DID YOU KNOW THESE FACTS ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL AFRO COMMUNITY?
International means that it involves more than one nation (country). The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries.
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups. Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a role so that relatively dark skinned people can be classified as white if they fulfill other social criteria of whiteness and relatively light skinned people can be classified as black if they fulfill the social criteria for blackness.
As a biological phenotype being "black" is often associated with the very dark skin colors of some people who are classified as 'black'. But, particularly in the United States, the racial classification also refers to people with all possible kinds of skin pigmentation from the darkest through to the very lightest skin colors, including albinos, if they are believed by others to have African ancestry and exhibit cultural traits associated with being "African-American". Therefore, the term 'black people' is not an indicator of skin color but of racial classification.
Some definitions of the term include only people of relatively recent Sub Saharan African descent. Among the members of this group, dark skin is most often accompanied by the expression of natural afro-hair texture (recent scientific study notes that human skin color diversity is highest in sub-Saharan African populations). Other definitions of the term "black people" extend to other populations characterized by dark skin, including some indigenous to Oceania and Southeast Asia.
South Africa - In South Africa during the apartheid era, the population was classified into four main racial groups: Black, White, Asian (mostly Indian), and Coloured. The Coloured group included people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay ancestry, especially in the Western Cape). The Coloured definition occupied an intermediary position between the Black and White definitions in South Africa.
In the post-apartheid era, the ANC government's laws in support of their affirmative action policies define 'Black' people to include "Africans", "Coloureds" and "Asians". Their affirmative action policies have also favored 'Africans' over 'Coloureds'. Some South Africans categorized as 'African Black' openly state that 'Coloureds' did not suffer as much as they did during apartheid.
Arab world - Black African and Near Eastern peoples have interacted since prehistoric times. Some historians estimate that as many as 14 million black slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert in the Arab slave trade from 650 to 1900 CE. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Bloodthirsty" (1672–1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission.
Because of the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men had more use of black female slaves than black male slaves, more black women were enslaved than men, and, because the Qur'an was interpreted to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, many mixed race children resulted. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab captor's child, she became “umm walad” or “mother of a child”, a status that granted her privileged rights. Such tolerance, however, was not extended to wholly black persons, even when technically "free," and the notion that to be black meant to be a slave became a common belief. The term "abd", "slave," remains a common term for black people in the Middle East, often though not always derogatory.
Turkey - Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans were brought by slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations between Antalya and Istanbul in modern-day Turkey. Some of their descendants remain, mixed with the rest of the population in these areas, and many migrated to larger cities. Some came from the island of Crete following the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923.
Israel - About 150,000 black people live in Israel, amounting to just over 2% of the nation's population. The vast majority of these, some 120,000, are Beta Israel, most of whom came during the 1980s and 1990s. In addition, Israel is home to over 5,000 members of the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem movement who reside mainly in a distinct neighborhood in the Negev town of Dimona. Unknown numbers of black converts to Judaism reside in Israel, most of then converts from the UK, Canada, and the United States. Thousands of mixed-race individuals with non-black Jewish relatives also live in Israel.
In the Americas - Approximately 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from 1492 to 1888. Today their descendants number approximately 150 million, most of whom live in the United States, the Caribbean and Latin America, including Brazil. Many have a multiracial background of African, Amerindian, European and Asian ancestry. The various regions developed complex social conventions with which their multi-ethnic populations were classified.
Brazil - The topic of race in Brazil is a complex and diverse one. A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from. Between a pure black and a very light mulatto over a dozen racial categories would be recognized in conformity with the combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color. These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest. That is, race referred to appearance, not heredity.
There is some disagreement among scholars over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil. It is generally believed that upward mobility and education results in reclassification of individuals into lighter skinned categories. The popular claim is that in Brazil poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree arguing that whitening of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race, but a typically black person will consistently be identified as black regardless of wealth or social status.
China - As of August, 2008, The Migration Information Source article noted that "A Nigerian Embassy spokesman estimated that Nigerians possibly make up the largest group of Black Africans in China, with about 2,000 to 3,000 Nigerians in Guangdong in 2006. Most businessmen only stay temporarily.
