social sciences courses at City College.

    Randolph and his wife Lucille launched the Messenger. The first issue cost 15 cents (its price would never change) and ran the mission statement written by Randolph and Owen:

    “Our aim is to appeal to reason, to lift our pens above the cringing demagogy of the times, and above the cheap peanut politics of the old reactionary black leaders. Patriotism has no appeal to us; justice has. Party has no weight with us; principle has. Loyalty is meaningless; it depends on what one is loyal. Prayer is not one of our remedies; it depends on what one is praying. We consider prayer as nothing more than a fervent wish; consequently the merit and worth of a prayer depend upon what the fervent wish is.”

    The Messenger tackled issues which other journals and magazines avoided. The Messenger was notable for its critical perspective during the Harlem Renaissance. It was described as "The most feared black publication" during its reigning era from 1917 till 1928. Randolph and his wife Lucille ran for secretary of state and the state legislature on the Socialist ticket in 1917. The January issue of 1918 supported Bolshevism in Russia after its revolution.

    He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly African-American labor union. In the early Civil Rights Movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services.

    Through his success with the BSCP, Randolph emerged as one of the most visible spokespeople for African-American civil rights. In 1941, he, Bayard Rustin, and A. J. Muste proposed a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries, an end to segregation, access to defense employment, the proposal of an anti-lynching law and the desegregation of the American Armed forces.

    Randolph's belief in the power of peaceful direct action was inspired partly by Mahatma Gandhi's success in using such tactics against British occupation in India.

    Didn't I tell you this man was an extraordinary individual in our American struggle for justice and equality. He was a powerhouse of a man that must not be forgotten. His contributions to our peoples are remarkable. We are deeply indebted to Asa Philip Randolph and honor his esteemed memory with the 1979 Hamite Award.

    Although King and Bevel rightly deserve great credit for these legislative victories, the importance of Randolph's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement is large.

    Asa Philip Randolph died on May 16, 1979.

Asa Philip Randolph
Asa Philip Randolph
photo #103-yr-1889

July 1918 issue of The Messenger
Cover of the July 1918
issue of The Messenger

photo #106-yr-1979

Asa Philip Randolph
Painting by Betsy Graves Reyneau
photo #107-yr-1979

Asa Philip Randolph
Civil Rights leader A. Philip Randolph receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Lyndon Johnson, September 1964
photo #109-yr-1979

Asa Philip Randolph
Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. - Leaders of the march (from left to right) Mathew Ahmann, Executive Director of the National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice; (seated with glasses) Cleveland Robinson, Chairman of the Demonstration Committee; (standing behind the two chairs) Rabbi Joachim Prinz, President of the American Jewish Congress; (beside Robinson is) A. Philip Randolph, organizer of the demonstration, veteran labor leader who helped to found the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, American Federation of Labor (AFL), and a former vice president of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO); (wearing a bow tie and standing beside Prinz is) Joseph Rauh, Jr, a Washington, DC attorney and civil rights, peace, and union activist; John Lewis, Chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; and Floyd McKissick, National Chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality.
photo #108-yr-1979

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How were blacks feeling in 1979?
happy mood of blacks

Guardian Angels

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blacks and basketball

Garry Lee Maddox
Garry Lee Maddox
photo #104-yr-1949

Willie  Mays
Willie Mays
photo #103-yr-1931

Marshall Walter Major Taylor
Marshall Walter "Major" Taylor
African American cyclist
champion in the 1800s
photo #104-yr-1878

Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
photo #122-yr-1978

Rickey Henderson
Rickey Henderson
photo #111-yr-1979

     Sports in 1979
  • Garry Maddox aka (Secretary of Defense) wins the 1979 National League Gold Gloves.

  • Willie Mays was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, his first year of eligibility.

  • The first African-American cycling club named in honor of Major Taylor was organized in Columbus, Ohio, in 1979.

  • June 22, 1979 - Boxer Larry Holmes knocks out Mike Weaver in the 12th round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • June 24, 1979 - Baseball's Rickey Henderson debuts for the Oakland A's and steals his very first base. Trivia:  After Rickey broke Lou Brocks base stealing record and gave a speech that didn't sit well for many people. He modeled his speech after his hero Muhammad Ali calling himself "The Greatest". Folks called him arrogant and selfish for doing this. Henderson said that speech still haunts him to this day. Rickey had went over his speech with Brock himself before he gave it. Brock didn't have a problem with it, and just said that Rickey spoke from his heart.

  • August 13, 1979 - Baseball's Lou Brock is only the 14th player to get 3,000 hits.

