Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1997:
Alma Smith Jacobs
Alma Smith Jacobs was the first African American to serve as Montana State Librarian. She served as Head Librarian at the Great Falls Public Library from 1954–1973, and in 1973 was named Montana State Librarian, serving until 1981.
Alma Smith was born in Lewistown, Montana, the daughter of Martin Luther and Emma Smith. She moved with her family to Great Falls, Montana in 1923. After receiving a bachelor's degree in sociology from Talladega College in Alabama in 1938, ,she served as bookmobile librarian traveling throughout the south.
In 1942 she received a bachelor’s degree in library science from Columbia University and became Assistant Librarian at Talladega College.
In 1946 she returned to Great Falls, Montana, to serve as Catalog Librarian at the Great Falls Public Library, and in 1954 was promoted Head Librarian serving until 1973. She was the driving force behind the construction of the city’s modern library in 1967, and the expansion and development of the rural library service program throughout Montana. In 1973 she was selected as Montana State Librarian where she was instrumental in development of library federations in Montana.
She became the first African American president of the Montana Library Association, the first African American president of the Pacific Northwest Library Association, and the first Montanan to serve on the Executive Board of the American Library Association. In addition to her work on behalf of libraries, Jacobs was a leader in civil rights activities throughout Montana.
She served on the Great Falls Interracial Council, working to break down racial barriers within the community and for airmen at Malmstrom Air Force Base. She was active in the Montana Advisory Committee to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission and co-founded the Montana Committee for the Humanities.
She was active in the Union Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, served as president of the Montana Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs, and was a national board member of the United Church Women. In 1999 the Great Falls Tribune named Alma Jacobs one of the top 100 Montanans in the 20th Century, and in 2010 the Great Falls Tribune called Alma Jacobs one of the top 125 Montana Newsmakers.
She once stated in an interview:
“I don’t consider myself the Negro authority in Great Falls or any place else. I resent being thought of like a black librarian. I would rather concentrate on being a good librarian.”
Our 1997 Hamite Award proudly goes to the remarkable Alma Smith Jacobs. She certainly set a fine example for all watching. She loved her race so much and tried her best to lift them up.
She proved that blacks, if prepared for their field of work, could go all the way to the top, despite the difficulties we will no doubt meet along the way. It wasn't easy, but anything worthwhile is usually not easy. Thanks Alma, we need a million more just like you.
In June 2009 the City of Great Falls proclaimed Alma Smith Jacobs Week, and the Great Falls Public Library dedicated a new plaza named "The Alma Jacobs Memorial Plaza," citing her as “an exceptional librarian and community leader.”
Alma died on December 18, 1997 at the age of 81.
Alma Smith Jacobs
|How were blacks feeling in 1997?
Sugar Ray Robinson
| Sports in 1997 |
- 1997 - boxer Sugar Ray Robinson - was ranked as the best pound for pound fighter in history by The Ring.
- April 13, 1997 - Talented golfer Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament in Augusta, Georgia.
- January 17, 1997 - Basketball great Dennis Rodman is suspended for intentionally kicking cameraman.
- Feb 20, 1997 - Barry Bonds of the San Francisco Giants signs a record $22.9 million 2 year contract.
- Apr 15, 1997 - Baseball honors Jackie Robinson by retiring his jersey, #42 for all teams.
Analysis: This was quite a nice gesture by MLB for retiring the number 42 for every team in baseball. It was like a peace offering baseball was making to black people for past wrongs they participated in. What do you think, how do you feel about it?
- May 31, 1997 - Donovan Bailey beats Michael Johnson in 150 meter race.
- July 9, 1997 - Mike Tyson is banned from boxing for biting Evander Holyfield's ear.
- November 6, 1997 - San Francisco Giants manager Dusty Baker named National League Manager of the Year.
- November 13, 1997 - Baseball's Ken Griffey Jr unanimously wins the American league MVP.
- November 27, 1997 - Barry Sanders of the Detroit Lions' becomes the NFL's 2nd all-time rusher.
- December 1, 1997 - Latrell Sprewell who stars as a Golden State Warrior guard attacks his coach P J Carlesimo.
Doctor injecting a patient with placebo as part of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
President Bill Clinton
Lee P. Brown, Mayor of Houston, Texas
| Political Scene in 1997 |
- 1997 - Bill Clinton an American Democratic politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 was inaugurated into office. He previously served as Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992, and as the state's Attorney General from 1977 to 1979.
- May 16, 1997 - The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African-American men in Alabama. They were told that they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government. In short, these people were used as Guinea pigs.The 40-year study was controversial for reasons related to ethical standards, primarily because researchers knowingly failed to treat patients appropriately after the 1940s validation of penicillin as an effective cure for the disease they were studying. Revelation in 1972 of research failures by a whistleblower led to significant changes in U.S. law and regulation on the protection of participants in clinical studies. Now studies require informed consent communication of diagnosis and accurate reporting of test results. President Bill Clinton would later make a formal apology to black men exploited in the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study.
