blast from the past

blast from the past
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  Blast From The Past:
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annual hamite award

Robert L. Johnson
    Robert L. Johnson an American businessman, media magnate, executive, philanthropist, and investor. He is the founder of Black Entertainment Television, which was sold to Viacom in 2001.

    He also founded The RLJ Companies, a holding company that invests in various business sectors. Johnson is the former majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats. He became the first African-American billionaire.

    Johnson was born in 1946 in Hickory, Mississippi, the ninth out of ten children to Edna and Archie Johnson. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father a farmer.

    Johnson graduated from the University of Illinois in 1968 with a bachelor's degree in social studies. While at the University of Illinois, Johnson was a member of the Beta chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. He received a master’s degree in public affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in 1972.

    Johnson married Sheila Johnson in 1969. They divorced in 2001 and had two children.

    After graduating Princeton, he found a job in Washington, D.C. that introduced him to the television industry. He served as the public affairs director for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. In this position is where he learned of the power and untapped potential of television.

    Around the same time, he also worked as the director of communications for the Washington, D.C. office of the National Urban League. Johnson worked as a press secretary for Congressman Walter E. Fauntroy. He later became vice president of government relations at the National Cable and Television Association. In 1980, Johnson launched Black Entertainment Television.

    Johnson left NCTA in 1979 to create Black Entertainment Television, the first cable television network aimed at African-Americans. When the network launched in 1980, it only aired for two hours on Friday night.

    BET first turned a profit in 1985, and it became the first black-controlled company listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991. In 1998, Johnson and Liberty Media bought all outstanding shares of the enterprise. This purchase gave Johnson 42% of the company. Viacom acquired BET in 2000 for a reported $3 billion. Johnson remained BET CEO until 2006.

    Johnson founded The RLJ Companies, a holding company with a diverse portfolio including hotel real estate investment; private equity; financial services; asset management; automobile dealerships; sports and entertainment; and Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) gaming.

    Johnson became the first African-American majority club owner of a major American sports league with his 2002 purchase of the Charlotte Bobcats. In 2010, Johnson sold his majority stake in the Charlotte Bobcats to Michael Jordan.

    We've come a long way from the slave ships off Africa. Robert Johnson is an inspiration to all. He set his sights high and accomplished his goals. We're sure he had heartache and disappointment along the way, but did he quit and give up, No he did not.

    What a role model for all human beings! At this time we would like to honor Robert Johnson with the 1980 Hamite Award for proving if you set lofty goals, it's possible to achieve high results in our great country. Get it!

annual hamite award
Robert L. Johnson

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happy mood of blacks

welcome to the 80s

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blacks and boxing

Garry Lee Maddox
Garry Lee Maddox
photo #104-yr-1949

Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
photo #105-yr-1969

Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe
photo #115-yr-1975

Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
photo #122-yr-1978

Sugar Ray Leonard
Sugar Ray Leonard
photo #101

     Sports in 1980
  • Garry Maddox aka (Secretary of Defense) wins the 1980 National League Gold Gloves.

  • January 20, 1980 - United States President Jimmy Carter announces that the U.S. will boycott the Olympics in Moscow.

  • April 16, 1980 - Tennis great Arthur Ashe officially retires from professional tennis.

  • May 3, 1980 - San Francisco Giants first baseman Willie McCovey hits his 521st and final home run.

  • June 20, 1980 - Puncher Roberto Duran takes the WBC welterweight title away from Sugar Ray Leonard.

  • October 2, 1980 - Boxer Larry Holmes knocks out the great Muhammad Ali in the 11th round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • October 25, 1980 - Boxer Mike Weaver knocks out a tough Gerrie Coetzee in the 13th round for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • November 16, 1980 - Tampa Bay Buccaneer quarterback Doug Williams throws for an amazing 486 yards against the Minnesota Vikings.

  • November 25, 1980 - Boxer Sugar Ray Leonard beats Roberto Duran to regains his WBC welterweight championship.

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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American

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blacks and education

     Education in 1980
  • 1980 - Less than a school year differentiated the years of schooling attained by African Americans and white Americans born after 1980.

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watermelon slaves food
    Ever wonder how the soul-food revolution began? It became a popular term in the 1960's. Slave ships with their cargo of slaves traveled from West Africa to North America with foods that were native to African soil. It was the ship's captain best interest to keep slaves alive and healthy by feeding them these foods for their long transatlantic voyage. Some of these foods native to Africa are black-eyed peas, rice, yams, peanuts and don't forget the infamous watermelon. Once here in America, slaves were allowed to grow these foods and along with the scraps the master would give them during 'ration times' (sometimes meat) is what laid the foundation for soul-food.

watermelon slaves food

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America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.


Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974

We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan

This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan

Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man

I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.

My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)

Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.

 civil war

Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.

During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.

I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!

I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt

I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.

I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.

It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.

The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.

I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.

Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock. If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attenetion to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.

There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.

In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.

Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.

Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)

John Adams

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ballot box

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
photo #110-yr-1976

Willie  Brown
Willie Brown
photo #115-yr-1980

Black Liberation Army

     Political Scene in 1980
  • 1980 - Jimmy Carter an American politician, author, and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center.

  • January 1980 - Willie Brown became California's first African American Speaker of the Assembly, and served in the office from 1981 to 1995.

  • 1980 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the organization's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.

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Acts of Goodness is Colorblind

The only way to get the full impact of this viewpoint is by watching this quick episode of the old Andy Griffith show in its entirety (only 8 minutes). The show was shot in the old Confederate town of Mayberry, but try to look past that for the sake of this perspective. Andy was the type of father all kids wanted, and all men aspired to be. In various episodes, he would spend quality time and teach his son Opie the meaning of life in a way that would bring tears to the eyes. Sadly, blacks were invisible on the television in those days through no fault of their own.

The Andy Griffith show is one small example how powerful the media has been throughout American history and helped shaped our communities and behaviors today. Andy taught Opie the importance of being honest, reliable, friendly, unselfish and much more life skills that were needed for him to prosper. Shows like Andy Griffith were typical in displaying acts of goodness by whites.

Andy, Opie, and Horatio

What were black citizens doing during the Andy Griffith era?

Well, you would think that the millions of blacks in America didn't exist. They were rarely shown on television and if so were displayed negatively as dishonest, crooks, cheats, servants, janitors, etc. So the downfall of shows like the Andy Griffith show was whites would beam with pride and confidence and blacks watching the show which I'm sure they loved would feel left out, lacking as human beings and inferior.

The racist white media did a horrible disservice to the American community by ignoring its black citizens. It helped to drive a wedge between the races even further. It had the powers to unite but chose not to.

 black fathers

So in a sense, this biased media was a hater of democracy and opted to provide its viewers with a single story of white goodness and ignore the positive achievements of black citizens which would have made our common American stories more accurate and complete.

It's important to believe that acts of wisdom, knowledge, and kindness do not belong solely to Andy Taylor. There were black fathers doing the same for their kids; we just didn't hear about them. But because of a racist media, Andy was in a privileged position to uplift his race of people with these acts and because white people were the only one's viewed on television, on the radio, in the magazines, newspapers in a positive light. It became common in associating goodness as being solely white, and especially among white people, just ask them.

So, even to this day, there are too many blacks, and especially the young that associate being good, smart, educated with white people, and don't believe these gifts also belong to them. But the truth of the matter is there is no race that has the market on doing what's right which means every single person in America can be just as good as the next if they choose to be.

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     Race in 1980
  • May 17, 1980 - The 1980 Miami riots were race riots that occurred in Miami, Florida in May 1980 following the acquittal of four Miami-Dade Police officers in the death of Arthur McDuffie

  • 1980 - singer Lou Rawls began the "Lou Rawls Parade of Stars" telethon to benefit the UNCF. The annual event, now known as "An Evening of Stars", consists of stories of successful African-American students who have graduated or benefited from one of the many historically black colleges and universities and who received support from the UNCF.

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black professional women

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black Movies in America

Isabel Sanford
Isabel Sanford with The Jeffersons co-stars, Sherman Hemsley and Mike Evans
photo #105-yr-1917

Roger E. Mosley
Roger E. Mosley a.k.a. "T.C." on Magnum, P.I.
photo #101

     Television / Movies in 1980
  • Wholly Moses - is a 1980 Biblical spoof similar to that of Monty Python's Life of Brian. Richard Pryor.

  • In God We Tru$t - A naive monk, Brother Ambrose (Feldman), is sent by the abbot on a mission to raise $5000 in order to save their monastery from closing (Richard Pryor.)

  • Stir Crazy - down-on-their-luck friends who are given 125-year prison sentences after being framed for a bank robbery; while in prison they befriend other inmates and ultimately escape. (Richard Pryor.)