  • September 28, 1979 - Boxer Larry Holmes knocks out Earnie Shavers in 11 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

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education and hate

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ballot box

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
photo #110-yr-1976

Patricia R. Harris
Official portrait of then-Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Patricia R. Harris
photo #110-yr-1977

police cannot  randomly stop cars
Police restraints
photo #110-yr-1979

Black Liberation Army

Weather Underground

     Political Scene in 1979
  • 1979 - Jimmy Carter an American politician, author, and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center.

  • January 14, 1979 - United States President Jimmy Carter proposes Martin Luther King's birthday to be a national holiday.

  • March 27, 1979 - The United States Supreme Court rules 8-1 that police cannot randomly stop cars. Analysis:  Throughout history police have had a bad relationship with blacks. All citizens want to feel protected by authorities. Police historically didn't recognize that fact in regards to black citizens. It's all recorded in history about the murders, lynchings, and brutality. Not all police but many have much blood on their hands. They used the badge to mask their racial hate with 100% impunity. I hate to say it, but it's true. These corrupt policemen have historically, and that's from the top down broke a trust with the one's it swore to protect and cast a shadow over the good cops. Everyone is aware we need law and cops, but many dislike them because of a terrible history.

  • June 27, 1979 - The United States Supreme Court rules that employers may use quotas to help minorities.

  • November 5, 1979 - Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini declares the United States is "The Great Satan".

  • Patricia Harris was became Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

  • Richard Arrington Jr. was the first African American mayor of the city of Birmingham, Alabama, serving 20 years, from 1979 to 1999.

  • 1979 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the agency's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.

  • 1979 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization." Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid-seventies.

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What was the Women's Liberation Movement?
The movement was a type of feminism that began in the turbulent late 1960s, and persisted throughout the 1970s. These women were mostly white and middle class who didn't want to address the particular needs of their black American sisters, so black females started their own feminist movement.

What did the movement accomplish, has it made America better?
It empowered women to become great and successful indivduals, minus the man.

"The Black Women's Manifesto Introduction" states:

"If the potential of the black woman is seen mainly as a supportive role for the black man, then the black woman becomes an object to be utilized by another human being. It is not right that her existence should be validated only by the existence of the black man."

The good book says the woman was created as a helper for the man, and the typical black empowered feminist woman is not in a (helper) frame of mind. Traditional male and female roles would definitely change because of this.

 Black Women's Manifesto

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get your drink on
Getting Faded in the 70s

Long Islands Iced Tea
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea.
photo #101-yr-1979

The Manhattans
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans
photo #105c-yr-1979

having fun in the 70s
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s
photo #library

     Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1979
    For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:

  • Ripple
  • TJ Swan
  • Cisco
  • Wild Irish Rose
  • Boone's Farm

  • Thunderbird -- "What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."

  • Tingle
  • MD 20/20
  • Night Train
  • Tango
  • Cold Duck

  • MD 20/20

  • Colt 45
  • Rainier
  • Old English
  • Schlitz Malt

  • Hard Liquor:
  • Korbel Brandy
  • E & J Brandy
  • Gin and Grapefruit Juice
  • Tequila Sunrise
  • Screwdrivers
  • Bacardi Cocktail
  • Daiquiri
  • Pina Colada

  • Cigarettes:
  • Kool
  • Salem

  • Tequila Sunrise
    Tequila Sunrise garnished
    with orange & cherry

    I still have a headache, but had a blast!

    Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:


  • HEY! hit me five times
  • Who dat knocking at my door?
  • Fish and bread keep po' men fed
  • All money ain't good money
  • Beef steak and gravy
  • Ten keys, come and get some of these
  • 4 hoes and a pimp
  • 3 switchin bitches
  • Rock and I'm out

  • Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1979 while enjoying ourselves:

    music in the 70s
    Beats in the 70s   - photo#library

  • Bad Girls, Donna Summer
  • Le Freak, Chic
  • Reunited, Peaches and Herb
  • I Will Survive, Gloria Gaynor
  • Hot Stuff, Donna Summe
  • Ring My Bell, Anita Ward
  • MacArthur Park, Donna Summer
  • Fire, Pointer Sisters
  • Good Times, Chic
  • Shake Groove Thing, Peaches,Herb
  • Never Love This Way Again, Warwick
  • After Love Has Gone, Earth, Wind, Fire
  • Heaven Sent You, Bonnie Pointer
  • He's Greatest Dancer, Sister Sledge
  • We Are Family, Sister Sledge

  • WOW! I miss 1979

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green door to success

Did you know you came from an amazing race of people who cared for you? It's true. The amazing accomplishments of our ancestors are recorded on this website. Years ago as slaves it was illegal for slaves to read and write, and a felony for anyone caught teaching them.