Analysis: If there are young people reading this section, this is one small example why it is so important to learn and stay educated about your surroundings. Look into the faces of the people who were tricked in this fake Tuskegee syphilis study. They look like nice decent people don't they? But that didn't stop perpetrators from harming them. They were duped because they weren't educated. Other people do not have your best interest at heart. Read, read, read and learn, learn learn. The more you know the better able you'll be to protect yourself from sinister people like the health care officials in the Tuskegee syphilis experiment, they took complete advantage of these black folks because they were uneducated, and yes there were black health care officials that knew what was going on and participated by saying nothing. The article didn't mention monetary compensation paid out to these people and their families. It would have went along nicely with the apology.
- 1997 - Harvey Johnson, Jr. defeated incumbent Mayor J. Kane Ditto in the Democratic primary, and later defeated Republican opponent Charlotte Reeves in the general election, becoming Jackson's first African-American mayor.
- 1997 - Lee Patrick Brown was the first African-American to be elected mayor of Houston, Texas. He was reelected twice to serve the maximum of three terms from 1998 to 2004.
HOW LONG WILL WHITE-AMERICANS |
SIT ON THE FENCE?
The purpose of this feature is to arrive at an honest and reliable answer how white Americans feel about black citizens. What better way to accomplish this than to examine its past leaders who represented the communities they served. The three greatest Presidents in American history are revisited for their treatment of black people. Their actions or inactions will without a doubt give us a clue.
George Washington is considered the Father of our country. His contemporaries which included men such as John Adams, John Dickinson, and Willam Whipple just to name a few disliked slavery. Whipple, who was a signer of the Declaration couldn't bring himself to sign the document without first freeing his slave and Dickinson did the same. These men, among others, sincerely believed in the principle that all men are created equal and have the right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Another of Washington's contemporaries was British author Thomas Day who made the following comment about America's founders:
"If there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, signing resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves."
While the Declaration was being created and debated most founders were content in sweeping the slave issue under the rug by leaving out much mention of black slaves because many of them were slaveholders themselves and figured this would make them look like hypocrites.
During the war, the colonist and British actively sought and recruited black slaves to fight and promised freedom after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself remarked in writing:
Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.
But after victory, America didn't keep its promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. History shows he put money interests ahead of principle. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice. As a leader, Washington's inaction would set the tone for future race relations in our country.
Washington had trivialized the principle of human rights for black people, the very complaint the Patriots had against England and the reason the war was fought. It's sad to say, but Washington didn't stay in the truth, but at least the British kept their promise by shipping the many blacks who fought on their side to Sierra Leone Africa and Nova Scotia for a new life.
In contrast to George Washington, Abraham Lincoln evidently didn't share Washington's view of the principles this country was founded. Lincoln was an ardent lover of truth and democracy. He took pride in doing the right thing. We must be honest in saying Lincoln had adamant opinions how he felt about black people personally. He would go on to make the following quotes;
"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."
"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
"Nearly eighty years ago we began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning, we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a "sacred right of self-government." Our republican robe is soiled and trailed in the dust.… Let us repurify it. Let us re-adopt the Declaration of Independence, and with it, the practices, and policy, which harmonize with it.… If we do this, we shall not only have saved the Union: but we shall have saved it, as to make, and keep it, forever worthy of the saving."
Now it's very clear from the many negative comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't likely to have them over for dinner or have any other social interaction. But if living in our day would have probably changed his views. He was well known for his ability to adapt. So why was he a great President?
Because even though Lincoln felt blacks were not equal, he still felt they should be able to enjoy all the rights a white person did. HOW COURAGEOUS! Lincoln went against the grain and chose to institute the Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves and Reconstruction Acts that would eventually give blacks citizenship and the right to vote.
Lincoln understood what every single President in American history ignored, and that the most important thing for America to keep sacred was upholding the principles of human rights and equality for all. Something that had never been accomplished in any government of humankind's history. Throughout the years all U.S. Presidents bowed down to racist white power and sold out these principles.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
During the Roosevelt administration, America would proclaim itself a moral leader of the entire world for human rights and democracy.
Without a doubt, this opened the door for the advancement of black people. This was when The Black Cabinet who were an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to the President came into existence, an accomplishment unheard of up until that time.
Roosevelt also issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) which was the most significant federal move in support of the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The President's order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result.
In 1942, at Eleanor's instigation, Roosevelt met with a delegation of African-American leaders, who demanded full integration into the armed forces, including the right to serve in combat roles and the Navy, the Marine Corps and the United States Army Air Forces. Roosevelt agreed, but then did nothing to implement his promise.