  • Television:
  • The Jeffersons - is an black sitcom that was broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975, through July 2, 1985. The show focuses on George and (weezy) Louise Jefferson, an affluent African-American couple living in New York City. Proud George loved his family, little man carried a big stick and wasn't afraid of anybody. Movin on Up!

  • Magnum, P.I. - a television series starring Tom Selleck as Thomas Magnum, a private investigator living on Oahu, Hawaii, with his sidekick Roger E. Mosley as Theodore Calvin, a.k.a. "T.C.": a helicopter pilot who operates a tourist charter business called Island Hoppers.

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famous african american birthdays

Alexandra  Stevenson
Alexandra Winfield Stevenson
photo #103-yr-1980

Venus Williams
Venus Williams
photo #108-yr-2000

     Famous Birthdays in 1980
  • January 3, 1980 - Caleeb Pinkett   an American actor and writer. He is the younger half-brother of actress Jada Pinkett Smith.

  • January 12, 1980 - Ameriie  an American recording artist, record producer, and actress.

  • January 14, 1980 - Sean Weathers an American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, editor and actor.

  • January 16, 1980 - Goldie Loc  a rapper.

  • January 21, 1980 - Desi Arnez Hines II film and television actor.

  • February 23, 1929 - Elston Gene Howard  was an American professional baseball catcher, left fielder and coach.

  • February 25, 1980 - Rashaan Harvey Nall   an American writer, director, screenwriter and actor of stage and screen.

  • February 25, 1980 - Christy Lorraine Knowings  an American actress, comedian, musician, model, writer, and dancer who served three seasons on the Nickelodeon sketch-comedy series.

  • March 9, 1980 - Chingy  an American rapper and actor.

  • March 15, 1980 - Freddie Lee Bynum Jr.  a shortstop in professional baseball.

  • April 15, 1980 - Damien Dante Wayans  an American actor, screenwriter, producer and director. He is a member of the Wayans family.

  • April 24, 1980 - Reagan Gomez-Preston an American television and film actress and voice actress.

  • April 26, 1980 - Darris Love an American actor, most notable for his role as Raymond 'Ray' Alvarado in Nickelodeon's The Secret World of Alex Mack.

  • April 26, 1980 - Amin Joseph  an American actor.

  • May 18, 1980 - Felicia Pearson an American actress, author, and rapper.

  • May 25, 1980 - Scott Alexander Hairston an American professional baseball player.

  • June 2, 1980 - Daniel Breaker  actor and comedian, best known for playing Donkey in Shrek the Musical.

  • June 16, 1980 - Dewon Cortez Brazelton  an American former professional baseball pitcher in Major League Baseball.

  • June 17, 1980 - Venus Williams  an American professional tennis player.

  • June 19, 1980 - Neil Brown, Jr. actor of mixed African American descent. He appeared in the martial arts TV series WMAC Masters.

  • June 20, 1980 - Tika Sumpter an American actress, singer, television host, and model.

  • July 2, 1980 - Nyjer Jamid Morgan  an American professional baseball outfielder.

  • July 23, 1980 - Michelle Williams an American recording artist and songwriter.

  • August 15, 1980 - Tanedra Howard an American actress.

  • August 15, 1980 - Caryn Ward Ross  an American actress, dancer and choreographer.

  • August 23, 1980 - Marcus Andre McBeth  a right-handed former professional baseball relief pitcher.

  • September 3, 1980 - B.G. hip hop recording artist from New Orleans, Louisiana

  • September 20, 1980 - Crystal Celeste Grant an American actress.

  • September 25, 1980 - T.I.  an American hip hop recording artist and actor from Bankhead, Atlanta, Georgia.

  • September 29, 1980 - Amos Dewon Day  former Major League Baseball relief pitcher.

  • September 30, 1980 - Toni Trucks  an American theater, film, and television actress.

  • October 8, 1980 - Nick Cannon  actor, comedian, rapper, entrepreneur, record producer, and radio and television personality.

  • October 13, 1980 - Ashanti an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer and actress.

  • October 19, 1980 - Rajai Lavae Davis  an American professional baseball outfielder.

  • October 25, 1980 - Mehcad Brooks actor and former fashion model.

  • October 28, 1980 - Natina Tiawana Reed late rapper, singer-songwriter, actress, beatboxer, and a member of the R&B trio Blaque.

  • November 10, 1980 - Niketa Calame an American actress.