The slavemaster wanted to keep them ignorant so they wouldn't organize and rebel against their authority. He was able to dominate blacks in this way. The slavemaster understood the power of education.

Sadly today too many of our own have not learned how truly important it is to learn. Some may look at education as a white thing and to pick up a book as a sellout. Has any ignorant person ever made you feel that way? If so, you should run away as fast as you can from a person like this. You will meet him in a few years while he's pushing a shopping cart around town.

Education and learning are not white; it's a gift for all humankind. Read at all cost; it will add a new dimension to your life, bringing a whole new world you never knew existed. Your ancestors made it all possible for you.

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slang and memorable quotes
slang african americans      sLANG tALK in 1979
  • Do Your Own Thing!  - whatever pleases you
  • Be yourself!  - don't be a fake
  • Do what you want to do  - whatever pleases you
  • Laid Back  - taking it easy, relaxed
  • Psyche  - excited, energized
  • The Crib and going to the Gig  - home
  • The Gig  - job
  • Dream On  - hopeful
  • Kicks   - shoes
  • Mackin   - gettin the girls
  • Off The Hook  - extra cool
  • Old School   - old fashioned
  • Pad  - home
  • In Your Face!  - victory
  • That's Sick!  - awesome
  • The Man  - police
  • To The Max  - maximum
  • Yo Mama  - term of endearment, joking around
  • Chill   - take it easy
  • Feel Tha Funk   - groove and feel the music
  • Catch My Drift   - do you understand?
  • Chillaxin   - relaxing
  • Chump  - punk
  • Copasetic   - something cool, hip
  • Don't Bogart  - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
  • Doobie   - a joint
  • Dude   - a guy
  • For Rizzle   - I didn't know that
  • Foxy   - sexy girl
  • Gimme Five  - cool handshake
  • Hood   - a ghetto person
  • Trippin   - going wacko
  • Pig  - police
  • Pimpin   - a guy good with the ladies
  • Dig It  - understand
  • Backatcha!   - you too
  • Brick House  - super fine woman
  • Can You Dig It  - you understand?
  • Right On   - agree
  • Stone Groove  - extra cool and fun

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 american standards
 american standards

"all men are created equal"
The cornerstone of American Principles
But is it true, or just empty words?

Well, once again we have to go back in history to get the likely answer.

Just imagine in your mind what America was going through in it's beginning. Poor European immigrants from around the world braved the mighty oceans traveling to the "New World" for a better life. Anything was better than where they were leaving.

The church had dominated the thinking of Europeans for many years but with the invention of the printing press and sharing of information they slowly began forming their ideas and belief systems independent of the church. One of these beliefs was in social science which taught the Negro was an inferior ape-like creature with no prospect for advancement and whites were superior to them.

Sounds silly I know, but Europeans believed it (and some still do today). They brought these beliefs with them to America. This is the reason whites didn't want anything whatsoever to do with blacks because in their superior way of thinking it would be a step backward to intermingle and share America with people of African descent whom they considered beast like.

the negro is a beast

Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than Africans. Africans were a tribal people lost in time practicing all sorts of superstitious traditions. Leaders didn't teach their citizens to read or write, and much of African history was lost forever because of this failure. Africans would pass their culture down to the next generation orally.

The Sahara Desert kept these Sub Saharan Africans landlocked away from the rest of the world and because of this fact were not able to share in the worlds new love for education and science.

When Africans finally collided with the Europeans through the slave trade, they were shocked at the degree of hate these people had against them. Europeans loved science because it excused them from a moral conscience they had been burdened with in their practice of religion. So when they raped, pillaged, and murdered they did so in the name of science or white superiority which made it perfectly O.K. with their hearts.

After the Africans made it to America and were forced to work as slaves, it took many years until white people began to feel they were wrong about the mistreatment of blacks and started movements to free them. After slavery was finally abolished in 1863, another form of hate and discrimination would appear on the scene named Jim Crow.

After Abraham Lincoln had died, every single U.S. President up unto Lyndon Baines Johnson would ignore the Declaration of Independence principle that "All men are created equal" and violated the law of the land by disobeying our U.S. Constitution that guaranteed Negroes first class citizenship with Jim Crow laws. They just refused to accept blacks as equals. Throughout history this was referred to as the "Negro Problem"

It would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Some of the early Americans who penned the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution which was essentially a moral roadmap for all Americans to live by were honest to true goodness Americans who understood the vision for the United States.

But on the other hand, this true vision of America was too lofty for most whites to follow. They sought only to take from our country for their selfish gains. They considered themselves privileged ones.