Roosevelt also had a Vice President named Henry Wallace who was a true lover of democracy, justice, and liberty for all. Wallace was a different breed of people of his day because he believed all races were equal in America and weren't afraid to voice this. But sadly, Roosevelt didn't support Wallace as Vice President for his final term in office choosing instead go with Harry Truman who as a younger man once voiced how he felt about non-whites:
"I think one man is as good as another as long as he's decent and honest and not a nigger or a Chinaman. The Lord made the man out of dust, the nigger from mud and threw up what was left to create the Chinaman."
Roosevelt was a mixed bag when it came to upholding the principles the nation was founded. For example, there were black leaders during his administration who petitioned the United Nations with the declaration of Genocide that the government was committing against blacks. Roosevelt failed to see the importance of being proactive in upholding the principles of the Declaration of Independence for all citizens.
What can we learn from these three great men?
The one most important observation is there weren't any of these Presidents who sincerely liked black people, and throughout the years America's white citizens haven't been any different. The honest truth is whites don't care for blacks as brothers. In their eyes, it's either white superiority or black superiority and forget all that brother crap.
But on the other hand black people view themselves as Americans and don't understand why they can't be looked upon and treated the same as an Irish American, Italian American, English American, Polish American, etc. and are always seeking inclusion as one big happy American family which makes total sense but sad to say many whites can't truthfully see beyond color (which represents advantage).
When it's all said and done racism exist because of money and pride. Just imagine if every single black person in America was a millionaire and lacked for nothing and controlled the purse strings with all white people in extreme poverty begging and eating out of garbage cans. This would eliminate the bulk of racism because whites wouldn't have any power.
Money=power, but money doesn't have to equal hate, it what the one with the power chooses to do with it. This is where pride comes in because all racist feel they are special people and their way of doing things is the best way, the superior way and the only way as far as they are concerned. People have the power to opt for love, but always choose selfishness and hate.
Because of this, America has never been the one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all we see on television, and being the father of our country, George Washington started these false beliefs and practices.
Generally speaking, white citizens today are not much different than these three past Presidents and through the years have become three distinct classes:
(1) George Washington class: This shortsighted and selfish class puts money and greed interest ahead of principle that would promote peace and harmony for the whole.
(2) Abraham Lincoln class: This class puts the welfare of whole first and recognizes this earth doesn't belong to one single group of people and must be truthfully shared equitably.
(3) Franklin D. Roosevelt class: This class hopes for the best but won't lift a finger in achieving that. This class straddles the fence and can sympathize with both the Washington and the Lincoln class. They are wishy-washy and travels where the winds blow them.
It's important to remember that all three classes don't particularity like blacks and have minimal association with them if any, and this is said because even today it's rare for the races to mingle and when they do can be uncomfortable in a social setting, how ridiculous! The race with the power is the only one that can change this for the better. It's that simple.
In a sense, Washington created the blueprint for a distorted and false view of American principles that became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Abraham Lincoln tried to do away with this damaging logic and desired America to live up to the principles it was founded and died for his beliefs. Roosevelt dabbled on either side by sitting on the fence of inaction and did little for principle because being partakers of a privileged life was more advantageous to his class.
The danger of this, of course, was that in continuing to undermine principle, the prospect would exist of being faced with an America that wouldn't be recognizable. Lincoln was the only President to understand and appreciate this danger.
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
So has America changed, if yes, what has she become?
Good question, but you must answer yourself.
But there are many more questions that need to be answered. Because of the folly of greed and racism and lack of action to speak out by the real Americans, has this country morphed into another form of power that is completely different than it started out? Has it become like an insatiable, greedy, detestable and ugly monster without a soul or conscience?
THE CIVIL RIGHTS BATTLE HAS BEEN WON!
We are extremely happy and excited for the future!
There are smaller battles ahead, but we will prevail.
It was a horrific journey.
We thought after slavery was outlawed in 1863, everything would be okay.
But instead, it was a big disappointment the next hundred years for blacks.
Since emancipation blacks have been murdered by lynch mobs, tortured, raped, assaulted, disrespected, demoralized, discouraged and made to feel less than human, and a search of history would reveal blacks seldom retaliated but always longed for peace and justice. But after the victorious civil rights battle, many are in terrible shape mentally, but we will keep on pushing. We've come too far to quit now.
Most white Americans along with our United States government actively participated in atrocities that bordered on genocide against blacks either by their silence or direct involvement, but there were also many good white American brothers who understood the true meaning of democracy for all.
We couldn't have been victorious without them. Our Civil Rights leaders have been excellent moral examples for us since freedom from slavery. It was a collective effort. They unselfishly lead blacks and did an outstanding job.