  • November 13, 1980 - Monique Coleman an American actress, dancer, singer, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.

  • November 13, 1980 - Cathy Jenéen Doe an American actress.

  • December 9, 1980 - Frederick Deshaun Lewis an American professional baseball outfielder.

  • December 11, 1980 - Nana Gbewonyo  an American actor.

  • December 15, 1980 - Alexandra Winfield Stevenson a professional tennis player from the United States. She is a former top-20 player in singles.

  • 1980 - Jasika Nicole  an American actress and illustrator from Birmingham, Alabama.

  • 1980 - Malcolm Barrett is an American actor.

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black american deaths

Buckwheat of Our Gang
Billie Thomas as Buckwheat in "Our Gang Follies of 1938"
photo #102-yr-1980

Lillian Randolph
Lillian Randolph
photo #107-yr-1898

Dink Mothell
Carroll Ray "Dink" Mothell
photo #102-yr-1897

     Famous Deaths in 1980
  • January 3, 1980 - Joseph Amos Milburn, Jr.  an African-American rhythm and blues singer, pianist.

  • Mar 31, 1980 - Jesse Owens, track and field athlete and 4 time Olympic gold medalist.

  • April 24, 1980 - "Dink" Mothell  was a catcher and utility player who played for 15 years in the Negro Leagues. Known for his versatility, Mothell played every position. It was said you could use him "most any place, any time.

  • July 26, 1980 - Allen Clayton Hoskins   was an American child actor, most famous for portraying the character of Farina in 105 Our Gang short films from 1922 to 1931.

  • September 11, 1980 - Junius Bibbs was an American infielder in baseball's Negro Leagues from about 1933 to 1944.

  • September 12, 1980 - Lillian Randolph was an American actress and singer, a veteran of radio, film, and television. She worked in entertainment from the 1930s well into the 1970s, appearing in hundreds of radio shows, motion pictures, short subjects, and television shows.

  • October 10, 1980 - William "Billie" Thomas, Jr.  was an American child actor best remembered for portraying the character of Buckwheat in the Our Gang (Little Rascals) short films.

  • 1980 - Anita Thompson Dickinson Reynolds  was an African American model, dancer, and actress.

  • 1980 - Jannie Pought  was a member of the African-American R&B girl group, The Bobbettes.

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famous african american quotes

     Famous African American Quotes
    William "Billie" Thomas, Jr. a.k.a. Buckwheat of Our Gang (Little Rascals)

    In later life Billie was offered many film and stage roles, but had no desire to return to Hollywood as an actor, he explained shortly before his death in 1980.

    "After the Army, I wasn't really interested in the hassle of performing," Even the big stars had to chase around and audition; it seemed like a rat race to me, with no security."

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famous african american weddings

Percy Sledge
Percy Sledge
photo #100-yr-1994

Debbi  Morgan
Debbi Morgan with Dorian Harewood
photo #102-yr-1956

Donna Summer
Donna Summer
photo #114-yr-1979

Barbara McNair
Barbara McNair
photo #107-yr-1934

     Famous Weddings in 1980
  • July 16, 1980 - Donna Summer marries Bruce Sudano.

  • December 7, 1980 - Bonnie Pointer marries Jeffrey Bowen.

  • 1980 - Jimmie Walker marries Jere Fields.

  • 1980 - Earl Campbell marries Reuna Smith.

  • 1980 - Samuel L. Jackson marries LaTanya Richardson.

  • 1980 - Mathew Knowles marries Tina Knowles.

  • 1980 - Debbi Morgan marries Charles Weldon

  • 1980 - Percy Sledge  marries Rosa Sledge

  • 1980 - Barbara McNair  marries Ben Strahan

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famous african american divorces

     Famous Divorces in 1980
  • October 3, 1980 - Leon Russell and Mary Mccreary were divorced.

  • 1980 - Bill Russell  and Dorothy Anstett were divorced.

  • 1980 - Natalie Cole and Marvin Yancy were divorced.

  • 1980 - Meshach Taylor and Sandra Taylor were divorced.

  • 1980 - Bo Diddley and Kay Reynolds were divorced.

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famous black/african american singers
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago bascially belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.
famous black singers

They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.

Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.

So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.

We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.

Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and delicious burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on, and to add to those contributions, and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life, it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
famous african american singers

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pretty lady cooking
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.