But not all were anti-American.

Great men such as Wiliam Whipple who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence was a true American.

During the Revolutionary War period Whipple wrote as follows to Josiah Bartlett, “The last accounts from South Carolina were favorable. A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of blacks. This, I suppose, will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country. I hope it will be the means of dispensing the blessings of Freedom to all the human race in America.”  William Whipple

Even though these true Americans like William Whipple didn't particularly like blacks, they were special people because they put their personal feelings on the back burner and American ideals and principles first. William Whipple could not sign the Declaration of Independence and own slaves at the same time, so what did he do? He set his slave free. Many other true early Americans did the same thing.

william whipple
William Whipple, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and a true American

But most American leaders chose to ignore American ideals and principles for their advantage and held on to their slaves, and after slavery was outlawed created illegal laws that made a joke of the U.S. Constitution, and trashed the Declaration of Independence which was anything but being true American and this is the way it remained until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.

Not much has changed. We still have a strong racist element in America and will continue to do so until this dark period in America's history is talked about and hashed out between the races. Many white Americans will probably never change their negative view of blacks which was initiated by erring scientist years ago and continue to pass their hate down from generation to generation.

So what does this have to do with American standards?

America in its infancy was slowly creating a standard that would become admired over the world. Although quickly fading from practice in our day the American standard consisted of honesty in business dealings, promoting fairness, practicing proper relationships, justice, civility, right dress, speech, eating, and anything positive that enriched the community as a whole. Yes, even racist anti-Americans understood and lived by these standards when it didn't conflict with their hate.

Now here's the problem.

With blacks finally attaining enforcement of their civil rights in the 1960s, many didn't quite know which standard to live. Many wondered to themselves, "Should we live under the American standard where many were unkind to us and made us feel unwelcome or continue living under the old Negro standard that was adopted during and after slavery?"

In the following movie, great black filmmaker Oscar Micheaux created a film entitled "Birthright" which was about a well spoken black man named (Peter) who left his Southern roots to go to Harvard and obtain his education. He returned to the south with the hopes of opening up schools to teach the young black kids. He met a beautiful woman (Sissy), and both shared a mutual love interest, and while at a house he was living they had a conversation where she mentioned that since he had an education, he now lived under a different code or (standard) than the other black people in the Southern town. Sissy tells him that since he changed his code (standard) and returned to judge the residents, it wasn't fair. Blacks in the city still lived by the old Negro code or standard. This movie can be found in its entirety on Netflix under (Pioneers of African-American Cinema) There are still many blacks today who live by this old Negro code or standard.

What's a Negro standard?

Many blacks took pride in being different from white America, even down to this day. So during slavery we created our special language to communicate with each other (AAVE), our flashy style of dress, our own and unique way we dealt with one another, it's a standard white people just wouldn't understand, and we loved it because it belonged to us. It's how we survived for decades.

 american standards

Did blacks hold onto the old Negro standard
after the Civil Rights movement?

After the 60s, it wasn't easy trying to blend in and assimilate into the American way of doing things, especially when you know there are ones that hate you. It could be very discouraging. It was especially hard on our black men. But happily many blacks made the smart choice of choosing the American standard, even though they knew they would be called Uncle Toms or sellouts by members of our race for trying to act white or like the enemy as they saw it.

These people were wise because they understood just like the slaves of old what this country was founded on and this gave them strength to live as true Americans. They could care less about racist whites and their hate for us or the foolish blacks who would say bad things about them. They remembered true American brothers like William Whipple and made their mind to follow the American standard of living.

Now if these blacks had stayed in the old Negro standard, they would have been left behind. You cannot blend the American standard with the old Negro standard. It would never work, and that goes for others such as Mexicans, Chinese, Middle Eastern, etc. We all must live by one standard way of doing things in America, even if we may hate one another.

So, if one from the old Negro standard wants to achieve it would be a mistake to look at it as trying to be white. No, we are working to be better Americans, true Americans. Browse through this website and learn about the countless number of blacks who died so that we could attempt this.

After the Civil Rights movement when whites were finally able to have contact with blacks through the event of integration many came to the realization that blacks were not much different than themselves. We're all humans, not like those crazy racist scientists preached as fact years ago to ruin America. They have much blood on their hands.

We must achieve and become victorious even under the bad hand of white racist which without a doubt we will encounter on our American journey. The only difference is today; it's not out in the open like it once was.