They were the only hope of a race of people without a voice in a privileged white society who had kidnapped our U.S. Constitution to their own selfish advantage.
We would like to take this opportunity to give recognition to ones who have helped our American struggle. This is not a complete listing by any means. There were many more shining examples of Americans, both black and white.
But now since we are victorious with our Civil Rights and ready to travel the next phase of our journey, we need strong black leaders who will teach us the critical importance of education. So an important question needs to be answered.
We need to know...
Our fearless Civil Rights leaders have victoriously completed their task and have proudly passed the baton to all African American Mothers and Fathers to continue the struggle by raising our children with high moral standards encouraging them to achieve and soar like the eagles.
The new black leaders of our community,
Aren't they beautiful?
They would make our ancestors very proud!
I think I feel a tear coming
| Race in 1997 |
- March 27, 1997 - Twenty-nine years after Martin Luther King, Jr.'s death, Dexter Scott King met with James Earl Ray, the man imprisoned for his father's 1968 murder. When confronting him, King asked Ray, "I just want to ask you, for the record, um, did you kill my father?" Ray replied, "No-no I didn't." King then told Ray that he along with the rest of the King family believed him.
The year 1877 was the worst year for American Blacks
A good foundation means everything when attempting to build and the newly freed Negro just didn't have one. When slaves first tasted freedom in the emancipation, they wanted to assimilate into American culture very badly. They wanted to build and live their lives in harmony with their white American brothers.
There were over four million former slaves who were uneducated and illiterate without any life skills whatsoever. During slavery it was illegal and a felony for anyone caught teaching them to read and write. They were not independent like you and me, but depended on others to provide the necessities of life.
The United States government wanted to help the former slaves and assisted by providing Reconstruction aid which meant education, medical, housing, etc. Imagine the joy in these former slaves heart. The schools were consistently packed with Negroes trying to better themselves. Happiness was all around! Finally! Thank you America, we will prove we can do it! YEAH! This was the general attitude of the Negro.
Sadly, this joy was very short lived because the United States government stopped aid after a few short years because of pressure by racist whites. This totally uncaring and un-American decision was called the 1877 Compromise, with many Negroes calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal.
Although the Negro was now free, he would have to make do the best way he knew how, without any help whatsoever from the government who put him in slavery in the first place. These people became downtrodden, uneducated nomads living in a hateful white racist world, and because of future laws (Jim Crow) further restricting their rights would remain this way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement.
A good foundation was not laid with blacks assimilation into American culture. Many blacks were understandably demoralized, angry and defeated for many years. The weaker ones continue to be so until this day and still hold a grudge that hurts themselves more than anybody else.
Now ones like Mr. Lewis who is pictured above understood his fantastic African American heritage, and the many examples of black success stories he went on to model his life after. This helped him because he had a good foundation to build on. Study your incredible history that's included in this website and grow because it really is a thing of extraordinary beauty.
|| sLANG tALK in the 1990s |
- Sup - What's up
- Aiight - Alright, okay
- All That - Complete package, not lacking
- All that and a bag a chips - Complete
- Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on
- Beef - Trouble with someone
- Beeotch - Bitch
- Bling-Bling - Jewelry
- The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world
- Boo Ya! - In your face sucka
- Bounce - To leave, go
- Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost
- Cheddar - Money, greenback
- Chill Out - Relax
- Chillin' - Relaxing
- Churrin - Kids, children
- Crib - The house, pad
- Damn Skippy - You got that right!
- Dawg - Friend, term of endearment
- Dis - Disrepect
- Dope - Super cool, badd
- Down With That - In agreement
- Fine - The best
- Finna - About to do something
- Fly - Cool, something good
- Fresh - Brand new, cool, great
- Hella - Emphasis
- Hoochie - Fast, easy girl
- Hood - Your neighborhood
- It's all good - Everything is OK, under control
- Jack You Up - Hurt you badly
- Jet - Leave quickly
- Let's Role - Leave
- Math - Phone number
- My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry
- O.G. - Original Ganster
- Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!
- Old School - Old way of doing things
- Paper - Money
- Phat - Cool
- Pimpin - Correctly done
- Po-po - Police
- Scrub - A guy that's lacking
- Straight - Telling the whole truth
- Throw Down - Fight
- Trippin - Worried about something
- Vibe - Feeling
- Wack - Terrible, not good
- Wangsta - A fake ganster
- Word - In agreement
- Yayo - Money
- Yo - Hello, short for "your"
| Movies in 1997 |
- Michael Jackson's Ghosts - is a 1996 short film starring Michael Jackson, co-written by horror novelist Stephen King.
movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
- Jackie Brown: starring Pam Grier, Samuel L. Jackson, and an all-star supporting cast, director Quentin Tarantino pays homage to the blaxploitation genre.
| Famous Birthdays in 1997 |
- February 13, 1997 - Michael Joseph Jackson, Jr. also known as Prince Michael Jackson I, is an American television personality and actor. He is the eldest child of pop legend Michael Jackson.