We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.

sweet potatoes
Sweet Potatoes / Yams

Barbecue Ribs
Barbecue Ribs

Ham Hocks
Ham Hocks

Rice and Beans
Rice and Beans

Fish and Chips
Fish and Chips

Bean Soup
Bean Soup

Biscuits and Gravy
Biscuits and Gravy


Fried Chicken
Fried Chicken


Collard Greens
Collard Greens

Fried Liver
Fried Liver

Peach Preserves
Peach Preserves

Pinto Beans
Pinto Beans

Pound Cake
Pound Cake

Pork Chops
Pork Chops


black man hungry

(images -
Southern Cooking - Soul Food

    Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.

    This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;

    "What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"

    This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.

    Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.

  • Maryland Beat Biscuit
  • Waffles
  • Cream Cake
  • Flannel Cakes
  • Sallie Lund
  • Egg Corn Bread
  • Plantation Corn Bread
  • Light Bread

  • Broiled Meats
  • Beefsteak
  • Lamb or Mutton Chops
  • Pork Steak or Chops
  • Venison

  • Croquettes
  • Lamb
  • Chicken
  • Crab
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Fish

  • Cakes Etc.
  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Almond
  • Feather
  • Sponge
  • Fruit
  • Jelly
  • Carolas
  • Ginger Cookies
  • Sweet Wafers

  • Pickels, Sauces Etc.
  • Sweet Cucumber Pickles
  • Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
  • Chow Chow
  • Creole Chow Chow
  • Cherry Chutney
  • Game Sauce
  • Compound Tomato
  • Napoleon
  • Sweet Pickle Peaches
  • Sweet Pickle Prunes
  • Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
  • Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
  • Milanese Sauce
  • Sauce for Suet Pudding

  • Pies, Etc.
  • Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
  • Preparing the Fruit for Pies
  • Rhubarb
  • Apple
  • Peach
  • Lemon Pies
  • Cocoanut
  • Cream Apple
  • Sweet Potato
  • Gooseberry and Cherry
  • Light Bread
  • Mince
  • Blackberry Roll
  • Oyster

  • Puddings
  • Snow
  • Plum
  • Corn
  • Corn Fritters
  • Batter
  • Rice
  • Yorkshire
  • Cheese
  • Suet

  • Preserves, Spices, ETC.
  • Brandy Peaches
  • Quince Preserves
  • Syrups for Preserves
  • Preserved Peaches
  • Preserved Pears
  • Currant Jelly
  • Cranberry Jelly
  • Strawberry Jam
  • Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
  • Marmalade Peach
  • Crab Apple Jelly
  • Blackberry Brandy
  • Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
  • Preserved Apricots
  • Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
  • Charlotte Eusse
  • Spiced Currants
  • Preserved Cherries

  • Roast Meats
  • Venison
  • Beef
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Pig
  • Veal
  • Turkey
  • Chicken
  • Birds
  • Quail
  • Domestic Duck
  • Wild Duck

  • Salads
  • Chicken
  • Veal
  • Lamb
  • Shrimp
  • Crab
  • Meat

  • Sherbets
  • Orange
  • Lemon
  • Pineapple

  • Soups, Chowders, Etc.
  • Beef
  • Ox-TaH
  • Calf 's Head
  • Mock Turtle
  • Green Turtle
  • Oyster Gumbo
  • Ochra Gumbo
  • Old Fashioned Turnip
  • Chicken
  • Corn and Tomato
  • Creole
  • Fish Chowder
  • Chicken Gumbo

  • Miscellaneous
  • Fricassed Chicken
  • Fried Chicken
  • Chicken fried Steak
  • Meat Stews or Entrees
  • Ice Cream
  • Boiled Turkey
  • Beef a la Mode
  • Neckbones
  • Spiced Round
  • Hog Maws
  • Stuffed Ham
  • Lima Beans
  • Jumberlie a Creole Dish
  • Baked Fish
  • Ribs, Beef or Pork
  • Boiled Corn
  • Peach Cobbler
  • Egg Plant Stuffed
  • Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
  • Corned Beef Hash
  • Ladies' Custard
  • Tonic Bitters
  • Terrapin Stew
  • Leaven Biscuit
  • Pap for infant Diet
  • Sorghum Syrup
  • Cracklins
  • Meringue for Pudding
  • Circuit Hash

  • What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
    Paperback – March, 1995
    by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)


Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)

    Butter: 1 pound
    Sugar: 3 cups
    Eggs: 6
    Milk: 3/4 cup
    Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
    Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
    Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
    Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon

    For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
    Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
    Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
    Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
    Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
    Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
    Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.