But on the other hand, we will also encounter the William Whipple's of the world. How do you think we elected a black President? It couldn't have been accomplished without white people. That in a sense was William voting for our first black president. So when issues arise, don't hate America, if you must hate at all hate the actions of the anti-American racist who reside in her.

 american standards

We can't let anyone hold us back from achieving our dreams which wouldn't make any sense believing "I'm gonna waste my life away with selfish pleasure seeking because of the white man, and also my homies will call me a sellout if I attempt to better myself." which is the thinking from the old Negro standard.

We must all strive to be sharp, smart, successful and proud African Americans living under American standards because it's the best in the world and many of our ancestors died for the opportunity we have today.

So to answer the above question, are all men created equal? It depends on who point of view you take. If you look through the eyes of racist anti-American people, then we are not created equal, but if you look at it through the eyes of true Americans, yes without a doubt we are all created equal and share mutually in achieving in America which is the greatest country in the world.

I think I'll look at it through the eyes of true America, like our friend and American brother William Whipple.


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black Movies in America

Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs
Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs from Welcome back Kotter Fame
photo #106-yr-1975

 Danielle Spencer
Danielle Spencer of What's Happening!!
photo #106-yr-1965

Isabel Sanford
Isabel Sanford with The Jeffersons co-stars, Sherman Hemsley and Mike Evans
photo #105-yr-1917

     Television / Movies in 1979
  • The Jeffersons - is an black sitcom that was broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975, through July 2, 1985. The show focuses on George and (weezy) Louise Jefferson, an affluent African-American couple living in New York City. Proud George loved his family, little man carried a big stick and wasn't afraid of anybody. Movin on Up!

  • What's Happening!! - was a television show that aired from 1976-1979. It was a show everyone could relate to. Roger, Dywayne and Rerun were your normal teenagers getting themselves in a jam most of the time about something, and smart mouth Dee always sayin I'm gonna tell my mama! Most episodes focused on the goals of teenage males: meeting girls, finding afterschool jobs, and planning for the future.

  • Welcome Back Kotter - in 1975 who could forget those crazy "Sweathogs" always into something bad? Their wisecracking teacher Mr. Kotter, played by Gabe Kaplan would have us dying laughing with his corny sense of humor. Vinnie Barbarino played by (John Travolta) went on to become an excellent actor. The rest of the characters were Arnold Horshack (Ron Palillo), Juan Luis Pedro Felipo de Huevos Epstein, played by (Robert Hegyes), Julie Kotter played by (Marcia Strassman), The vice-principle Michael Woodman played by (John Sylvester White) and last but not least Mr. Soul Brother himself, Freddie "Boom Boom" Percy Washington, played by Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs. The show aired 1975-1979. (Welcome Back Kotter Trivia) Local ABC affiliate in Boston didn't want to air the show because the city was going through a period of school busing and there was alot of rioting and protest going on. As you know, Welcome back Kotter had a intergrated classroom and they didnt want to make the white public feel like they were rubbing this in their faces. But after early success from the show, the affiliate jumped aboard around the 5th episode.

  • Last of the Blue Devils - Count Basie (interview and concert by the orchestra in documentary on Kansas City music)

  • Richard Pryor: Live in Concert - the second of Richard Pryor's filmed concert performances

  • The Muppet Movie - a 1979 American-British musical road comedy film

  • Blaxploitation Films:
    movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
  • Disco Godfather:  An action film starring Rudy Ray Moore and Carol Speed. The plot centers on Moore's character, a retired cop, who owns and operates a disco and who tries to shut down the local angel dust dealer after his nephew becomes hooked on the drug.

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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up

For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.

Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans

Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans

Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool

By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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famous african american birthdays

Tatyana Ali
Tatyana Ali
photo #104-yr-1979

     Famous Birthdays in 1979
  • January 2, 1979 - Erica Hubbard an American film and television actress and model.

  • January 8, 1979 - Windell D. Middlebrooks  is an American film and television actor.

  • January 16, 1979 - Aaliyah was an American singer, dancer, actress, and model. On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a plane crash in The Bahamas after filming a music video.

  • January 21, 197 - Curtis Williams more commonly known as Spider Loc is an American rapper and actor. He is currently signed to G-Unit Records.

  • January 24, 1979 - Tatyana Ali  is an African-American actress, model and R&B singer, best known for her childhood role as Ashley Banks on the NBC sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air.

  • February 1, 1979 - Rutina Wesley   an American film, stage, and television actress.

  • February 11, 1979 - Brandy   an American recording artist and entertainer.

  • February 21, 1979 - Jordan Haworth Peele is an American actor, voice actor, writer, producer, and comedian.

  • March 20, 1979 - Bianca Jasmine Lawson an American film and television actress.