India and Southeast Asia - The Great Andamanese are one of five Afro Asian ethnic groups (Adivasi or tribal) native to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; they are among the first inhabitants of what is now India, arriving over 70,000 years ago. They are facing extinction. The other four ethnic groups are the Jangil, Jarawa, Onge and Sentinelese. By their external physical appearance (phenotype) such people resemble Black Africans with dark skin and sometimes tightly coiled hair. There have been suggestions of a Black African origin. However, in the case of the Andamanese people, a study conducted by the NCBI indicated that the Andamanese people possessed closer affinities with the Southeast Asian population than with the Black African population.
In South India there are also several communities of Black African descent, such as the Sheedis/Siddis, specifically the Siddis of Karnataka, who descend from Zanj (Black African) slaves. In Pakistan, Zanj descendants are known as the Makrani. Other black people of Southeast Asia, collectively known as Negritos, include the Aeta people of Luzon and the Ati of Panay in the Philippines.
Melanesia - There are several groups of dark-skinned people who live in various parts of Asia, Australia and Oceania who sometimes are referred to as black people. They include the Indigenous Australians, the Melanesians (now divided into Austronesian-speaking populations and Papuans, and including the great genetic diversity of New Guinea), the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, and indigenous first nation Fijians.
United Kingdom - According to the Office for National Statistics, as of the 2001 census, there are over a million black people in the United Kingdom; 1% of the total population describe themselves as "Black Caribbean", 0.8% as "Black African", and 0.2% as "Black other". Britain encouraged the immigration of workers from the Caribbean after World War II; the first symbolic movement was those who came on the ship the Empire Windrush. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" (BME), but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express unified opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters, which started with a mainly British Asian constituency.
France - France is an ethnically diverse nation, with about 2.5 – 5 million black people.
Balkans - Due to the Ottoman slave trade that had flourished in the Balkans, the coastal town of Ulcinj in Montenegro had its own black community. As a consequence of the slave trade and privateer activity, a considerable number of Ulcinj inhabitants until 1878 were black. The Ottoman Army also sent an estimated 30,000 Black African troops and cavalrymen to its expedition in Hungary during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18.
Eastern Europe - As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered many of their citizens the chance to study in Russia. Over a period of 40 years, about 400,000 African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans. This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc.
GRAMMY-NOMINATED VOCALIST CHANDRIKA TANDON ANNOUNCES NEW ALBUM, 'SOUL MARCH'
- Over 75 musicians from around the world came together in New York and India to make Grammy-nominated singer/composer and "corporate trailblazer" (WSJ) Chandrika Tandon's newest record using traditional instruments as well as many ancient Indian ones like the santoor, goopi jantro, and more.
Grammy-nominated world musician Chandrika Krishnamurthy Tandon will release her third album, ‘Soul March’ on April 16, 2013. Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt March of 1930—a nonviolent protest made by thousands of people over ten days to challenge the British salt monopoly in colonial India—‘Soul March’ reinterprets the refrain sung by the marchers over 80 years ago: “Raghupathi Raghava Raja Ram.” On nine tracks, Tandon’s “limpid, serene voice with Indian classical inflections,” (NY Times) re-envisions the beloved melody with new raagas and rhythms.
Over 75 musicians came together to record the album in the U.S. and India, combining ancient traditional instruments like the ektara, dugdugi, and esraj with saxaphone, banjo, and piano to transcend musical boundaries. “The story of the Salt March is replayed in different parts of the globe, inspiring leaders, building movements big and small,” says Tandon. “Every one of us is on a quest—seeking freedom. 'Soul March' is a tribute to all these journeys.” Though “even if you’re not...seeking inner peace, [Tandon’s] vocals and melodies have a celebratory quality that move your hips with the same ease as they soothe your head” (New York Post).
Tandon’s previous album, ‘Soul Call,’ topped world music charts and was nominated for a 2011 Grammy. She has performed at Lincoln Center, Olympia Stadion in Berlin, St. John the Divine, and other venues worldwide. Tandon is also the founder of her own financial firm, serves on the Board of Trustees at New York University, Board of Overseers at NYU Stern School of Business, Dean's Council at NYU Wagner School of Public Service, President's Council on International Activities at Yale University, and is a humanitarian who is actively involved in the fields of arts, education and wellness. All of her albums are produced under Soul Chants Music, a not-for-profit label set up to build bridges between cultures and create harmony through music. Since its inception, Soul Chants has partnered with over 40 organizations, including universities, hospitals, and non-profits, and all net proceeds from album sales go towards benefiting organizations in the areas of education, arts, and wellness initiatives.
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