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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Ray Goodman  Brown
As The Moments in 1970. From left: Harry Ray, Billy Brown and Al Goodman.
Ray, Goodman & Brown

photo #116-yr-1980

 Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
photo #109-yr-1967

The Brothers Johnson
The Brothers Johnson
photo #117-yr-1980

Paul Leroy Robeson
Paul Robeson
photo #111-yr-1898

Donna Summer
Donna Summer
photo #114-yr-1979

Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
photo #101-yr-1958

     Music in 1980

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Rock with You" Michael Jackson

  • "Second Time Around" Shalamar

  • "Special Lady" Ray, Goodman & Brown

  • "And The Beat Goes On" The Whispers

  • "Stomp!" The Brothers Johnson

  • "Don't Say Goodnight (It's Time For Love)" The Isley Brothers

  • "Let’s Get Serious" Jermaine Jackson

  • "Take Your Time (Do It Right) [Part 1]" The S.O.S. Band

  • "One in a Million You" Larry Graham

  • "Upside Down" Diana Ross

  • "Give Me The Night" George Benson

  • "Funkin’ For Jamaica" Tom Browne

  • "Master Blaster (Jammin’)" Stevie Wonder

  • "Celebration" Kool & The Gang

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • Break-dancing

  • The Macarena

  • The Robot

  • The Electric Slide

  • The MC Hammer

  • The Worm

  • Hip Hop

  • Moonwalk

  • Voguing

  • Crip Walk

  • Cabbage patch

  • Running Man

  • Chicago stepping

  • KC Two-Step

  • Detroit Ballroom

 Blues Hall of Fame for 1980:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Big Bill Broonzy
  • Willie Dixon
  • John Lee Hooker
  • Lightnin' Hopkins
  • Son House
  • Howlin' Wolf
  • Elmore James
  • Blind Lemon Jefferson
  • Robert Johnson
  • B.B. King
  • Little Walter
  • Memphis Minnie
  • Muddy Waters
  • Charley Patton
  • Jimmy Reed
  • Bessie Smith
  • Otis Spann
  • T-Bone Walker
  • Sonny Boy Williamson I (a.k.a. John Lee Williamson)
  • Sonny Boy Williamson II (a.k.a. Aleck Ford "Rice" Miller)

  Musical Happenings in 1980:
  • Fame with Irene Cara and Debbie Allen is a 1980 American musical film that had the whole nation rocking.

  • Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock", enlarges the audience for electro-funk and hip hop.

  • Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.

 American Music Awards winners in 1980:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Pop/Rock Single
  • Bad Girls - Donna Summer

  • Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
  • Donna Summer

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Donna Summer

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • The Commodores

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Off The Wall - Michael Jackson

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" - Michael Jackson

 Grammy winners in 1980:
    The 22nd Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 27, 1980 at Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, and were broadcast live on American television. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1979.

    Best Instrumental Arrangement
  • '"Soulful Strut"'

  • Best Disco Recording
  • "I Will Survive"-Gloria Gaynor

  • Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording
  • Muddy Waters for Muddy "Mississippi" Waters Live

  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Traditional
  • Mighty Clouds of Joy for Changing Times

  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Contemporary
  • Andrae Crouch for I'll Be Thinking of You

  • Best Historical Reissue
  • Michael Brooks & Jerry Korn (producers) for Billie Holiday - Giants of Jazz

  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Soloist
  • Oscar Peterson for Jousts

  • Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band
  • Duke Ellington for Duke Ellington at Fargo, 1940 Live

  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Ella Fitzgerald for Fine and Mellow

  • Best Album Notes
  • Bob Porter & James Patrick (notes writers) for Charlie Parker - The Complete Savoy Sessions performed by Charlie Parker

  • Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female
  • "I'll Never Love This Way Again"-Dionne Warwick

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • "Deja Vu"-Dionne Warwick

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • "Don't Stop 'til You Get Enough"-Michael Jackson

  • Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus
  • "After the Love Has Gone"-Earth, Wind & Fire

  • Best R&B Instrumental Performance
  • "Boogie Wonderland"-Earth, Wind & Fire

  • Best R&B Song
  • After the Love Has Gone"-Earth, Wind & Fire

  • Best Rock Vocal Performance, Female
  • Hot Stuff-Donna Summer

  • Hall of Fame Award
  • Ballad for Americans Paul Robeson

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hip hop
The Civil Rights movement of the 60s was a total success. Now the second part of our journey begins.