  • March 24, 1979 - Norris Stephen Hopper  former Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • March 29, 1979 - De'Angelo Wilson was an American film and television actor and a hip-hop artist .

  • April 9, 1979 - Keshia Knight Pulliam  an American actress.

  • April 26, 1979 - Nyambi Nyambi is an American character actor.

  • May 10, 1979 - Nicole Leach (Rochelle) an American actress and singer.

  • May 30, 1979 - Tanjareen Chere Martin an American actress, producer, and radio personality.

  • June 7, 1979 - Damaine Anthony Radcliff  more commonly known as Damaine Radcliff, is an American film actor who was born in The Bronx, New York City.

  • June 13, 1979 - Cory Jerome Aldridge   an American professional baseball outfielder.

  • July 6, 1979 - Kevin Hart  is an African-American actor, comedian, writer, and producer.

  • July 18, 1979 - Jason Michael Weaver  also known by his stage name J-Weav, is an American actor and singer.

  • August 3, 1979 - Rhoda Jordan an actor and screenwriter from Los Angeles, California.

  • August 12, 1979 - Brandi Chavonne Massey an American stage actress and singer.

  • August 27, 1979 - Demetria Dyan McKinney an American actress and singer.

  • August 27, 1979 - Dempsey Pappion  is an American film actor, known for doing TV series and roles in movies.

  • September 7, 1979 - Nathan Raymond Haynes   retired Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • September 22, 1979 - Charlton Maxwell Jimerson Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • September 27, 1979 - La'Myia Good  an American singer and actress.

  • October 9, 1979 - DJ Rashad was a Chicago-based electronic musician, producer and DJ known as a pioneer in the footwork genre.

  • October 10, 1979 - Mýa   an American hip hop and R&B singer, record producer, philanthropist, and actress.

  • October 31, 1979 - Wanda Scott   aka, Saaphyri Windsor an American reality television contestant, hairstylist, and actress.

  • October 20, 1979 - Raphael Deseption "Choo" Freeman   retired Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • November 1, 1979 - Covelli Loyce "Coco" Crisp  an American professional baseball center fielder.

  • November 9, 1979 - Cory D. Hardrict  is an American actor. He has appeared in film and television since the late 1990s.

  • November 18, 1979 - Nate Parker  is an American actor and musical performer who has appeared in Beyond the Lights, Red Tails, The Secret Life of Bees, and The Great Debaters.

  • November 19, 1979 - Ryan Howard an American professional baseball first baseman.

  • November 20, 1979 - Mona Lisa an American pop and R&B singer-songwriter, actress, model and record producer.

  • November 28, 1979 - Chamillionaire is an American rapper and entrepreneur from Houston, Texas.

  • November 28, 1979 - Exavier Prente "Nook" Logan former Major League Baseball center fielder.

  • November 29, 1979 - The Game  is an American rapper and actor. Game is best known as a rapper in the West Coast hip hop scene.

  • December 3, 1979 - Tiffany Sarac Haddish an American dancer, comedian and actress.

  • December 17, 1979 - Jaimee Foxworth   an American actress and model.

  • December 19, 1979 - Raymond Payne "Chip" Ambres   former right-handed Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • December 28, 1979 - Rodney Ramone Hill, Jr. better known by his stage name Rocko, is an American rapper and actor.

  • December 28, 1979 - William Leonard "Bill" Hall   an American professional baseball utility player.

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blacks moving into neighborhood

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black american deaths

Luke  Easter
Luscious "Luke" Easter
photo #16-yr-1915

Asa Philip Randolph
Asa Philip Randolph
photo #103-yr-1889

     Famous Deaths in 1979
  • Jan 5, 1979 - Charles Mingus Jr., highly influential American jazz double bassist, composer and bandleader.

  • Jan 13, 1979 - Donny Hathaway, jazz, blues, soul, and gospel vocalist and musician.

  • March 29, 1979 - Luscious "Luke" Easter was a professional baseball player in Major League Baseball and the Negro leagues.

  • May 5, 1979 - William DeVaughn Lucas was the first African-American general manager in Major League Baseball as front-office boss of the Atlanta Braves.

  • May 16, 1979 - Asa Philip Randolph, leader in the African-American civil-rights movement.

  • May 17, 1979 - Donyale Luna was an American model and actress.

  • July 1, 1979 - Richard Ward was a gravel-voiced African American actor on the stage, television, and in films, from 1949 until his death.

  • July 16, 1979 - Robert L. "Bob" Douglas was the founder of the New York Renaissance basketball team. Nicknamed the "Father of Black Professional Basketball", Douglas owned and coached the Rens from 1923 to 1949, guiding them to a 2,318-381 record (.859). He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor in 1972, the first African American enshrined.