- March 14, 1997 - Simone Arianne Biles an American artistic gymnast.
- March 16, 1997 - Tyrel Jackson Williams an American teen actor, singer and musician.
- October 31, 1997 - Sydney Park an American actress and comedian.
- October 23, 1997 - Daphne Louise Blunt an American actress, singer, web television presenter and fashionista. Daphne most recently appeared in Disney Channel's No. 1 show I Didn't Do It .
Edna Mae Harris (left) on poster for Lying Lips
Alma Smith Jacobs
| Famous Deaths in 1997 |
- January 20, 1997 - Curt Flood was a Major League Baseball player who spent most of his career as a center fielder for the St. Louis Cardinals. A defensive standout, he led the National League in putouts four times and in fielding percentage twice, winning Gold Glove Award.
- May 21, 1997 - Lorenzo "Piper" Davis was an American professional baseball player who played in the Negro League from 1942 to 1950 for the Birmingham Black Barons.
- June 2, 1997 - Doc Cheatham was a jazz trumpeter, singer, and bandleader.
- March 10, 1997 - Delores LaVern Baker was an American rhythm and blues singer, who had several hit records on the pop chart in the 1950s and early 1960s.
- June 23, 1997 - Betty Shabazz and also known as Betty X, was an American educator and civil rights advocate. She was the wife of Malcolm X.
- July 17, 1997 - Robert Clifton Weaver served as the first United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (H.U.D.) from 1966 to 1968. He was also the first African American to hold a cabinet-level position in the United States.
- September 15, 1997 - Edna Mae Harris was an American actress, born in Harlem. She was the premier black film actress during the late 1930s and early 1940s.
- October 31, 1997 - Samuel Harding Hairston was a Negro League baseball and Major League Baseball player. He played for the Birmingham Black Barons and the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro Leagues.
- November 13, 1997 - Onzy Durrett Matthews, Jr. was an American jazz pianist, singer, arranger and composer as well as a television and movie actor. He is best known for the big band arrangements done for the Lou Rawls albums Black and Blue and Tobacco Road, as well as arrangements for several of Ray Charles' 1960s releases.
- December 18, 1997 - Alma Smith Jacobs was the first African American to serve as Montana State Librarian. She served as Head Librarian at the Great Falls Public Library from 1954–1973, and in 1973 was named Montana State Librarian, serving until 1981.
- Kilo-G, rapper formerly of Cash Money Records. He was the first rapper to be signed to the label and released his debut album in 1992 at the age of 15. Kilo G was gunned down at the young age of 20.
- Double Trouble were successful dance record producers, musicians and remixers in the house and hip house scene, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The group consisted of members Karl 'Tuff Enuff' Brown, Leigh Guest and Michael Menson. Menson died on 13 February 1997, having been set on fire by three men.
- Christopher George Latore Wallace (May 21, 1972 – March 9, 1997), better known by his stage names The Notorious B.I.G., Biggie or Biggie Smalls, was an American rapper. On March 9, 1997, Wallace was killed by an unknown assailant in a drive-by shooting in Los Angeles.
- Tombstone died on August 31, 1997. He was shot and killed.
IF NOT, WHY SO DIFFICULT TO FIND FOR MANY?
National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.
But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.
Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.
After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.
Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.
They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.
No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?
It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging and harmful products which teaches our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.
These people fail to uplift our race and are always portraying negative images and imply that something is owed to us and we should feel sorry for ourselves, so why even try? What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.
Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.
No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.
In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.
Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so.
There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.
These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.
Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?
How would you answer?
Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.
Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.
Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.
Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.
Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.
Which woman do you more associate with?
(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.
(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.
Analysis: Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.
Photo of Kim Hamilton, Ivan Dixon and Steven Perry
Actress Debbi Morgan with Dorian Harewood in The Jesse Owens Story, 1984
| Famous Weddings in 1997 |
- January 1997 - Tameka Foster and Ryan Glover were joined in holy matrimony.
- February 21, 1997 - Jason Kidd and Joumana Samaha were joined in holy matrimony.
- April 23, 1997 - Regina King and Ian Alexander were joined in holy matrimony.
- April 1997 - Mike Tyson and Monica Turner were joined in holy matrimony.
- May 3, 1997 - Dwayne Johnson and Dany Garcia were joined in holy matrimony.
- June 12, 1997 - Snoop Dogg and Shantay Taylor Broadus were joined in holy matrimony.