Now here's the problem.

For the last hundred years or so, white Americans have had every privilege simply for being white. Unconstitutional Jim Crow laws instituted in the past had restricted blacks in every sense of the word.

Blacks were routinely treated as second-class citizens even after fighting courageously in every single American war, Revolutionary war included.

During this Jim Crow period, whites created a humongous stronghold and power structure for their families in America that still stands today. They completely understand how to navigate this power structure, and do it very well.

But after the 60s, blacks, on the other hand, found it difficult to penetrate and become a part of this American structure and ones that attempted were generally fought every step of the way, not by outright in your face racism, but a new one called casual racism which is just as harmful.

Ever since slavery ended, blacks who are of African culture didn't get much help assimilating into an American (European) way of life. After victory with our Civil Rights in the 60s, many didn't understand how to challenge this power structure in a productive and intelligent way growing frustrated and angry. Many were resorting to violence until an amazing man named DJ Kool Herc steps onto the scene to save the day!

DJ Kool Herc spinning records

DJ Kool Herc was the beginning of Hip Hop and gave many a positive outlet instead of violence, and whether older blacks liked it or not for our younger people would replace the guidance of influential civil rights leaders of past and become the voice they listened to for knowledge and help.

The media began to portray Hip hop/rapper figures as the brains of the black race. They are treated as wise ones and royalty. But they forgot or just ignored the many blacks who achieved with brainpower as college graduates, as opposed to artistic ability. Because of this portrayal, Hip-hop/Rap artist have without a doubt become an influential voice in the black community.


Many older blacks who were trained by our past Civil Rights leaders excellent moral guidance and teachings liked their beats but not the messages because it was filled with much hate and violence, especially on our people.

So when a younger black person who has been trained by these lyrics attempt to enter the white power structure workforce, they very seldom get through the front door, and it has nothing to do with racism, and if they are lucky enough to get that far they usually don't last, because they don't understand how to deal and work with people.

Don't get it wrong; Hip hop/rap music is a part of who we are, and we are all so proud of our ability to create something out of nothing that the entire world loves and imitates. But it also comes with a tremendous responsibility when possessing such great power and influence to help people and especially our own. Don't forget to teach our young that beats are good, but books are better!

There are many who keep the entertainment value of Hip hop/rap in perspective and understand how to maintain a balance, but there are also many easily influenced ones who fail and don't have a clue. So an important question arises. Will Hip-Hop lead the weaker one's in learning to live in the real world so we all can achieve and soar like the eagles or will it sell us out for the love of fame and money?

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Womens fashions in the 1980s
Womens fashions in the 1980s
photo #105-yr-1980

mens fashions in the 1980s
Mens fashions in the 1980s
photo #106-yr-1980

Womens fashions in the 1980s
The rah-rah skirt is a short flounced layered skirt that originated in cheerleading and became a popular fashion trend among teenage girls in the early 1980s. Later in the 1980s it was often worn with leather, denim or lace.
photo #107-yr-1980

hairstyles in the 1980s
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 1980s.
photo #108-yr-1980

     Fashions and Styles in 1980

  Popular Fashions:

    The early 1980s were very different from the rest of the decade, with some carryovers from the late 1970s. Clothing colors were subdued, quiet and basic; varying shades of brown, tan, and orange were common. Fashionable clothing in the early 1980s included both unisex and gender-specific attire. Widespread fashions for women in the early 1980s included sweaters (including turtleneck, crew neck, and v-neck varieties); fur-lined puffer jackets; tunics; faux-fur coats; velvet blazers; trench coats (made in both fake and real leather); crop tops; tube tops; knee-length skirts (of no prescribed length, as designers opted for choice); loose, flowy, knee-length dresses (with high-cut and low-cut necklines, varying sleeve lengths, and made in a variety of fabrics including cotton, silk, satin, and polyester); high-waisted loose pants; embroidered jeans; leather pants; and designer jeans. Women's pants of the 1980s were, in general, worn with long inseams - a style carried over from the 1970s. Accessories for women included thin belts, knee-high boots with thick kitten heels, sneakers, jelly shoes (a new trend at the time), mules, round-toed shoes and boots, jelly bracelets (inspired by Madonna in 1983), shoes with thick heels, small, thin necklaces (with a variety of materials, such as gold and pearls), and small watches. The fitness craze of the 1970s continued into the early 1980s. General women's street-wear worn in the early 1980s included ripped sweatshirts, leotards, tights, sweatpants, and tracksuits (especially ones made in velour). Prior to the mid-1980s, it had been taboo to show a slip or a bra strap in public. A visible undergarment had been a sign of social ineptness. With the new fashion's most extreme forms, young women would forgo conventional outer-garments for vintage-style bustiers with lacy slips and several large crucifixes.