  • October 13, 1979 - Clarence Muse was an actor, screenwriter, director, composer, and lawyer. He was inducted in the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame in 1973.

  • 1979 - Ethel Ernestine Harper was an American performer. She is best known for her portrayal of the Aunt Jemima advertising character during the 1950s.

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famous african american weddings

Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
photo #122-yr-1978

     Famous Weddings in 1979
  • June 5, 1979 - Muddy Waters  marries Marva Jean Brooks.

  • 1979 - Phyllis Hyman marries Larry Alexander.

  • 1979 - Henry Louis Gates  marries Sharon Lynn Adams.

  • 1979 - Gloria Gaynor  marries Linwood Simon.

  • 1979 - Tim Raines  marries Virginia Hilton.

  • 1979 - Flip Wilson  and Tuanchai MacKenzie were married.

  • 1979 - Larry Holmes  and Diane Holmes were married.

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famous african american divorces

O J Simpson
O J Simpson
photo #110-yr-1973

 Gordon  Parks
Gordon Parks
photo #113-yr-1912

     Famous Divorces in 1979
  • August 3, 1979 - George Foreman  and Cynthia Lewis were divorced.

  • 1979 - O.J. Simpson and Marguerite L. Whitley were divorced.

  • 1979 - Beverly Johnson and Danny Sims were divorced.

  • 1979 - Ahmad Rashad and Matilda Johnson were divorced.

  • 1979 - Gladys Knight and Barry Hankerson were divorced.

  • 1979 - Gordon Parks and Genevieve Young  were divorced.

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famous african american quotes      Famous African American Quotes
    Donnie Simpson  -   Washington, DC radio and television personality speaking about American guitarist and singer Chuck Brown.

    "Chuck Brown was like the Washington Monument. He was like Ben's Chili Bowl. He was the big chair. He was all of that. Chuck Brown was Washington, DC People feel you when it's genuine, and Chuck was always that."

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The Village People
The Village People receive their Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
photo #119-yr-1979

soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

 Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
photo #110-yr-1975

Eubie Blake
Eubie Blake
photo #100

Chuck Brown
Chuck Brown
photo #112-yr-1979

Peaches & Herb
Peaches & Herb
photo #113-yr-1979

Donna Summer
Donna Summer
photo #114-yr-1979

Rufus and Chaka
Rufus and Chaka
photo #115-yr-1979

 Lou Rawls
Lou Rawls
photo #107-yr-1976

     Music in 1979

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Got to Be Real" Cheryl Lynn

  • "September" Earth, Wind & Fire

  • "Aqua Boogie (A Psychoalphadiscobetabioaquadoloop)" Parliament

  • "Bustin' Loose (Part 1)" Chuck Brown & the Soul Searchers

  • "I Got My Mind Made Up (You Can Get It Girl)" Instant Funk

  • "He's the Greatest Dancer" Sister Sledge

  • "Disco Nights (Rock-Freak)" GQ

  • "Reunited" Peaches & Herb

  • "I Wanna Be With You (Part 1)" The Isley Brothers

  • "Ain't No Stoppin' Us Now" McFadden & Whitehead

  • "We Are Family" Sister Sledge

  • "Ring My Bell" Anita Ward

  • "Bad Girls" Donna Summer

  • "Good Times" Chic

  • "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" Michael Jackson

  • "(Not Just) Knee Deep (Part 1)" Funkadelic

  • "Ladies' Night" Kool & the Gang

  • "Still" The Commodores

  • 1 "I Wanna Be Your Lover" Prince

  • "Do You Love What You Feel" Rufus and Chaka

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Bump

  • Walking the dog

  • The Worm

  • The Rock Steady

  • The Breakdown

  • The Funky Chicken

  • Electric Slide

  • Locking - Roboting - Popping

  • Breakdancing - B-boying

  Musical Happenings in 1979:
  • Eubie Blake was one of the most important figures in early-20th-century African-American music, and one whose longevity made him a storehouse of the history of ragtime and early jazz music and culture. Blake was one of the principle figures of the ragtime and early jazz revival of the 1970s, giving talks and performances well into his nineties.

  • "Rappers Delight" by the Sugarhill Gang becomes the first commercially released hip hop recording, coming quickly after the Fatback Band's "King Tim III", which contains a hip hop-style rapping section. It is released by Sugar Hill Records, which sold over 500,000 copies.

  • After an effort led by Kenneth Gamble, President Jimmy Carter designates June National Black Music Month. Chuck Berry appears at the White House at the first official celebration of the month.

  • Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.

 American Music Awards winners in 1979:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Single
  • "Three Times a Lady" - Commodores

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Teddy Pendergrass - Lou Rawls

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Natalie Cole

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Earth Wind and Fire

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Saturday Night Fever Soundtrack - Bee Gees

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Too Much, Too Little, Too Late" - Johnny Mathis & Deniece Williams

  • Favorite Disco Male Artist
  • Isaac Hayes

  • Favorite Disco Female Artist
  • Donna Summer

  • Favorite Disco Band, Duo or Group
  • Village People

  • Favorite Disco Album
  • Live and More - Donna Summer

  • Favorite Disco Single
  • Last Dance (song) - Donna Summer

 Grammy winners in 1979:
    The 21st Annual Grammy Awards were held in 1979, and were broadcast live on American television. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1978.

    Best New Artist
  • A Taste of Honey

  • Best Instrumental Arrangement
  • Quincy Jones & Robert Freedman (arrangers) for "The Wiz Main Title - Overture Part One" performed by various artists

  • Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
  • Maurice White (arranger) for "Got to Get You Into My Life" performed by Earth, Wind & Fire

  • Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording
  • Muddy Waters for I'm Ready

  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Traditional
  • Mighty Clouds of Joy for Live and Direct

  • Best Soul Performance, Contemporary
  • Andrae Crouch for Live in London performed by Andrae Crouch & the Disciples

  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist
  • Oscar Peterson for Oscar Peterson Jam - Montreux '77

  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Al Jarreau for All Fly Home

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Donna Summer for "Last Dance"

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • George Benson for "On Broadway"

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus
  • Earth, Wind & Fire for All 'n All

  • Best R&B Instrumental Performance
  • Earth, Wind & Fire for "Runnin' "

  • Best Rhythm & Blues Song
  • Paul Jabara (songwriter) for "Last Dance" performed by Donna Summer

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graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s

hot pants of 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s

billy preston afro
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
photo #122-yr-1970

afro hairstyle
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s photo -

billy preston afro
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women.
photo #123-yr-1970

mini skirt
Fashionable miniskirt

graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s

men fashion
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s

     Fashions and Styles in 1979

  Popular Fashions:

    The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.

    In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.

    Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.

    Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.

    Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.

    Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.

    Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.

    In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.

    Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.

    The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.

    Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.

    Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.

    In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes. In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.

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crack in the black communtiy

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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1970s

Luke  Easter
Luscious "Luke" Easter
photo #16-yr-1915

mood ring
Mood ring of the 70s
photo #110-yr-1960

Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
photo #116-yr-1979

Frank E. Petersen, Jr
Frank E. Petersen, Jr.
photo #117-yr-1979

Our Community in 1979
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • Sir William Arthur Lewis was a Saint Lucian economist well known for his contributions in the field of economic development. In 1979 he won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.

  • Hazel Winifred Johnson-Brown was a nurse and educator who served with the U.S. Army from 1955-1983. In 1979 she became the first black female general in the United States Army and the first black chief of the Army Nurse Corps. She was also the Director of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing.

  • February 23, 1979Frank E. Petersen Jr. (USMC) retired United States Marine Corps Lieutenant General. He was the first African-American Marine Corps aviator and the first African-American Marine Corps general in 1979.

  • 1979 - Franklin A. Thomas made a name for himself as an inspiring leader in America. For seventeen years Thomas was president of the Ford Foundation, a vast and self-perpetuating trust originally endowed by car manufacturer Henry Ford and his son Edsel. With a reported $7.7 billion in assets when Thomas resigned his post in 1996, Thomas and his Ford Foundation staff used strategic sums of money—more than $200 million annually—to help needy communities, finance educational and cultural institutions, support civil rights in the United States and around the world, and strengthen and empower policy influencing organizations. Analysis:  Now this is what we're talking about. Real black power!

  • July 10, 1979 - Rock and Roll's Chuck Berry was sentenced to four months in prison for a $200,000 in tax evasion charge.

  • Baseball great, Luke Easter was shot and killed outside a bank at East 260th Street and Euclid Avenue while transporting $5,000 from payroll checks. Police reports indicated that Easter was approached by two robbers armed with shotguns and after refusing to turn over the funds, he was shot twice at close range.

  • 1970s - A mood ring is a ring that changed colors based upon the temperature of the finger of the wearer. The ring included a color chart indicating the supposed mood of the wearer based upon the colors indicated on the ring. The mood ring was a big fad in the 1970s.

  • 1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.

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african americans and religion

How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?

 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.

Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.

Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.

The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:

Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.

The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.

A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.

Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.

Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.

Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.

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