- June 17, 1997 - Robert De Niro and Grace Hightower were joined in holy matrimony.
- July 26, 1997 - Gary Payton and Monique James were joined in holy matrimony.
- August 22, 1997 - Robin Givens and Svetozar Marinkovic were joined in holy matrimony.
- September 5, 1997 - Glen Rice and Cristy Rice were joined in holy matrimony.
- September 27, 1997 - Erika Alexander and Tony Puryear were joined in holy matrimony.
- December 31, 1997 - Will Smith and Jada Pinkett professed their love at The Cloisters in Baltimore, Maryland.
- December 1997 - Rick James and Tanya Hijazi were joined in holy matrimony.
- 1997 - DeShawn Snow and Eric Snow were joined in holy matrimony.
- 1997 - Charlie Murphy and Tisha Taylor Murphy were joined in holy matrimony.
- 1997 - Steve McNair and Mechelle McNair were joined in holy matrimony.
- 1997 - Kim Hamilton and Werner Klemperer were wed in holy matrimony.
- 1997 - Debbi Morgan and Donn Thompson were wed in holy matrimony.
Gladys Knight and the Pips
| Famous Divorces in 1997 |
- June 1997 - LaToya Jackson and Jack Gordon were divorced.
- August 1997 - Vanessa L. Williams and Ramon Hervey were divorced.
- 1997 - Gladys Knight and Les Brown were divorced.
- 1997 - Otis Williams and Arleata Williams were divorced.
- 1997 - Paula Abdul and Brad Beckerman were divorced.
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
Grammy winner Toni Braxton
| Music in 199 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
- "I Believe I Can Fly" R. Kelly
- "Don't Let Go (Love)" En Vogue
- "On & On" Erykah Badu
- "In My Bed" Dru Hill
- "Can't Nobody Hold Me Down" Puff Daddy featuring Mase
- "Hypnotize" The Notorious B.I.G.
- "G.H.E.T.T.O.U.T." Changing Faces
- "I'll Be Missing You" Puff Daddy featuring Faith Evans and 112
- "Never Make a Promise" Dru Hill
- "You Make Me Wanna" Usher
- "My Body" LSG
- "A Song for Mama" Boyz II Men
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Hammer
- Electric Slide
- The Carlton
- The Jiggy
- Tootsee Roll
- Rump Shaker
- Da Dip
- The Butterfly
- The Funky Charleston
- The Humpy Dance
- January 10, 1997 - A ceremony was held for James Brown to honor him with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- 1997 - Bootsy Collins, member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, inducted in 1997 with fifteen other members of Parliament-Funkadelic.
- 1997 - Wynton Marsalis's "Blood on the Fields" becomes the first jazz composition to win a Pulitzer Prize in Music.
Blues Hall of Fame for 1997:
The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015
- Brownie McGhee
- Koko Taylor
Grammy winners in 1997:
The 39th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 26, 1997 at Madison Square Garden, New York City. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year. Babyface was the nights biggest winner, with 4 awards.
Record of the Year
- Babyface (producer) & Eric Clapton for "Change the World"
Song of the Year
- "Change the World" performed by Eric Clapton & Babyface / Wynonna
Best Traditional Blues Album
- James Cotton for Deep in the Blues
Best Contemporary Blues Album
- Keb' Mo' for Just Like You
Best Instrumental Composition
- Herbie Hancock & Jean Hancock (composers) for "Manhattan
Best Instrumental Arrangement with Accompanying Vocal(s)
- "When I Fall in Love" performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Best Pop/Contemporary Gospel Album
- for Tribute - The Songs of Andrae Crouch performed by various artists
Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
- Cissy Houston for Face to Face
Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
- Kirk Franklin for Whatcha Lookin' 4
Best Gospel Album by a Choir or Chorus
- Shirley Caesar (choir director)
Best Historical Album
- The Complete Columbia Studio Recordings performed by Miles Davis & Gil Evans
Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance
- Grover Mitchell for Live at Manchester Craftsmen's Guild
Best Jazz Vocal Performance
- Cassandra Wilson for New Moon Daughter
Best Contemporary Jazz Performance
- Wayne Shorter for High Life
Best Recording Package - Boxed
- The Complete Columbia Studio Recordings performed by Miles Davis & Gil Evans
Best Album Notes
- The Complete Columbia Studio Recordings performed by Miles Davis & Gil Evans
Best Female Pop Vocal Performance
- Toni Braxton for "Unbreak My Heart"
Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals
- Natalie Cole for "When I Fall in Love" performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical
- Q's Jook Joint performed by Quincy Jones
Producer of the Year
Best Female R&B Vocal Performance
- Toni Braxton for "You're Makin' Me High"
Best Male R&B Vocal Performance
- Luther Vandross for "Your Secret Love"
Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
- The Fugees for "Killing Me Softly With His Song"
Best Rhythm & Blues Song
- Babyface for "Exhale (Shoop Shoop)" performed by Whitney Houston
Best R&B Album
- Tony Rich for Words performed by The Tony Rich Project
Best Rap Solo Performance
- "Hey Lover"-LL Cool J
Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
- "Tha Crossroads"-Bone Thugs-N-Harmony
Best Rap Album
- "The Score"-The Fugees
Best Reggae Album
- Bunny Wailer for Hall of Fame: A Tribute to Bob Marley's 50th Anniversary
Best Rock Instrumental Performance
- SRV Shuffle-Eric Clapton, Robert Cray, Buddy Guy, Dr. John, B.B. King, Art Neville, Bonnie Raitt & Jimmie Vaughan
Best Rock Song
- '"Give Me One Reason"-Tracy Chapman
The Civil Rights movement of the 60s was a total success. Now the second part of our journey begins. |
Now here's the problem.