    In the early 1980s, fashion had carried onward from the late 1970s. Athletic clothes were more popular than jeans during this period, as were more subdued colors. Looser pants remained popular during this time, being fairly wide but straight, and tighter shirts were especially popular. The general public, at this time, wanted to wear low-maintenance clothing with more basic colors, as the global recession going on at the time kept extravagant clothes out of reach. Popular clothing in the early 1980s worn by men includes tracksuits, v-neck sweaters, polyester and velour polo-neck shirts, sports jerseys, straight-leg jeans, polyester button-ups, cowboy boots, beanies, and hoodies. In the mid 1980s, popular trends included wool sport coats, Levi 501s, Hawaiian shirts, shell suits, hand-knit sweaters, sports shirts, hoodies, flannel shirts, reversible flannel vests, jackets with the insides quilted, nylon jackets, gold rings, spandex cycling shorts, cowboy boots, and khaki pants with jagged seams. T-shirts underneath expensive suit jackets with broad, padded shoulders, hawaiian shirts (complemented with sport coats, often with top-stitched lapels for a "custom-tailored" look), and (in counterpoint to the bright shirt) jackets that were often gray, tan, rust or white. Easy-care micro-suede and corduroy jackets became popular choices, especially those with a Western style.

    Rap and hip-hop:
    Athletic shoes had been worn as casual wear before, but for the first time they became a high-priced fashion item. Converse shoes were popular in the first half of the 1980s. Air Jordan basketball shoes (named for basketball player Michael Jordan) made their debut in 1984. The NBA banned these shoes from games when they debuted, which increased their cachet. Soon, other manufacturers introduced premium athletic shoes. Adidas sneakers took the decade by storm, becoming popular among teenage boys and young men; the Adidas sneaker was popularized by the Run-D.M.C. song My Adidas. Nike had a similar share of the market, with Air Max and similar shoes. High-tops, especially of white or black leather, became popular. In the early 1980s, long and white athletic socks, often calf-high or knee-high, were worn with sneakers. As the decade progressed, socks trended shorter, eventually topping out just above the height of the shoe. Ensembles featuring the colors of Africa (green, yellow and red) became wildly popular among African Americans, as did kente cloth. In the urban hip-hop communities, sneakers were usually worn unlaced and with a large amount of gold jewelry, as well as headwraps.

    The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer.

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MGM Grand fire
The former MGM Grand (now Bally's) as seen from Caesars Palace.
photo #113

United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1980s

pac man game

Richard Pryor
Richard Pryor
photo #114-yr-1973

Our Community in 1980
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • The Salt Eaters is a 1980 novel, the first such work by Toni Cade Bambara. The novel is written in an experimental style and is explicitly political in tone, with several of the characters being veterans of the civil rights, feminist, and anti-war movements of the 1960s and 1970s. It is set in the fictional town of Claybourne, Georgia.

  • June 9, 1980 - during the making of the film Bustin' Loose, Richard Pryor set himself on fire after freebasing cocaine and drinking 151-proof rum.

  • November 21, 1980 - The MGM Grand fire occurred at the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino (now Bally's Las Vegas) in Paradise, Nevada, USA. The fire killed 87 people, most through smoke inhalation. The tragedy remains the worst disaster in Nevada history, and the third-worst hotel fire in modern U.S. history.

  • 1980s - BET founder Robert L. Johnson began his operation of Cable Television's Black Entertainment Television.

  • 1980s - Pac-Man is considered one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture. Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan on May 22, 1980.

  • 1980 - Less than a school year differentiated the years of schooling attained by African Americans and white Americans born after 1980.

  • the United States Treasury Department coined a half-ounce gold commemorative medal with opera singer Marian Anderson's likeness.

  • 1980s - The United States Population is 226,504,825 with a total of 26,482,349 being African Americans.

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african americans and religion

How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?

 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.

Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.

Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.

The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:

Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.

The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.

A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.

Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.

Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.

Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.

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