For the last hundred years or so, white Americans have had every privilege simply for being white.
Unconstitutional Jim Crow laws instituted in the past had restricted blacks in every sense of the word.
Blacks were routinely treated as second-class citizens even after fighting courageously in every single American war, Revolutionary war included.
During this Jim Crow period, whites created a humongous stronghold and power structure for their families in America that still stands today. They completely understand how to navigate this power structure, and do it very well.
But after the 60s, blacks, on the other hand, found it difficult to penetrate and become a part of this American structure and ones that attempted were generally fought every step of the way, not by outright in your face racism, but a new one called casual racism which is just as harmful.
Ever since slavery ended, blacks who are of African culture didn't get much help assimilating into an American (European) way of life. After victory with our Civil Rights in the 60s, many didn't understand how to challenge this power structure in a productive and intelligent way growing frustrated and angry. Many were resorting to violence until an amazing man named DJ Kool Herc steps onto the scene to save the day!
DJ Kool Herc spinning records
DJ Kool Herc was the beginning of Hip Hop and gave many a positive outlet instead of violence, and whether older blacks liked it or not for our younger people would replace the guidance of influential civil rights leaders of past and become the voice they listened to for knowledge and help.
The media began to portray Hip hop/rapper figures as the brains of the black race. They are treated as wise ones and royalty. But they forgot or just ignored the many blacks who achieved with brainpower as college graduates, as opposed to artistic ability. Because of this portrayal, Hip-hop/Rap artist have without a doubt become an influential voice in the black community.
Many older blacks who were trained by our past Civil Rights leaders excellent moral guidance and teachings liked their beats but not the messages because it was filled with much hate and violence, especially on our people.
So when a younger black person who has been trained by these lyrics attempt to enter the white power structure workforce, they very seldom get through the front door, and it has nothing to do with racism, and if they are lucky enough to get that far they usually don't last, because they don't understand how to deal and work with people.
Don't get it wrong; Hip hop/rap music is a part of who we are, and we are all so proud of our ability to create something out of nothing that the entire world loves and imitates. But it also comes with a tremendous responsibility when possessing such great power and influence to help people and especially our own. Don't forget to teach our young that beats are good, but books are better!
There are many who keep the entertainment value of Hip hop/rap in perspective and understand how to maintain a balance, but there are also many easily influenced ones who fail and don't have a clue. So an important question arises. Will Hip-Hop lead the weaker one's in learning to live in the real world so we all can achieve and soar like the eagles or will it sell us out for the love of fame and money?
“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (1728–1813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808–1882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 – 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 – 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (1745–1813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (1752–1840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy,
adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable,
inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind,
unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
| Fashions and Styles in 1997 |
The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.
Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again.
Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob.
Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.
The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.
Hi there, I'm Annie.
Thanks for viewing my collection of wonderful soul-food dishes that my amazing ancestors cooked, and more than likely yours did too.
We didn't have much of anything back in the day and had to live off the scraps we were given. But like a famous rapper once said in his songs, we knew how to "make a dollar out of 15 cents" Enjoy.
Sweet Potatoes / Yams
Rice and Beans
Fish and Chips
Biscuits and Gravy
(images - https://pixabay.com/)
| Southern Cooking - Soul Food |
Have you ever wondered what African-Americans ate back in the day? Well, maybe we can help you with that. We've found the oldest known black cookbook to date.
This cookbook was written by an actual former slave woman that had once lived on a plantation, but gained her freedom with the Emancipation Proclamation moving from Mobile, Alabama to San Francisco, California where she published an entirely excellent collection of 160 authentic and tasty recipes of the Old South entitled;
"What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking"
This book is indeed a rare gemstone with tons of actual recipes that black folks enjoyed back in the day, but Mrs. Fisher cooking wasn't limited to blacks only, many whites also loved her delicious recipes and persuaded her to make a cookbook.
Here is just a sample of some of the southern foods mentioned in her book, and by the way, it wasn't called soul-food until the 1960's.
- Maryland Beat Biscuit
- Cream Cake
- Flannel Cakes
- Sallie Lund
- Egg Corn Bread
- Plantation Corn Bread
- Light Bread
- Lamb or Mutton Chops
- Pork Steak or Chops
- Ginger Cookies
- Sweet Wafers
Pickels, Sauces Etc.
- Sweet Cucumber Pickles
- Sweet Cucumber Mangoes
- Chow Chow
- Creole Chow Chow
- Cherry Chutney
- Game Sauce
- Compound Tomato
- Sweet Pickle Peaches
- Sweet Pickle Prunes
- Sweet Watermelon Kind Pickle
- Sauce for Boiled Fish or Mutton
- Milanese Sauce
- Sauce for Suet Pudding
- Pastry for making Pies of all kinds
- Preparing the Fruit for Pies
- Lemon Pies
- Cream Apple
- Sweet Potato
- Gooseberry and Cherry
- Light Bread
- Blackberry Roll
- Corn Fritters
Preserves, Spices, ETC.
- Brandy Peaches
- Quince Preserves
- Syrups for Preserves
- Preserved Peaches
- Preserved Pears
- Currant Jelly
- Cranberry Jelly
- Strawberry Jam
- Raspberry and Currant Jam Combined
- Marmalade Peach
- Crab Apple Jelly
- Blackberry Brandy
- Blackberry Syrup for Dysentery in Children
- Preserved Apricots
- Apple Sauce for Roast Pork
- Charlotte Eusse
- Spiced Currants
- Preserved Cherries
- Domestic Duck
- Wild Duck
Soups, Chowders, Etc.
- Calf 's Head
- Mock Turtle
- Green Turtle
- Oyster Gumbo
- Ochra Gumbo
- Old Fashioned Turnip
- Corn and Tomato
- Fish Chowder
- Chicken Gumbo
- Fricassed Chicken
- Fried Chicken
- Chicken fried Steak
- Meat Stews or Entrees
- Ice Cream
- Boiled Turkey
- Beef a la Mode
- Spiced Round
- Hog Maws
- Stuffed Ham
- Lima Beans
- Jumberlie a Creole Dish
- Baked Fish
- Ribs, Beef or Pork
- Boiled Corn
- Peach Cobbler
- Egg Plant Stuffed
- Chitterlings or "Chitlins"
- Corned Beef Hash
- Ladies' Custard
- Tonic Bitters
- Terrapin Stew
- Leaven Biscuit
- Pap for infant Diet
- Sorghum Syrup
- Meringue for Pudding
- Circuit Hash
What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Southern Cooking
Paperback – March, 1995
by Abby Fisher (Author), Karen Hess (Editor)
Southern Jewel Million Dollar Pound Cake
(this recipe is not from Mrs. Fisher cookbook, but has been in Annie's family for generations, it's everyones favorite!)
Butter: 1 pound
Sugar: 3 cups
Milk: 3/4 cup
Cake Flour: 4 cups (Soft as Silk Cake Flour)
Baking Powder: 1 teaspoon
Vanilla Flavor: 1 teaspoon
Lemon Flavor: 1 teaspoon
For best results, leave butter and eggs out overnight
Cream butter well, add sugar and mix until butter and sugar look like whip cream.
Beat each egg individually and then add with sugar and butter, mix well for at least a couple minutes.
Add milk and cake flour a little at a time, then add flavorings.
Spray Pam spray on entire round cake pan, and then add cake batter.
Bake about 1 hour and 15 minutes at 325.
Let cake cool for about 30 minutes, and then remove cake from cake pan.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s
Nannie Helen Burroughs
Lionel Hampton at the Aquarium, New York
| Our Community in 1997 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- January 10, 1997 - A ceremony was held for James Brown to honor him with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
- May 30, 1997 - Civil Rights activist and widow of Malcolm X, Betty Shabazz was set on fire by her 12-year old grandson.
- October 25, 1997 - African American women participate in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia in support of women empowerment.
- December 12, 1997 - A Federal judge sentences Autumn Jackson to 26 months in prison for attempting to extort $40 million from Bill Cosby's. Jackson made claims that Cosby was her dad.
- 1997 - Lois Jean White is the first black to be elected president of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA).
- 1997 - Nannie Helen Burroughs was designated a Women's History Month Honoree by the National Women's History Project.
- 1997 - Musician Lionel Hampton's apartment caught fire and destroyed his awards and belongings, happily Hampton escaped uninjured.
- 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image -
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
#101 - Public Domain image -
See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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